syringomyelia

Summary

Summary: Longitudinal cavities in the spinal cord, most often in the cervical region, which may extend for multiple spinal levels. The cavities are lined by dense, gliogenous tissue and may be associated with SPINAL CORD NEOPLASMS; spinal cord traumatic injuries; and vascular malformations. Syringomyelia is marked clinically by pain and PARESTHESIA, muscular atrophy of the hands, and analgesia with thermoanesthesia of the hands and arms, but with the tactile sense preserved (sensory dissociation). Lower extremity spasticity and incontinence may also develop. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1269)

Top Publications

  1. Zhang Z, Chen Y, Chen Y, Wu X, Wang Y, Li X. Chiari I malformation associated with syringomyelia: a retrospective study of 316 surgically treated patients. Spinal Cord. 2008;46:358-63 pubmed
    The objective of this article is to probe the surgical procedures of treatment for Chiari I malformation (CMI) associated with syringomyelia and evaluate their efficacy based on clinical and neuroradiological results.
  2. Parker J, Knowler S, Rusbridge C, Noorman E, Jeffery N. Prevalence of asymptomatic syringomyelia in Cavalier King Charles spaniels. Vet Rec. 2011;168:667 pubmed publisher
    The prevalence of syringomyelia was investigated in a sample population of 555 Cavalier King Charles spaniels...
  3. Scrivani P, Freer S, Dewey C, Cerda Gonzalez S. Cerebrospinal fluid signal-void sign in dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2009;50:269-75 pubmed
    ..MR images was performed to characterize the presence and location of a CSF signal-void sign, ventricular size, syringomyelia, and other lesions. A CSF signal-void sign was detected in at least the mesencephalic aqueduct in 59/327 (18...
  4. Muthukumar N, Sureshkumar V. Concurrent syringomyelia and intradural extramedullary tuberculoma as late complications of tuberculous meningitis. J Clin Neurosci. 2007;14:1225-30 pubmed
    ..TBM is associated with many complications. However, concurrent syringomyelia and intradural extramedullary tuberculoma occurring in a patient treated for TBM is rare...
  5. Park Y, Kim D, Shim K, Kim J, Choi J. Factors contributing improvement of syringomyelia and surgical outcome in type I Chiari malformation. Childs Nerv Syst. 2009;25:453-9 pubmed publisher
    ..of our study was to compare pre- and postoperative radiologic data of posterior fossa and the improvement of syringomyelia after posterior fossa decompression (PFD) with and without tonsillar management in Chiari type capital I, ..
  6. Muzumdar D, Balasubramanian S, Goel A. Tonsillar herniation and cervical syringomyelia due to postoperative meningitis in case of pineal region epidermoid. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2009;45:56-60 pubmed publisher
    The occurrence of tonsillar herniation and syringomyelia in association with tumor-induced obstructive hydrocephalus has been described in literature...
  7. Spena G, Bernucci C, Garbossa D, Valfrè W, Versari P. Clinical and radiological outcome of craniocervical osteo-dural decompression for Chiari I-associated syringomyelia. Neurosurg Rev. 2010;33:297-303; discussion 303-4 pubmed publisher
    ..clinical and radiological outcomes of craniocervical decompression for patients affected by Chiari I-related syringomyelia. We performed a retrospective analysis of a group of patients affected by Chiari I-associated syringomyelia ..
  8. Driver C, Rusbridge C, Cross H, McGonnell I, Volk H. Relationship of brain parenchyma within the caudal cranial fossa and ventricle size to syringomyelia in cavalier King Charles spaniels. J Small Anim Pract. 2010;51:382-6 pubmed publisher
    ..cranial fossa (CCF), parenchyma within the caudal cranial fossa (CCFP) or ventricles (V) are associated with syringomyelia (SM) in cavalier King Charles spaniels (CKCS) with Chiari-like malformation (CM)...
  9. Srivatanakul K, Songsaeng D, Ozanne A, Toulgoat F, Lasjaunias P. Spinal arteriovenous malformation associated with syringomyelia. J Neurosurg Spine. 2009;10:436-42 pubmed publisher
    The authors describe 4 cases of syringomyelia-associated spinal cord arteriovenous malformation (AVM). All cases were managed with embolization of the AVM...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Elliott N, Lockerby D, Brodbelt A. A lumped-parameter model of the cerebrospinal system for investigating arterial-driven flow in posttraumatic syringomyelia. Med Eng Phys. 2011;33:874-82 pubmed publisher
    Fluid transport in syringomyelia has remained enigmatic ever since the disease was first identified some three centuries ago...
  2. Upchurch J, McGonnell I, Driver C, Butler L, Volk H. Influence of head positioning on the assessment of Chiari-like malformation in Cavalier King Charles spaniels. Vet Rec. 2011;169:277 pubmed publisher
    ..malformation (CM) is almost omnipresent in the Cavalier King Charles spaniels (CKCS), often leading to syringomyelia (SM)...
  3. Shaw T, McGonnell I, Driver C, Rusbridge C, Volk H. Increase in cerebellar volume in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with Chiari-like malformation and its role in the development of syringomyelia. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33660 pubmed publisher
    Previous research in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCS) has found that Chiari-like malformation and syringomyelia (CM/SM) are associated with a volume mismatch between the caudal cranial fossa (CCF) and the brain parenchyma contained ..
  4. Couturier J, Rault D, Cauzinille L. Chiari-like malformation and syringomyelia in normal cavalier King Charles spaniels: a multiple diagnostic imaging approach. J Small Anim Pract. 2008;49:438-43 pubmed publisher
    The objectives of the study were (1) to report the incidence of Chiari-like malformation and syringomyelia in a normal French cavalier King Charles spaniel breeding population; (2) to precise the standard computed tomography dimensions ..
  5. Sindou M, Gimbert E. Decompression for Chiari type I-malformation (with or without syringomyelia) by extreme lateral foramen magnum opening and expansile duraplasty with arachnoid preservation: comparison with other technical modalities (Literature review). Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg. 2009;34:85-110 pubmed
    ..is the procedure most currently used for treating Chiari I malformation (alone or in association with syringomyelia in the absence of hydrocephalus). We reviewed the various technical modalities reported in the literature...
  6. Carruthers H, Rusbridge C, Dube M, Holmes M, Jeffery N. Association between cervical and intracranial dimensions and syringomyelia in the cavalier King Charles spaniel. J Small Anim Pract. 2009;50:394-8 pubmed publisher
    ..the possible association between caudal fossa area and cervical vertebral dimensions and the presence of syringomyelia in cavalier King Charles spaniels...
  7. Peraud A, Grau S. Decompensated hydrocephalus causing syringomyelia and tetraparesis: a case report. Childs Nerv Syst. 2009;25:263-6 pubmed publisher
    Various causes for the development of syringomelia are discussed. The influence of hydrocephalus upon syringomyelia is rarely reported and its role remains unclear...
  8. Aghakhani N, Parker F, David P, Morar S, Lacroix C, Benoudiba F, et al. Long-term follow-up of Chiari-related syringomyelia in adults: analysis of 157 surgically treated cases. Neurosurgery. 2009;64:308-15; discussion 315 pubmed publisher
    To determine the long-term outcome of surgically treated Chiari-related syringomyelia.
  9. Lee H, Lee S, Kim E, Kim J, Lee J, Shin H, et al. Surgical results of arachnoid-preserving posterior fossa decompression for Chiari I malformation with associated syringomyelia. J Clin Neurosci. 2012;19:557-60 pubmed publisher
    ..cisterna magna, without disturbing the arachnoid, in patients with Chiari I malformation (CMI) associated with syringomyelia. Twenty-five adult patients with CMI and syringomyelia, who underwent surgery between October 2000 and ..
  10. Kasliwal M, Suri A, Sharma B. Dandy Walker malformation associated with syringomyelia. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2008;110:317-9 pubmed
  11. Heiss J, Suffredini G, Smith R, DeVroom H, Patronas N, Butman J, et al. Pathophysiology of persistent syringomyelia after decompressive craniocervical surgery. Clinical article. J Neurosurg Spine. 2010;13:729-42 pubmed publisher
    Craniocervical decompression for Chiari malformation Type I (CM-I) and syringomyelia has been reported to fail in 10%-40% of patients...
  12. Szpak G, Lewandowska E, Schmidt Sidor B, Pasennik E, Modzelewska J, Stepien T, et al. Giant cell ependymoma of the spinal cord and fourth ventricle coexisting with syringomyelia. Folia Neuropathol. 2008;46:220-31 pubmed
    ..extending from segment C3/C4 of the spinal cord to the lower half of the fourth ventricle with coexisting syringomyelia. This slow-growing ependymoma of low-grade malignancy exhibited unusual morphology as well as degenerative and ..
  13. Cerda Gonzalez S, Olby N, McCullough S, Pease A, Broadstone R, Osborne J. Morphology of the caudal fossa in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2009;50:37-46 pubmed
    ..The prevalence of craniocervical junction abnormalities is high in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels. While several factors are associated with neurologic signs, occipital hypoplasia appears to be the most important factor...
  14. Rocque B, George T, Kestle J, Iskandar B. Treatment practices for Chiari malformation type I with syringomyelia: results of a survey of the American Society of Pediatric Neurosurgeons. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2011;8:430-7 pubmed publisher
    ..the American Society of Pediatric Neurosurgeons (ASPN) on treatment of Chiari malformation Type I (CM-I) with syringomyelia. A questionnaire was circulated during the 2006 meeting of the ASPN, in which surgeons were surveyed on their ..
  15. Aghakhani N, Baussart B, David P, Lacroix C, Benoudiba F, Tadie M, et al. Surgical treatment of posttraumatic syringomyelia. Neurosurgery. 2010;66:1120-7; discussion 1127 pubmed publisher
    ..study evaluates the effectiveness of 2 surgical procedures, shunting and untethering, for posttraumatic syringomyelia. We retrospectively reviewed the medical charts of all surgical patients with posttraumatic syringomyelia in ..
  16. Elliott N, Lockerby D, Brodbelt A. The pathogenesis of syringomyelia: a re-evaluation of the elastic-jump hypothesis. J Biomech Eng. 2009;131:044503 pubmed publisher
    b>Syringomyelia is a disease in which fluid-filled cavities, called syrinxes, form in the spinal cord causing progressive loss of sensory and motor functions...
  17. Struck A, Haughton V. Idiopathic syringomyelia: phase-contrast MR of cerebrospinal fluid flow dynamics at level of foramen magnum. Radiology. 2009;253:184-90 pubmed publisher
    To measure cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow velocities in the foramen magnum in patients with idiopathic syringomyelia (IS).
  18. Wetjen N, Heiss J, Oldfield E. Time course of syringomyelia resolution following decompression of Chiari malformation Type I. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2008;1:118-23 pubmed publisher
    ..and cervical MR imaging were performed in 29 consecutive patients with Chiari malformation Type I (CM-I) and syringomyelia before surgery, 1 week, and 3-6 months after surgery, and then annually...
  19. El Hassani Y, Burkhardt K, Delavellle J, Vargas M, Boex C, Rilliet B. Symptomatic syringomyelia occurring as a late complication of posterior fossa medulloblastoma removal in infancy in a boy also suffering from scaphocephaly. Childs Nerv Syst. 2009;25:1633-7 pubmed publisher
    The association of a medulloblastoma and a syringomyelia has been already described in rare instances albeit without symptoms related to the syrinx...
  20. Rusbridge C, Knowler S, Pieterse L, McFadyen A. Chiari-like malformation in the Griffon Bruxellois. J Small Anim Pract. 2009;50:386-93 pubmed publisher
    This study describes Chiari-like malformation and syringomyelia in the Griffon Bruxellois and establishes if skull radiographs are useful for disease prediction...
  21. Nacir B, Arslan Cebeci S, Cetinkaya E, Karagoz A, Erdem H. Neuropathic arthropathy progressing with multiple joint involvement in the upper extremity due to syringomyelia and type I Arnold-Chiari malformation. Rheumatol Int. 2010;30:979-83 pubmed publisher
    ..by Charcot in tabes dorsalis in 1868, has subsequently been observed in a variety of conditions including syringomyelia, diabetes mellitus and peripheral nerve disorders. Syringomyelia is characterized by slow progression...
  22. Fenn J, Schmidt M, Simpson H, Driver C, Volk H. Venous sinus volume in the caudal cranial fossa in Cavalier King Charles spaniels with syringomyelia. Vet J. 2013;197:896-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Syringomyelia (SM) in Cavalier King Charles spaniels (CKCS) has a complex pathophysiology. Recent studies support a relationship between altered venous drainage and cerebrospinal fluid flow dynamics...
  23. Galarza M, López Guerrero A, Martínez Lage J. Posterior fossa arachnoid cysts and cerebellar tonsillar descent: short review. Neurosurg Rev. 2010;33:305-14; discussion 314 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this study was to analyze the association of cerebellar tonsillar descent and syringomyelia in patients with posterior fossa arachnoid cysts...
  24. Clarke E, Stoodley M, Bilston L. Changes in temporal flow characteristics of CSF in Chiari malformation Type I with and without syringomyelia: implications for theory of syrinx development. J Neurosurg. 2013;118:1135-40 pubmed publisher
    The pathogenesis of syringomyelia in association with Chiari malformation Type I (CM-I) is unclear...
  25. Roser F, Ebner F, Danz S, Riether F, Ritz R, Dietz K, et al. Three-dimensional constructive interference in steady-state magnetic resonance imaging in syringomyelia: advantages over conventional imaging. J Neurosurg Spine. 2008;8:429-35 pubmed publisher
    Neuroradiology has become indispensable in detecting the pathophysiology in syringomyelia. Constructive interference in steady-state (CISS) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can provide superior contrast at the sub-arachnoid tissue borders...
  26. Martin B, LABUDA R, Royston T, Oshinski J, Iskandar B, Loth F. Spinal subarachnoid space pressure measurements in an in vitro spinal stenosis model: implications on syringomyelia theories. J Biomech Eng. 2010;132:111007 pubmed publisher
    Full explanation for the pathogenesis of syringomyelia (SM), a neuropathology characterized by the formation of a cystic cavity (syrinx) in the spinal cord (SC), has not yet been provided...
  27. O Toole J, Eichholz K, Fessler R. Minimally invasive insertion of syringosubarachnoid shunt for posttraumatic syringomyelia: technical case report. Neurosurgery. 2007;61:E331-2; discussion E332 pubmed publisher
    Symptomatic posttraumatic syringomyelia affects up to 10% of patients with spinal cord injuries and manifests in a delayed manner as progressive sensorimotor changes below the level of the syrinx...
  28. Ishizaka S, Hayashi K, Otsuka M, Fukuda S, Tsunoda K, Ushijima R, et al. Syringomyelia and arachnoid cysts associated with spinal arachnoiditis following subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2012;52:686-90 pubmed
    A 66-year-old woman with primary Sjogren syndrome developed syringomyelia following two episodes of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to the rupture of basilar artery aneurysms...
  29. Novegno F, Caldarelli M, Massa A, Chieffo D, Massimi L, Pettorini B, et al. The natural history of the Chiari Type I anomaly. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2008;2:179-87 pubmed publisher
    ..The decision of whether or not to operate is more difficult in these patients than in those with clear symptoms because of the lack of information about the natural course of this disease...
  30. Loderstedt S, Benigni L, Chandler K, Cardwell J, Rusbridge C, Lamb C, et al. Distribution of syringomyelia along the entire spinal cord in clinically affected Cavalier King Charles Spaniels. Vet J. 2011;190:359-63 pubmed publisher
    Chiari-like malformation (CM) and syringomyelia (SM) is an important disease complex in the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel (CKCS) but data about the anatomical distribution of SM along the spinal cord are lacking in veterinary medicine...
  31. Suyama K, Ujifuku K, Hirao T, Takahata H, Ito M, Yonekura M, et al. Symptomatic syringomyelia associated with a dermoid tumor in the posterior fossa. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2009;49:434-7 pubmed
    A 28-year-old female presented with a dermoid tumor in the posterior fossa associated with symptomatic syringomyelia. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed cervical syringomyelia and tonsillar herniation concomitant with an intradural ..
  32. Lewis T, Rusbridge C, Knowler P, Blott S, Woolliams J. Heritability of syringomyelia in Cavalier King Charles spaniels. Vet J. 2010;183:345-7 pubmed publisher
    ..dogs registered from the mid 1980s to September 2007, revealed a moderately high estimate of heritability of syringomyelia (h(2)=0.37+/-0.15 standard error) when analysed as a binary trait...
  33. Silva J, Melo L, Araújo A, Santos A. Resolution of syringomyelia in ten cases of "up-and-down Chiari malformation" after posterior fossa decompression. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2010;68:694-9 pubmed
    The authors describe ten cases of syringomyelia without hindbrain herniation depicted by preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in supine position...
  34. Roser F, Ebner F, Ebner F, Maier G, Tatagiba M, Nagele T, et al. Fractional anisotropy levels derived from diffusion tensor imaging in cervical syringomyelia. Neurosurgery. 2010;67:901-5; discussion 905 pubmed publisher
    b>Syringomyelia can result in major functional disability. Conventional imaging techniques frequently fail to detect the underlying cause of syringomyelia...
  35. Wu L, Qiu Y, Wang B, Zhu Z, Ma W. The left thoracic curve pattern: a strong predictor for neural axis abnormalities in patients with "idiopathic" scoliosis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010;35:182-5 pubmed publisher
    ..were detected in 37 (54%) patients, including Chiari 1 malformation in 15 patients, Chiari 1 malformation with syringomyelia in 10, Chiari 1 malformation with syringomyelia and tethered cord in 1, Chiari 1 malformation with ..
  36. Noudel R, Jovenin N, Eap C, Scherpereel B, Pierot L, Rousseaux P. Incidence of basioccipital hypoplasia in Chiari malformation type I: comparative morphometric study of the posterior cranial fossa. Clinical article. J Neurosurg. 2009;111:1046-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The goals in the present study were to authenticate the cranioencephalic disproportion in a group of patients with CMI and to discuss new developmental aspects according to which part of the occipital bone was underdeveloped...
  37. Eule J, Erickson M, O Brien M, Handler M. Chiari I malformation associated with syringomyelia and scoliosis: a twenty-year review of surgical and nonsurgical treatment in a pediatric population. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2002;27:1451-5 pubmed
    ..Determine the effect of decompression of Chiari I malformation with syringomyelia on stabilization or improvement of associated scoliosis...
  38. Ferguson R, Devine J, Stasikelis P, Caskey P, Allen B. Outcomes in surgical treatment of "idiopathic-like" scoliosis associated with syringomyelia. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2002;15:301-6 pubmed
    Patients with "idiopathic-like" spinal deformities associated with syringomyelia were retrospectively reviewed...
  39. Kleopa K, Elman L, Lang B, Vincent A, Scherer S. Neuromyotonia and limbic encephalitis sera target mature Shaker-type K+ channels: subunit specificity correlates with clinical manifestations. Brain. 2006;129:1570-84 pubmed
    ..Although more than one type of antibody is often detectable in individual sera, higher affinity for certain subunits or subunit combinations may determine the range of clinical manifestations...
  40. Martínez Lage J, Almagro M, Ros de San Pedro J, Ruiz Espejo A, Felipe Murcia M. Regression of syringomyelia and tonsillar herniation after posterior fossa arachnoid cyst excision. Case report and literature review. Neurocirugia (Astur). 2007;18:227-31 pubmed
    ..Rarely the syringomyelia is caused by acquired Chiari malformation due to a retrocerebellar arachnoid cyst.
  41. Chang H, Nakagawa H. Hypothesis on the pathophysiology of syringomyelia based on simulation of cerebrospinal fluid dynamics. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2003;74:344-7 pubmed
    Despite many hypotheses, the pathophysiology of syringomyelia is still not well understood. In this report, the authors propose a hypothesis based on analysis of cerebrospinal fluid dynamics in the spine...
  42. Rusbridge C, Knowler S. Hereditary aspects of occipital bone hypoplasia and syringomyelia (Chiari type I malformation) in cavalier King Charles spaniels. Vet Rec. 2003;153:107-12 pubmed
    ..Charles spaniels spanning 20 generations was established by obtaining pedigree information from 45 dogs with syringomyelia secondary to occipital bone hypoplasia...
  43. Inoue Y, Nemoto Y, Ohata K, Daikokuya H, Hakuba A, Tashiro T, et al. Syringomyelia associated with adhesive spinal arachnoiditis: MRI. Neuroradiology. 2001;43:325-30 pubmed
    We reviewed the MRI of seven patients with syringomyelia associated with surgically proven adhesive spinal arachnoiditis to describe clinical and MRI findings in this condition. Using 0.5, 1.0 or 1...
  44. Rusbridge C. Neurological diseases of the Cavalier King Charles spaniel. J Small Anim Pract. 2005;46:265-72 pubmed
    ..Specifically, the article discusses and contrasts the most common conditions seen, Including occipital hypoplasia/syringomyelia, episodic collapse, epilepsy and vestibular disorders.
  45. Goel A, Sharma P. Craniovertebral junction realignment for the treatment of basilar invagination with syringomyelia: preliminary report of 12 cases. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2005;45:512-7; discussion 518 pubmed
    Twelve selected patients, eight males and four females aged 14 to 50 years, with syringomyelia associated with congenital craniovertebral bony anomalies including basilar invagination and fixed atlantoaxial dislocation, and associated ..
  46. Rusbridge C, Knowler P, Rouleau G, Minassian B, Rothuizen J. Inherited occipital hypoplasia/syringomyelia in the cavalier King Charles spaniel: experiences in setting up a worldwide DNA collection. J Hered. 2005;96:745-9 pubmed
    ..In this article we described the clinical characteristics of inherited occipital hypoplasia/syringomyelia (Chiari type I malformation) in the cavalier King Charles spaniel and our experiences in establishing a ..
  47. Muzumdar D, Ventureyra E. Tonsillar herniation and cervical syringomyelia in association with posterior fossa tumors in children: a case-based update. Childs Nerv Syst. 2006;22:454-9 pubmed
    ..The symptomatology is predominantly directed towards the tumor. The occurrence of syringomyelia in such cases is most unusual. Symptomatic syringomyelia is rare...
  48. Bains R, Althausen P, Gitlin G, Gupta M, Benson D. The role of acute decompression and restoration of spinal alignment in the prevention of post-traumatic syringomyelia: case report and review of recent literature. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2001;26:E399-402 pubmed
    Case report. Acute post-traumatic syringomyelia formation after spinal cord injury has been considered a rare complication. At this writing, most recent reports have surfaced in neurosurgical journals...
  49. Ersoy Y, Ates O, Onal C, But A, Cayli S, Bayindir Y, et al. Cerebellar abscess and syringomyelia due to isoniazid-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Clin Neurosci. 2007;14:86-9 pubmed
    ..The patient recovered, with residual quadriparesis. Even though very rare, isoniazid-resistant M. tuberculosis may be the causative agent of progressive tuberculosis. ..
  50. Cappello R, Rusbridge C. Report from the Chiari-Like Malformation and Syringomyelia Working Group round table. Vet Surg. 2007;36:509-12 pubmed
  51. Brodbelt A, Stoodley M, Watling A, Tu J, Burke S, Jones N. Altered subarachnoid space compliance and fluid flow in an animal model of posttraumatic syringomyelia. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2003;28:E413-9 pubmed
    ..rats undergoing lumboperitoneal shunt insertion in the excitotoxic animal model of posttraumatic syringomyelia (PTS)...
  52. Owler B, Halmagyi G, Brennan J, Besser M. Syringomyelia with Chiari malformation; 3 unusual cases with implications for pathogenesis. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2004;146:1137-43; discussion 1143 pubmed
    b>Syringomyelia is an important cause of neurological deficit. Most cases of non-traumatic syringomyelia occur in association with a Chiari malformation. We present three unusual examples of syringomyelia with such an association...
  53. Yang L, Jones N, Stoodley M, Blumbergs P, Brown C. Excitotoxic model of post-traumatic syringomyelia in the rat. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2001;26:1842-9 pubmed
    ..to elucidate the role of excitatory amino acids and spinal subarachnoid block in the genesis of post-traumatic syringomyelia. This excitotoxic model produces intramedullary cavities rather than the dilation of the central canal (..