facial nerve diseases


Summary: Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.

Top Publications

  1. Alaani A, Hogg R, Saravanappa N, Irving R. An analysis of diagnostic delay in unilateral facial paralysis. J Laryngol Otol. 2005;119:184-8 pubmed
    ..Radiologists with a special interest and experience in otoneurological radiology should ideally report these images, and a close co-operation between ENT surgeon and radiologist is essential in arriving at a proper diagnosis. ..
  2. Guntinas Lichius O, Straesser A, Streppel M. Quality of life after facial nerve repair. Laryngoscope. 2007;117:421-6 pubmed
    ..Although grading of facial function after nerve repair revealed satisfying results, the patients experience a reduced QoL. ..
  3. Polak M, Ulubil S, Hodges A, Balkany T. Revision cochlear implantation for facial nerve stimulation in otosclerosis. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006;132:398-404 pubmed
  4. Chen C, Tang Y. Myectomy and botulinum toxin for paralysis of the marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve: a series of 76 cases. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007;120:1859-64 pubmed
    ..Chemical myectomy with botulinum toxin injection is a safe and convenient mode of treatment; however, the disadvantage is that it needs repeated injections and costs more. ..
  5. Ahn J, Oh S, Chung J, Lee K. Facial nerve stimulation after cochlear implantation according to types of Nucleus 24-channel electrode arrays. Acta Otolaryngol. 2009;129:588-91 pubmed publisher
    ..We could manage these patients with methods such as decrease of C-level, selective channel turning off, and changes of mapping strategies. ..
  6. Odebode T, Ologe F. Facial nerve palsy after head injury: Case incidence, causes, clinical profile and outcome. J Trauma. 2006;61:388-91 pubmed
    ..2950). The case incidence of facial nerve palsy in head injured patients in our center is 5.04%. The lower motor neurone type predominates. It is commoner in men and on the left side with spontaneous recovery occurring in 30% of cases. ..
  7. Sughrue M, Yang I, Aranda D, Lobo K, Pitts L, Cheung S, et al. The natural history of untreated sporadic vestibular schwannomas: a comprehensive review of hearing outcomes. J Neurosurg. 2010;112:163-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that a growth rate of > 2.5 mm/year is a better predictor of hearing loss than the initial tumor size for patients undergoing observation management of VSs < 25 mm in largest diameter. ..
  8. Veillon F, Taboada L, Eid M, Riehm S, Debry C, Schultz P, et al. Pathology of the facial nerve. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 2008;18:309-20, x pubmed publisher
    ..Particular attention must be paid to children with facial palsy, considering the possibility of a histiocytosis or metastasis of a neuroblastoma. ..
  9. Guntinas Lichius O, Sittel C. [Diagnostics of diseases and the function of the facial nerve]. HNO. 2004;52:1115-30; quiz 1131-2 pubmed
    ..In addition, the significance of facial nerve monitoring for surgery in the cerebello-pontine angle, parotid surgery, and ear surgery is presented. ..

More Information


  1. Gribova N, Galitskaia O. [Clinical-electroneuromyographical characteristics of facial nerve paralysis in children]. Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2009;109:16-9 pubmed
    ..The maintenance of wink reflex and F-wave blocks in the period over 3 weeks are prognostically unfavorable factors for restoration of mimic muscle function in the early stage of disease. ..
  2. Hokonohara T, Shigeto H, Kawano Y, Ohyagi Y, Uehara M, Kira J. Facial onset sensory and motor neuronopathy (FOSMN) syndrome responding to immunotherapies. J Neurol Sci. 2008;275:157-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations suggest that FOSMN syndrome maybe, in part, immune-mediated. ..
  3. Gupta Y, Gupta M, Sambhav K, Phougat A, Varshney A. A report on a rare case of Kearns Sayre-like syndrome. Nepal J Ophthalmol. 2010;2:160-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Examination (OU) showed total external ophthalmoplegia, ptosis and pigmentary retinopathy. The patient also had a short stature (height 121.9 cm) for his age. ..
  4. Kalaydjieva L. Congenital cataracts-facial dysmorphism-neuropathy. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2006;1:32 pubmed
    ..Thus, the most disabling manifestations, though not curable, are manageable, and allow an acceptable quality of life and everyday living. Current data indicate that patients survive well into adulthood. ..
  5. Petropoulos I, Zuber J, Guex Crosier Y. Heerfordt syndrome with unilateral facial nerve palsy: a rare presentation of sarcoidosis. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2008;225:453-6 pubmed publisher
    ..One year after onset of treatment, no recurrence was noted. Heerfordt syndrome is a rare manifestation of neurosarcoidosis and has to be included in the differential diagnosis of facial nerve palsy. ..
  6. Bach C, Raphael M, Krastinova D. [The paralyzed eyelid: an alternative to gold weight, levator palpebrae lengthening]. Ann Chir Plast Esthet. 2009;54:37-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Levator palpebrae lengthening improves eye symptoms with a very low morbidity. ..
  7. Jinno S, Yamada J. Using comparative anatomy in the axotomy model to identify distinct roles for microglia and astrocytes in synaptic stripping. Neuron Glia Biol. 2011;7:55-66 pubmed publisher
  8. Moumine M, Thiery G, Harroudi T, Amrani M, El Othmany A, Rzin A. [Primary malignant schwannoma of the buccal branch of facial nerve]. Ann Chir Plast Esthet. 2012;57:308-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The treatment of choice is radical excision of the lesion with wide margins. In fact, to reduce local tumor recurrence, the use of adjuvant radiation or chemotherapy is still controversial. ..
  9. Gire A, Kwok A, Marx D. PROSE treatment for lagophthalmos and exposure keratopathy. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2013;29:e38-40 pubmed publisher
    ..This report describes 4 patients with exposure keratitis who were successfully treated with prosthetic replacement of the ocular surface ecosystem devices at 2 clinical sites. ..
  10. Pandey P, Shroff D, Kapoor S, Kaur N, Srivastava N, Jain P, et al. Bilateral incyclotorsion, absent facial nerve, and anotia: fellow travelers in Möbius sequence or oculoauriculovertebral spectrum?. J AAPOS. 2007;11:310-2 pubmed
    ..The differential diagnosis includes Möbius sequence, oculoauriculovertebral spectrum, and a congenital cranial dysinnervation disorder...
  11. Ozbek C, Somuk T, Ciftci O, Ozdem C. Management of facial nerve paralysis in noncholesteatomatous chronic otitis media. B-ENT. 2009;5:73-7 pubmed
    ..It is therefore not necessary to decompress the facial nerve in cases of facial paralysis in noncholesteatomatous chronic otitis media. ..
  12. Sughrue M, Kaur R, Rutkowski M, Kane A, Yang I, Pitts L, et al. A critical evaluation of vestibular schwannoma surgery for patients younger than 40 years of age. Neurosurgery. 2010;67:1646-53; discussion 1653-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We present the largest prospectively studied cohort of young patients undergoing microsurgical resection of vestibular schwannoma. These data suggest that surgical resection provides excellent long-term tumor control in these patients. ..
  13. Ingrosso G, Ponti E, di Cristino D, Terenzi S, Cicchetti S, Morelli P, et al. Intra-parotid facial nerve schwannoma with intra-temporal extension; a case report. Is there a role for stereotactic radiotherapy?. Am J Otolaryngol. 2013;34:258-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report a case of facial nerve neuroma, involving the nerve sheath from the geniculate ganglion to the parotid gland, treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy after debulking surgery. ..
  14. Park J, Kong D, Lee J, Park K. Chronologic analysis of symptomatic change following microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm: value for predicting midterm outcome. Neurosurg Rev. 2008;31:413-8; discussion 418-9 pubmed publisher
    ..2%) was nearly correspondent to the estimated cure rate at the first postoperative year (93.4%). Postoperative 3 months can be the most efficient and earliest time to predict the postoperative result. ..
  15. Stamey W, Jankovic J. The other Babinski sign in hemifacial spasm. Neurology. 2007;69:402-4 pubmed
  16. Luo Q, Qi Z, Wang W, Wang X. [The changes of the muscular fiber phynotype at different condition of nerve injury]. Zhonghua Zheng Xing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2006;22:12-5 pubmed
    ..Sensory nerve could delay muscle atrophy after denervation. Sensory nerve should be repaired simultaneously when the motor nerve was sutured. The results of this study would facilitate clinical treatment for facial palsy. ..
  17. Siddiqui A, Markose G, Moos K, McMahon J, Ayoub A. One miniplate versus two in the management of mandibular angle fractures: a prospective randomised study. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007;45:223-5 pubmed
    ..We conclude that two miniplates seem to confer no extra benefit to patients, but a much larger trial would be required to show this conclusively. ..
  18. Murakami S, Hamajima Y, Watanabe N. [Herpes virus infection in otolaryngology]. Nihon Rinsho. 2006;64 Suppl 3:69-72 pubmed
  19. Eibling D. Botox, dysgeusia, and undiscovered public knowledge. Laryngoscope. 2005;115:763 pubmed
  20. Maniakas A, Saliba I. Microsurgery versus stereotactic radiation for small vestibular schwannomas: a meta-analysis of patients with more than 5 years' follow-up. Otol Neurotol. 2012;33:1611-20 pubmed publisher
  21. Lanteri R, Rapisarda C, Santangelo M, Di Cataldo A, Licata A. Ancient schwannoma of the facial nerve: a case report. Chir Ital. 2005;57:381-3 pubmed
    ..Schwannomas are very rare and approximately 25-30% of all reported cases occur in the head and neck, mostly in the eighth nerve, while involvement of the seventh nerve is extremely rare. ..
  22. Mumert M, Altay T, Shelton C, Harnsberger H, Couldwell W. Ganglion cyst of the temporomandibular joint with intracranial extension in a patient presenting with seventh cranial nerve palsy. J Neurosurg. 2012;116:310-2 pubmed publisher
    ..After a satisfactory surgical decompression, the patient demonstrated a significant recovery in her facial palsy over a 3-month period of time. This case presents new clinical and radiographic findings associated with these lesions. ..
  23. Lee W, Kim J. Revised surgical strategy to preserve facial function after resection of facial nerve schwannoma. Otol Neurotol. 2011;32:1548-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared with the resection-and-reconstruction technique, this method can prevent delays in presurgical deterioration of the neural fascicle and may result in better postoperative facial function. ..
  24. Nogajski J, Brewer J, Storey C. Perineural spread of facial squamous cell carcinoma. J Clin Neurosci. 2006;13:400-3 pubmed
    ..Magnetic resonance imaging and subsequent right facial nerve biopsy confirmed perineural spread of a squamous cell carcinoma as the cause of the multiple cranial neuropathies. ..
  25. Nagata Y, Watanabe T, Nagatani T, Takeuchi K, Chu J, Wakabayashi T. The Multiscope Technique for Microvascular Decompression. World Neurosurg. 2017;103:310-314 pubmed publisher
    ..This technique can also be adopted in other skull base surgeries, in which the importance of endoscopy is growing. ..
  26. Biswas D, Mal R. Absent stapedial reflex: otosclerosis or middle ear tumor?. Ear Nose Throat J. 2013;92:E1-2 pubmed
    ..We also include a review of the literature. ..
  27. Furuta S, Takahashi S, Higano S, Hashimoto S. Prediction of the origin of intracanalicular neoplasms with high-resolution MR imaging. Neuroradiology. 2005;47:657-63 pubmed
    ..The prediction on whether the tumor originated in the superior or inferior aspect of the IAC was superior to caloric test, which might have clinical significance in treatment planning especially for hearing preservation surgery. ..
  28. Cueva R, Mastrodimos B. Approach design and closure techniques to minimize cerebrospinal fluid leak after cerebellopontine angle tumor surgery. Otol Neurotol. 2005;26:1176-81 pubmed
    ..Attention to specific aspects of surgical approach design and wound closure results in a reduced incidence of cerebrospinal fluid leak after surgery for cerebellopontine angle tumors. ..
  29. Fichten A, Bourgeois P, Desaulty A, Louis E, Lejeune J. [Intracranial facial nerve schwannomas. Seven cases reviewed]. Neurochirurgie. 2006;52:37-46 pubmed
    ..Diagnosis is difficult and made operatively in half of patients. A large tumor requires surgery, but surveillance can be a good option for a small one, considering the risk of postoperative facial palsy. ..
  30. Ngow H, Wan Khairina W, Hamidon B. Recurrent Bell's palsy in a young woman. Singapore Med J. 2008;49:e278-80 pubmed
    ..Despite the multiple episodes of Bell's palsy recurrences, the patient did not suffer much neurological sequelae from the disease. ..
  31. Scheller C, Richter H, Engelhardt M, Koenig R, Antoniadis G. The influence of prophylactic vasoactive treatment on cochlear and facial nerve functions after vestibular schwannoma surgery: a prospective and open-label randomized pilot study. Neurosurgery. 2007;61:92-7; discussion 97-8 pubmed
    ..This prospective and open-label randomized pilot study is the first study of a prophylactic vasoactive treatment in vestibular schwannoma surgery...
  32. Seok J, Lee D, Kim K. The usefulness of clinical findings in localising lesions in Bell's palsy: comparison with MRI. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2008;79:418-20 pubmed
    ..However, the accuracy of clinical findings in identifying lesions has never been evaluated...
  33. Bennett M, Haynes D. Surgical approaches and complications in the removal of vestibular schwannomas. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2007;40:589-609, ix-x pubmed
    ..Each approach has its advantages and disadvantages. The goal of surgery is complete eradication of tumor with preservation of hearing and facial nerve function when possible. ..
  34. Cecini M, Pavese C, Comelli M, Carlisi E, Sala V, Bejor M, et al. Quantitative measurement of evolution of postparetic ocular synkinesis treated with botulinum toxin type A. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2013;132:1255-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to quantify eye synkinesis improvement after botulinum toxin type A injections using the new software and to compare this method with the Sunnybrook grading system...
  35. Pavlou E, Gkampeta A, Arampatzi M. Facial nerve palsy in childhood. Brain Dev. 2011;33:644-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The causes of facial nerve palsy in childhood differ from those in adults. A detailed investigation and differential diagnosis are recommended for facial palsy in children. ..
  36. Udayashankar C, Nath A, Anuradha P. Extensive Darier's disease with pityriasis amiantacea, alopecia and congenital facial nerve palsy. Dermatol Online J. 2013;19:18574 pubmed
    ..We present a 65-year-old man with Darier disease with pityriasis amiantacea on the scalp, alopecia, and congenital facial nerve palsy. ..
  37. Saleh G, Mavrikakis I, de Sousa J, Xing W, Malhotra R. Corneal astigmatism with upper eyelid gold weight implantation using the combined high pretarsal and levator fixation technique. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007;23:381-3 pubmed
    ..This is contrary to data for pretarsal gold weight implantation, which does induce significant with-the-rule corneal astigmatism. ..
  38. Mani R, Radhouane M, Belcadhi M, Malek B, Ben Said M, Moncef B, et al. Aspergillus mastoiditis with intact tympanic membrane in immunocompetent host. B-ENT. 2008;4:39-43 pubmed
    ..Aggressive medical and surgical management are necessary to avoid a fatal outcome from this invasive infection. ..
  39. Fierek O, Laskawi R, Kunze E. [Solitary intraparotid neurofibroma of the facial nerve. Symptomatology, biology and management]. HNO. 2006;54:772-7 pubmed
    ..Conservative treatment based on facial nerve preservation and leaving the tumor in situ is recommended, rather than radical tumor removal with resection of the segment of the N. facialis involved. ..
  40. Nakagawa I, Takayama K, Kurokawa S, Wada T, Nakagawa H, Kichikawa K, et al. Hemifacial spasm due to contralateral aneurysmal compression of the facial nerve successfully treated with endovascular coil embolization: case report. Neurosurgery. 2011;69:E768-71; discussion E771-2 pubmed publisher
    ..The hemifacial spasm disappeared within 3 months. Hemifacial spasm caused by contralateral VA fusiform aneurysm can be treated by intravascular parent artery occlusion with coil embolization. ..
  41. Xu H, Deroee A, Joglekar S, Pollak N, Hobson F, Santori T, et al. Delayed facial nerve palsy after endolymphatic sac surgery. Ear Nose Throat J. 2011;90:E28-31 pubmed
    ..Also, the unusual mastoid bone anatomy seen in 4 of these patients might have been responsible, as well. ..
  42. Nicolau Y, Faquin W, Deschler D. Hamartoma of the parotid gland: report of a unique case. Ear Nose Throat J. 2010;89:E8-10 pubmed
    ..To the best of our knowledge, there has been no previous report of a tumor with the same features. We present this case to create awareness of hamartomas as part of the differential diagnosis of parotid masses. ..
  43. Borrelli M, Unterlauft J, Kleinsasser N, Geerling G. Decellularized porcine derived membrane (Tarsys®) for correction of lower eyelid retraction. Orbit. 2012;31:187-9 pubmed publisher
  44. Rainsbury J, Aldren C. Facial nerve palsy. Clin Otolaryngol. 2007;32:38-40; discussion 41 pubmed
  45. Bourque P, Bourque G, Miller W, Woulfe J, Warman Chardon J. Combined isolated trigeminal and facial neuropathies from perineural invasion by squamous cell carcinoma: A case series and review of the literature. J Clin Neurosci. 2017;35:5-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The prognosis remains poor in cases of advanced disease, emphasizing the importance early diagnosis by clinical acumen and focused neuroimaging. ..
  46. Kakizaki H, Zako M, Iwaki M. Reverse ptosis repair targeting the posterior layer of the lower eyelid retractor. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007;23:288-91 pubmed
    ..One year after surgery, both cases maintained the same eyelid levels as were seen immediately postoperatively. Posterior layer advancement of the lower eyelid retractor is effective and useful for reverse ptosis repair. ..
  47. Heir G, Karolchek S, Kalladka M, Vishwanath A, Gomes J, Khatri R, et al. Use of topical medication in orofacial neuropathic pain: a retrospective study. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2008;105:466-9 pubmed publisher
    ..912 SEM; P = .1738). Topical medication as single treatment or in combination with systemic medications can reduce orofacial neuropathic pain severity. Further prospective research should be performed to validate this treatment option. ..
  48. Kerner M, Ziv M, Abu Raya F, Horowitz E, Rozenman D. Subcutaneous sarcoidosis with neurological involvement: an unusual combination. Isr Med Assoc J. 2008;10:428-30 pubmed
  49. Chew Y, Noorizan Y, Khir A, Brito Mutunayagam S. Parotid mass: a 5-year review of parotid surgery. Med J Malaysia. 2007;62:388-9 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, preservation of the facial nerve and its function, wherever possible, is very important to reduce social and functional morbidity. ..
  50. Sarolia S, Danner C, Erdem E. Facial nerve schwannoma presenting as a tympanic mass. Ear Nose Throat J. 2006;85:366, 368 pubmed
  51. Takahama H, Tsukahara N, Hirayama M, Ito S, Sakuramoto C. Isolated double herpes zoster paresis involving the left facial nerve and the right peroneal nerve following disseminated herpes zoster. J Dermatol. 2007;34:349-52 pubmed
    ..Given that the patient was elderly and had diabetes mellitus, the patient appeared to be an immunocompromised host. We also describe other rare complications of herpes zoster from the published work. ..
  52. Holland C, Holland J, Rozmanec M. Unilateral facial myokymia in a dog with an intracranial meningioma. Aust Vet J. 2010;88:357-61 pubmed publisher
  53. Ishii L. Facial Nerve Rehabilitation. Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2016;24:573-575 pubmed publisher
    ..Free tissue transfer dynamic restoration is the preferred method for smile restoration in this population, with outcomes exceeding those of similar procedures in adults. ..