cranial nerve diseases


Summary: Disorders of one or more of the twelve cranial nerves. With the exception of the optic and olfactory nerves, this includes disorders of the brain stem nuclei from which the cranial nerves originate or terminate.

Top Publications

  1. Li J, Mayr N, Yuh W, Wang J, Jiang G. Cranial nerve involvement in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: response to radiotherapy and its clinical impact. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2006;115:340-5 pubmed
    ..Timely diagnosis of NPC and fast institution of therapy are therefore critical to improving the neurologic outcome. ..
  2. Kong L, Lu J, Liss A, Hu C, Guo X, Wu Y, et al. Radiation-induced cranial nerve palsy: a cross-sectional study of nasopharyngeal cancer patients after definitive radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2011;79:1421-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Radiation-induced fibrosis may play an important role in radiation-induced CNP. The incidence of CNP after definitive radiotherapy for NPC remains high after long-term follow-up and is dose and fractionation dependent. ..
  3. Sibai T, Ben Galim P, Eicher S, Reitman C. Infectious Collet-Sicard syndrome in the differential diagnosis of cerebrovascular accident: a case of head-to-neck dissociation with skull-based osteomyelitis. Spine J. 2009;9:e6-e10 pubmed publisher
    ..Early recognition and treatment should result in successful recovery, but even in cases of delayed detection, suitable intervention can result in substantial clinical improvement. ..
  4. Raiji V, Miller M, Jung L. Uveitis in Blau syndrome from a de novo mutation of the NOD2/CARD15 gene. J AAPOS. 2011;15:205-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Subsequent genetic testing confirmed the diagnosis of Blau syndrome. Despite immunosuppression, at almost 7 years of age, she continues to have persistent panuveitis with vision of 20/20. ..
  5. Sfriso P, Caso F, Tognon S, Galozzi P, Gava A, Punzi L. Blau syndrome, clinical and genetic aspects. Autoimmun Rev. 2012;12:44-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinical and genetic aspects of the familial and the sporadic form of BS will be discussed and focused on. A description of a case study of an Italian family is also included...
  6. Simonini G, Xu Z, Caputo R, de Libero C, Pagnini I, Pascual V, et al. Clinical and transcriptional response to the long-acting interleukin-1 blocker canakinumab in Blau syndrome-related uveitis. Arthritis Rheum. 2013;65:513-8 pubmed publisher
  7. Nowack R, Wachtler P, Kunz J, Rasmussen N. Cranial nerve palsy in Wegener's granulomatosis--lessons from clinical cases. J Neurol. 2009;256:299-304 pubmed publisher
  8. Liu L, Liang S, Li L, Mao Y, Tang L, Tian L, et al. Prognostic impact of magnetic resonance imaging-detected cranial nerve involvement in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Cancer. 2009;115:1995-2003 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-detected cranial nerve (CN) involvement in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC)...
  9. Wang X, Kuivaniemi H, Bonavita G, Mutkus L, Mau U, Blau E, et al. CARD15 mutations in familial granulomatosis syndromes: a study of the original Blau syndrome kindred and other families with large-vessel arteritis and cranial neuropathy. Arthritis Rheum. 2002;46:3041-5 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that CARD15 is an important susceptibility gene for Blau syndrome and for other familial granulomatoses that display phenotypic traits beyond those of classic Blau syndrome. ..

More Information


  1. Chang J, Lin C, Chen T, Kang C, Ng S, Chen I, et al. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma with cranial nerve palsy: the importance of MRI for radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2005;63:1354-60 pubmed
    ..Patients recovering from CN palsy had better survival. A higher radiation dose delivered by external beam may achieve better tumor control than brachytherapy. ..
  2. Daderian A, Chayasirisobhon S. An unusual case of multiple cranial nerve palsies in Wegener's granulomatosis. J Natl Med Assoc. 2000;92:455-7 pubmed
    ..The patient was successfully treated with immunosuppressive therapy. Wegener's granulomatosis should be suspected when multiple cranial nerves are initially affected. ..
  3. Keane J. Multiple cranial nerve palsies: analysis of 979 cases. Arch Neurol. 2005;62:1714-7 pubmed
    ..While the locations and causes of multiple cranial neuropathy are highly diverse, the fact that tumor composes more than one quarter of cases places a premium on prompt diagnosis. ..
  4. Paredes I, Martínez Pérez R, Munarriz P, Castaño Leon A, Campollo J, Alen J, et al. [Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulae. Experience after 81 cases and literature review]. Neurocirugia (Astur). 2013;24:141-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Endovascular treatment for CS DAVF is safe and relatively effective. Surgical treatment of non-CS DAVF with CVD is safe, effective and the first choice treatment in our environment. ..
  5. Young O, Cunningham C, Russell J. Reversal of laryngotracheal separation in paediatric patients. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2010;74:1251-3 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, we document the first two cases of successful LTS reversal in children. ..
  6. Castilla Fernández Y, Boix H, Macaya A, Vazquez E, Gratacòs M, Roig Quilis M. Brainstem dysgenesis during the neonatal period: diagnosis and management. J Perinat Med. 2013;41:445-53 pubmed publisher
  7. Simon S, Torpy D, Brophy B, Blumbergs P, Selva D, Crompton J. Neuro-ophthalmic manifestations and outcomes of pituitary apoplexy--a life and sight-threatening emergency. N Z Med J. 2011;124:52-9 pubmed
    ..Pituitary apoplexy should be considered in any patient with abrupt onset of neuro-ophthalmic deficits. Prompt medical and surgical management is lifesaving and can lead to significant improvement in visual and cranial nerve deficits. ..
  8. Cheng H, Yang Y, Dai W, Tang C, Shi M, Feng G, et al. Acute leukemia presenting with blasts first found in the cerebrospinal fluid but not in the peripheral blood. J Clin Neurosci. 2010;17:1252-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Seven patients died within 18months of diagnosis and two patients developed stable disease. Our findings show a novel presenting feature of acute leukemia and highlight the importance of CSF cytology in the diagnosis of acute leukemia. ..
  9. Vianello M, Marchiori G, Giometto B. Multiple cranial nerve involvement in Bannwarth's syndrome. Neurol Sci. 2008;29:109-12 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss the need to start early therapy when clinical manifestations are suggestive of the disease in endemic areas. ..
  10. Job J, Branstetter B. Imaging of the Posterior Skull Base. Radiol Clin North Am. 2017;55:103-121 pubmed publisher
    ..This review will categorize pathology arising in the posterior skull base and describe how it affects the skull base itself and surrounding structures. ..
  11. Chen C, Chen Y, Yeh T, Hsu C, Tseng F. Outcomes of malignant external otitis: survival vs mortality. Acta Otolaryngol. 2010;130:89-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Severe complications such as skull base osteomyelitis, intracranial extension, and involvement of multiple cranial nerves were correlated with mortality...
  12. Frederickson A, Sekula R. The utility of calcium phosphate cement in cranioplasty following retromastoid craniectomy for cranial neuralgias. Br J Neurosurg. 2013;27:808-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Although this technique is unlikely to affect the rates of infection and postoperative pain, we believe that the low rate of CSF leak provides a unique advantage over other currently used methods of closing retromastoid craniectomies. ..
  13. Maniu A, Damian L. Rapid progressive bilateral hearing loss due to granulomatous otitis media in Lyme disease. Am J Otolaryngol. 2013;34:245-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The relationship between Lyme disease and granulomatous vasculitis is discussed. Lyme disease should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of various otolaryngological and neurological presentations. ..
  14. Tosco P, Garzino Demo P, Ramieri G, Tanteri G, Pecorari G, Caldarelli C, et al. The platysma myocutaneous flap (PMF) for head and neck reconstruction: a retrospective and multicentric analysis of 91 T1-T2 patients. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2012;40:e415-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors report their departments' separate but simultaneous experiences with PMF for small and middle-size soft tissue defects in a 10-year period. ..
  15. Kato Y, Takeda H, Dembo T, Fukuoka T, Tanahashi N. Progressive multiple cranial nerve palsies as the presenting symptom of meningeal carcinomatosis from occult colon adenocarcinoma. Intern Med. 2012;51:795-7 pubmed
    ..This should apply even when there is no known primary malignancy. ..
  16. Okamoto T, Mori T, Takeda T, Tokunaga M, Yuki N, Arimura S, et al. [Dexmedetomidine is an excellent sedative for voice monitoring surgery]. Masui. 2012;61:542-5 pubmed
    ..We conclude that dexmedetomidine is an excellent sedative as a drug used for voice monitoring surgery. ..
  17. Fretzayas A, Moustaki M, Vougiouka O. The puzzling clinical spectrum and course of juvenile sarcoidosis. World J Pediatr. 2011;7:103-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Sarcoidosis in childhood is recognized as a systemic disease affecting various organs and having diverse clinical course depending on the age of onset. ..
  18. Jiménez Martínez M, Cruz F, Groman Lupa S, Zenteno J. Immunophenotyping in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, aqueous humour and vitreous in a Blau syndrome patient caused by a novel NOD2 mutation. Int J Immunogenet. 2011;38:233-42 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first study analysing the immunological features of BS at aqueous humour, vitreous and blood levels. Our results expand the knowledge of the genetic and immunopathological basis of BS. ..
  19. Moghtaderi A, Alavi Naini R, Rashki S. Cranial nerve palsy as a factor to differentiate tuberculous meningitis from acute bacterial meningitis. Acta Med Iran. 2013;51:113-8 pubmed
    ..980, CI 95%: 1.161-3.376) on the diagnosis of TBM. In our study cranial nerve palsies was the most important neurological predictor factor to differentiate TBM from ABM. ..
  20. Leung Y, Cheung L. Risk factors of neurosensory deficits in lower third molar surgery: an literature review of prospective studies. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011;40:1-10 pubmed publisher
  21. Mohan S, Jain K, Arabi M, Shah G. Imaging of meningitis and ventriculitis. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 2012;22:557-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Characteristic findings and recent advances in neuroimaging of meningitis and its complications and ventriculitis are summarized, and certain noninfectious causes of meningitis and meningitis mimics are described. ..
  22. Mendes P, Fonseca N, Martelli D, Bonan P, de Almeida L, de Melo L, et al. Orofacial manifestations in patients with sickle cell anemia. Quintessence Int. 2011;42:701-9 pubmed
    ..Further studies using a methodology similar to the one in this study are necessary considering the scarcity of studies using this approach. ..
  23. Feldmeyer L. [Autoinflammatory syndromes in dermatology]. Rev Med Suisse. 2012;8:756-8, 760-1 pubmed
    ..In case of TNF-receptor associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) and paediatric granulomatous arthritis (PGA), TNF-antagonists may also be used; in familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) colchicine remains the first choice. ..
  24. Zorzi A, Grant R, Gupta A, Hodgson D, Nathan P. Cranial nerve palsies in childhood parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2012;59:1211-4 pubmed publisher
    ..A larger cohort of patients is required to determine the utility of emergent initiation of radiation or corticosteroids. This study will facilitate the counseling of future families on the long-term neurologic recovery CNP in PM RMS. ..
  25. Alrefai A, El Salem K, Saadeh R, Al Balas H. A case report of cranial polyneuropathy in Behcet's disease. Neurol Sci. 2010;31:83-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Cranial polyneuropathy secondary to meningeal involvement can be a presentation of n-BD, and Behcet's disease should be a consideration in patients with idiopathic cranial polyneuropathy. ..
  26. Guerreiro M, Principe F, Teles M, Fonseca S, Santos A, Fonseca E, et al. CD56-Negative Aggressive NK Cell Leukemia Relapsing as Multiple Cranial Nerve Palsies: Case Report and Literature Review. Case Rep Hematol. 2017;2017:3724017 pubmed publisher
    ..We present a rare case of CD56-negative ANKL and review the clinical and laboratorial criteria for the diagnosis, as well as the available therapies...
  27. Huang A, Song S, Dominguez L, Nguyen J, Goldman R, Reiter E. Delayed lower cranial neuropathies following primary radiotherapy for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Laryngoscope. 2013;123:1207-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We present here our institution's experience with delayed cranial neuropathies following primary radiation therapy for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, as well as document the only reported case following IMRT. ..
  28. Wolf J, Bergner R, Mutallib S, Buggle F, Grau A. Neurologic complications of Churg-Strauss syndrome--a prospective monocentric study. Eur J Neurol. 2010;17:582-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Even at time of diagnosis of a CSS, neurologic manifestations are common, especially as a multiplex mononeuropathy. With a consequent immunosuppressive therapy, new neurologic complications can be avoided for the most part. ..
  29. Bink A, Goller K, Luchtenberg M, Neumann Haefelin T, Dützmann S, Zanella F, et al. Long-term outcome after coil embolization of cavernous sinus arteriovenous fistulas. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2010;31:1216-21 pubmed publisher
    ..As neuro-ophthalmologic outcome is crucial for control of therapeutic success, patients should be routinely examined by ophthalmologists. ..
  30. Komotar R, Starke R, Raper D, Anand V, Schwartz T. The endoscope-assisted ventral approach compared with open microscope-assisted surgery for clival chordomas. World Neurosurg. 2011;76:318-27; discussion 259-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We conducted a systematic review of case series and case reports in hope of furthering our understanding of the role of endoscopy in the management of these difficult cranial base lesions...
  31. Akutsu H, Kreutzer J, Fahlbusch R, Buchfelder M. Transsphenoidal decompression of the sellar floor for cavernous sinus meningiomas: experience with 21 patients. Neurosurgery. 2009;65:54-62; discussion 62 pubmed publisher
    ..The less severe optomotoric nerve palsy before surgery, the better the chance of complete recovery of its function. Combined with adjuvant radiotherapy, this minimally invasive management also provided excellent long-term tumor control. ..
  32. Feher J, Kovacs I, Pacella E, Keresz S, Spagnardi N, Balacco Gabrieli C. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) attenuated capsaicin-induced neurotrophic keratouveitis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:5173-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These effects of PEDF, described herein for the first time, may have a clinical application in inflammatory and neovascular diseases of the eye. ..
  33. Weinstein S, Everest E, Purdell Lewis J, Harrison M, Tavender F, Alfred S, et al. Neurotoxicity with persistent unilateral ophthalmoplegia from envenoming by a wild inland taipan (Oxyuranus microlepidotus, Elapidae) in remote outback South Australia. Toxicon. 2017;137:15-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Rapid application of pressure-bandage immobilization and efficient retrieval of victims envenomed in remote locales, preferably by medically well-equipped aircraft, probably improves the likelihood of a positive outcome. ..
  34. Sinnaeve L, Vanopdenbosch L, Paemeleire K. Association of Cerebral Venous Thrombosis and Intracranial Hypotension: Review of 3 Cases. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2017;26:e165-e169 pubmed publisher
    ..Any change in the typical features of the syndrome should lead to further investigation. Repeat cerebral imaging is important in that situation, including ruling out cerebral venous thrombosis. ..
  35. El Rassi E, Macarthur C. Propranolol-responsive cranial nerve palsies in a patient with PHACES syndrome. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2015;79:1778-81 pubmed publisher
    ..We present the first case of propranolol-responsive congenital trigeminal and facial nerve palsies secondary to an intracranial hemangioma in a patient with PHACES syndrome. ..
  36. Kim Y, Chang M, Jung H, Park Y, Lee S, Lee J, et al. Prognosis of Ramsay Hunt syndrome presenting as cranial polyneuropathy. Laryngoscope. 2010;120:2270-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Ramsay Hunt syndrome is known to be accompanied with cranial polyneuropathy very occasionally. We reviewed our experience to analyze the clinical manifestations and prognosis of these cases...
  37. Santos Garcia D, Llaneza M, Macias M, de la Fuente Fernandez R. Multiple cranial neuropathy associated with herpes simplex virus infection and anti-GM2 immunoglobulin M antibodies. J Clin Neuromuscul Dis. 2009;10:199-201 pubmed publisher
    ..We report on a patient who developed multiple cranial neuropathy associated with herpes simplex virus infection and anti-GM2 immunoglobulin M antibodies. ..
  38. Totadri S, Bhatia P, Sreedharanunni S. RUNX1-RUNX1T1-positive acute myeloid leukaemia presenting as bilateral proptosis and multiple cranial nerve palsy. BMJ Case Rep. 2017;2017: pubmed publisher
    ..Extramedullary MS can present simultaneously with or antedate AML. Common genetic aberrations include t(8;21) and inv(16). Therapy is akin to AML. An effect of MS on survival outcomes is variable...
  39. Riku Y, Sakurai H, Fujino M, Mano K. [A case of atypical Cogan's syndrome with a steroid-responsive headache and multiple cranial neuropathy as the initial symptoms]. Brain Nerve. 2011;63:1131-5 pubmed
    ..It is postulated that CS is a vasculitic syndrome that should be distinguishable from PN. ..
  40. Martos Diaz P, Bances del Castillo R, Vidal Laso R, Mancha de la Plata M, Cho Lee G, Naval Gias L. Bilateral mental nerve neuropathy as the sole presenting symptom of Burkitt's Lymphoma. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2009;14:e408-10 pubmed
    ..We have also described the clinical evolution, steps for diagnosis and treatment. ..
  41. Cifarelli C, Schlesinger D, Sheehan J. Cranial nerve dysfunction following Gamma Knife surgery for pituitary adenomas: long-term incidence and risk factors. J Neurosurg. 2012;116:1304-10 pubmed publisher
    ..This study evaluates the long-term risks of ophthalmological dysfunction following GKS for recurrent pituitary adenomas...
  42. Donahue J, Ornan D, Mukherjee S. Imaging of Vascular Compression Syndromes. Radiol Clin North Am. 2017;55:123-138 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment options for these neurovascular compressions syndromes run the gamut from medical therapy to stereotactic radiosurgery to botulinum injections and to surgical decompression. ..
  43. Ozluoglu L, Köycü A, Jafarov S, Hizal E, Boyvat F. Facial palsy following embolization of a dural arteriovenous fistula. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2016;273:2843-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Facial functions of the patient improved from total weakness to House-Brackmann grade II, following facial nerve decompression surgery. ..
  44. Ingelmo Ingelmo I, Fàbregas Julià N, Rama Maceiras P, Rubio Romero R, Badenes Quiles R, Valencia Sola L, et al. [Questionnaire on the anaesthesiology treatment of patients subjected to posterior fossa neurosurgery]. Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim. 2012;59:118-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The results obtained from the questionnaire showed that the sitting position was less used than the prone position in posterior fossa surgery, and that neurophysiological monitoring is during surgery is hardly used. ..
  45. Ruiz Allec L, Hernández López X, Arreguín Porras J, Velasco Ramos R, Pacheco del Valle J, Pérez García A. [Alterations in voice, speech and swallowing in patients with Sjögren's syndrome]. Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp. 2011;62:255-64 pubmed publisher
    ..48%). Patients with SS have voice, speech and swallowing abnormalities, not only associated to xerosis, but perhaps also to neurological abnormalities, probably secondary to the syndrome. ..
  46. Kapapa T, Pfister U, König K, Sasse M, Woischneck D, Heissler H, et al. Head trauma in children, part 3: clinical and psychosocial outcome after head trauma in children. J Child Neurol. 2010;25:409-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The parents, especially, mentioned behavioral problems such as social withdrawal or aggressive demeanor, which led to tension also inside the family. A persistent vegetative state is rare after head trauma in children. ..
  47. Viswanathan S, Muthu V, Singh A, Rajendran R, George R. Middle cerebral artery infarct following multiple bee stings. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2012;21:148-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Further investigation revealed dyslipidemia, impaired glucose tolerance, and a middle cerebral artery territory infarct. His limb weakness and speech improved before his discharge from the hospital. ..
  48. Aragona P, Rolando M. Towards a dynamic customised therapy for ocular surface dysfunctions. Br J Ophthalmol. 2013;97:955-60 pubmed publisher
  49. Durkin G. A comparison of the effectiveness of computer-based learning courses among nursing staff. J Nurses Staff Dev. 2008;24:62-6; quiz 67-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Results showed that interactive CBL courses showed greater long-term learning retention than noninteractive CBL courses, and the time to complete the courses was not different between them. ..
  50. Choi J. Two cases of pharyngolaryngeal zoster advanced to multiple cranial neuropathy. Am J Otolaryngol. 2013;34:369-72 pubmed publisher
    ..All of these lesions tended to lateralize to the ipsilateral side and endoscopic findings suggested VZV infections, which were confirmed by serial serologic examinations. ..
  51. Malhotra P, Sharma P, Fishman M, Grumbine F, Tholey R, Dam V, et al. Clinical, radiographic, and audiometric predictors in conservative management of vestibular schwannoma. Otol Neurotol. 2009;30:507-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased tumor size at presentation also may indicate the same, although no threshold could be achieved. ..
  52. Davidson E, Coppey L, Yorek M. Early loss of innervation of cornea epithelium in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic rats: improvement with ilepatril treatment. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:8067-74 pubmed publisher
  53. Xiang H, Zhang T, Chen M, Zhou X, Li Z, Yan N, et al. NOD2/CARD15 gene mutation identified in a Chinese family with Blau syndrome. Mol Vis. 2012;18:617-23 pubmed
    ..R334W). The R334W mutation in NOD2/CARD15 caused Blau syndrome in a Chinese pedigree. This is the first report of R334W mutation in NOD2/CARD15 in a Chinese pedigree of this disease. ..