myelitis

Summary

Summary: Inflammation of the spinal cord. Relatively common etiologies include infections; AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES; SPINAL CORD; and ischemia (see also SPINAL CORD VASCULAR DISEASES). Clinical features generally include weakness, sensory loss, localized pain, incontinence, and other signs of autonomic dysfunction.

Top Publications

  1. Schmutzhard E. Eosinophilic myelitis, a souvenir from South East Asia. Pract Neurol. 2007;7:48-51 pubmed
  2. Birnbaum J, Petri M, Thompson R, Izbudak I, Kerr D. Distinct subtypes of myelitis in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;60:3378-87 pubmed publisher
    b>Myelitis causes pain, weakness, and sphincteric deficits, and is 1,000-fold more prevalent in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) than in the general population...
  3. West T, Hess C, Cree B. Acute transverse myelitis: demyelinating, inflammatory, and infectious myelopathies. Semin Neurol. 2012;32:97-113 pubmed publisher
    Acute transverse myelitis is a rare neurologic condition that has an estimated incidence of up to 3 per 100,000 patient years (0.003%)...
  4. Blanc F, Froelich S, Vuillemet F, Carre S, Baldauf E, de Martino S, et al. [Acute myelitis and Lyme disease]. Rev Neurol (Paris). 2007;163:1039-47 pubmed
    Acute myelitis accounts for 4 to 5 percent of all cases of neuroborreliosis. In the literature, simultaneous spinal MRI and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) investigations are presented for only 8 cases...
  5. Kanesaka T, Sakakibara R, Ito S, Ito T, Odaka T, Yamaguchi T, et al. Intestinal pseudo-obstruction in acute myelitis. Intern Med. 2006;45:35-6 pubmed
  6. Irani D. Aseptic meningitis and viral myelitis. Neurol Clin. 2008;26:635-55, vii-viii pubmed publisher
    Meningitis and myelitis represent common and very infrequent viral infections of the central nervous system, respectively...
  7. Pawate S, Sriram S. Isolated longitudinal myelitis: a report of six cases. Spinal Cord. 2009;47:257-61 pubmed publisher
    Retrospective chart review.ObjectiveTo report six patients with isolated longitudinal myelitis (LM).
  8. Eberhardt O, Bialek R, Nagele T, Dichgans J. Eosinophilic meningomyelitis in toxocariasis: case report and review of the literature. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2005;107:432-8 pubmed
    ..Toxocariasis has to remain among the differential diagnosis in patients with eosinophilic CNS infection even if serological tests in blood are negative. Adult cases seem to be more frequent than previously thought (about 60%)...
  9. Mewasingh L, Christiaens F, Dachy B, Christophe C, Dan B. Cervical myelitis from herpes simplex virus type 1. Pediatr Neurol. 2004;30:54-6 pubmed
    ..Neuroimaging was consistent with cervical myelitis, and cerebrospinal fluid polymerase chain reaction was positive for herpesvirus-1...

More Information

Publications64

  1. Benavides J, Fuertes M, Garcia Pariente C, Ferreras M, García Marín J, Perez V. Natural cases of visna in sheep with myelitis as the sole lesion in the central nervous system. J Comp Pathol. 2006;134:219-30 pubmed
    Of 118 sheep with visna, 12 showed myelitis as the only nervous lesion. They were ovine lentivirus (OvLV)-seropositive and provirus DNA was demonstrated by LTR-PCR in all the samples with lesions...
  2. Kamei T, Hashimoto S, Kawado M, Seko R, Ujihira T, Konagaya M, et al. Activities of daily living, functional capacity, and life satisfaction of subacute myelo-optico-neuropathy patients in Japan. J Epidemiol. 2009;19:28-33 pubmed
    ..However, the effects of these neurological symptoms on functional capacity and life satisfaction have not been reported...
  3. Wasay M, Arif H, Khealani B, Ahsan H. Neuroimaging of tuberculous myelitis: analysis of ten cases and review of literature. J Neuroimaging. 2006;16:197-205 pubmed
    We retrospectively reviewed the clinical and neuroimaging features of 10 patients with tuberculous myelitis. The most common presenting symptoms were fever (70%) and paraplegia (60%)...
  4. Sejvar J, Kohl K, Bilynsky R, Blumberg D, Cvetkovich T, Galama J, et al. Encephalitis, myelitis, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM): case definitions and guidelines for collection, analysis, and presentation of immunization safety data. Vaccine. 2007;25:5771-92 pubmed
  5. Schulze Beerhorst K, Klein B, Oelerich M, Rieke K. [The rare coincidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome and myelitis]. Nervenarzt. 2007;78:445-50 pubmed
    ..The MRI showed increased signals in the whole spinal cord which were identified as myelitis after review of clinical and neurophysiologic findings...
  6. Gajofatto A, Monaco S, Fiorini M, Zanusso G, Vedovello M, Rossi F, et al. Assessment of outcome predictors in first-episode acute myelitis: a retrospective study of 53 cases. Arch Neurol. 2010;67:724-30 pubmed publisher
    To identify predictors of short- and long-term outcomes in acute myelitis (AM).
  7. Ravaglia S, Bogdanov E, Pichiecchio A, Bergamaschi R, Moglia A, Mikhaylov I. Pathogenetic role of myelitis for syringomyelia. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2007;109:541-6 pubmed
    ..Recently proposed theories underline, even in the event of CSF-flow obstructions, a major role for the accumulation and final coalescence of interstitial spinal fluid, rather than CSF penetration through the spinal cord...
  8. Osoegawa M. [Diagnosis and treatment of CNS parasite infection with special reference to parasitic myelitis]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 2004;44:961-4 pubmed
    ..suum/T. canis visceral larvae migrans. Recently we experienced 7 cases with myelitis caused by visceral larva migrans due to A. suum/T. canis (parasite myelitis)...
  9. Yanagawa K, Kawachi I, Toyoshima Y, Yokoseki A, Arakawa M, Hasegawa A, et al. Pathologic and immunologic profiles of a limited form of neuromyelitis optica with myelitis. Neurology. 2009;73:1628-37 pubmed publisher
    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a demyelinating syndrome characterized by myelitis and optic neuritis...
  10. Wasay M, Channa R, Jumani M, Shabbir G, Azeemuddin M, Zafar A. Encephalitis and myelitis associated with dengue viral infection clinical and neuroimaging features. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2008;110:635-40 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this study was to identify clinical and neuroimaging features and outcome of patients with encephalitis and myelitis associated with dengue viral infection.
  11. Outteryck O, Baille G, Hodel J, Giroux M, Lacour A, Honnorat J, et al. Extensive myelitis associated with anti-NMDA receptor antibodies. BMC Neurol. 2013;13:211 pubmed publisher
    ..Encephalitis with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibodies (anti-NMDAR-Ab) is a rapid-onset encephalitis including psychosis, seizures, various movement disorders and autonomic system disturbances...
  12. Aberle J, Kluwe J, Pawlas F, Stellbrink H, Greten H. Severe myelitis following infection with Campylobacter enteritis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2004;23:134-5 pubmed
  13. Inukai A, Katayama T, Kenjo M, Yokokawa Y, Aiba I, Saito Y. [A patient with myelitis of varicella-zoster without skin lesions--diagnostic value of virus antibody index in CSF]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 2010;50:634-40 pubmed
    ..This finding prompted us to a diagnosis of myelitis of zoster sine herpete...
  14. Osoegawa M, Ochi H, Kikuchi H, Shirabe S, Nagashima T, Tsumoto T, et al. Eosinophilic myelitis associated with atopic diathesis: a combined neuroimaging and histopathological study. Acta Neuropathol. 2003;105:289-95 pubmed
    Histologically proven eosinophilic myelitis has rarely been reported except in connection with parasitism...
  15. Kulkarni G, Pal P, Veena Kumari H, Goyal M, Kovoor J, Nadig S, et al. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pyomyositis with myelitis: A rare occurrence with diverse presentation. Neurol India. 2009;57:653-6 pubmed publisher
    ..report brings out the diverse clinical manifestations of MRSA infection in the form of paraspinal pyomyositis, myelitis, spinal osteomyelitis, and pneumonia. Molecular typing of the organism confirmed the diagnosis...
  16. Bunyaratavej K, Pongpunlert W, Jongwutiwes S, Likitnukul S. Spinal gnathostomiasis resembling an intrinsic cord tumor/myelitis in a 4-year-old boy. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2008;39:800-3 pubmed
    ..The tentative diagnosis was acute hemorrhage of an intrinsic cord tumor versus acute myelitis. Intravenous dexamethasone was administered which resulted in a slight improvement in strength...
  17. Nikakis P, Koutsis G, Potagas C, Mandellos D, Sfagos C. Occipital neuralgia as an isolated symptom of C2 myelitis. Headache. 2006;46:1304-6 pubmed
    ..with an isolated occipital neuralgia and was found on further investigation to have a restricted, isolated myelitis at C2 level...
  18. Lee J, Kim B, Lee S, Jeung Y, Oh M, Park M, et al. Toxocariasis might be an important cause of atopic myelitis in Korea. J Korean Med Sci. 2009;24:1024-30 pubmed publisher
    Atopic myelitis is defined as myelitis with atopic diasthesis but the cause is still unknown. Toxocariasis is one of the common causes of hyperIgEaemia that may lead to neurologic manifestations...
  19. Tanaka M, Matsushita T, Tateishi T, Ochi H, Kawano Y, Mei F, et al. Distinct CSF cytokine/chemokine profiles in atopic myelitis and other causes of myelitis. Neurology. 2008;71:974-81 pubmed publisher
    We reported the emergence of a distinct myelitis in patients with atopic diathesis (atopic myelitis [AM]) by a nationwide survey throughout Japan. Similar cases have recently been reported in Caucasians...
  20. Goicochea M, Romero C, Leston J. Occipital neuralgia with cervical myelitis. Cephalalgia. 2008;28:567-8 pubmed publisher
  21. Isobe N, Kanamori Y, Yonekawa T, Matsushita T, Shigeto H, Kawamura N, et al. First diagnostic criteria for atopic myelitis with special reference to discrimination from myelitis-onset multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Sci. 2012;316:30-5 pubmed publisher
    To establish the first evidence-based diagnostic criteria for atopic myelitis (AM) enabling it to be discriminated from myelitis-onset multiple sclerosis (MS), which is a difficult differential diagnosis.
  22. Shimizu Y, Yokoyama K, Misu T, Takahashi T, Fujihara K, Kikuchi S, et al. Development of extensive brain lesions following interferon beta therapy in relapsing neuromyelitis optica and longitudinally extensive myelitis. J Neurol. 2008;255:305-7 pubmed
  23. Kohsaka M, Tanaka M, Tahara M, Araki Y, Mori S, Konishi T. [A case of subacute myelitis with anti-aquaporin 4 antibody after thymectomy for myasthenia gravis: review of autoimmune diseases after thymectomy]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 2010;50:111-3 pubmed
    ..woman with myasthenia gravis (MG) and Basedow's disease who seven years after thymectomy developed subacute myelitis, a limited form of neuromyelitis optica (NMO)...
  24. Chen H, Lai J, Juan C, Kuo S, Chen C, Chang D. Longitudinal myelitis as an initial manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus. Am J Med Sci. 2004;327:105-8 pubmed
    Transverse myelitis is a rare and serious complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A longitudinal involvement of the spinal cord with lupus-related transverse myelitis is more unusual. Only 7 cases have been reported...
  25. Roos K. West Nile encephalitis and myelitis. Curr Opin Neurol. 2004;17:343-6 pubmed
    This article will review the recent experience with West Nile virus encephalitis and myelitis.
  26. Lehnhardt F, Scheid C, Holtik U, Burghaus L, Neveling M, Impekoven P, et al. Autologous blood stem cell transplantation in refractory systemic lupus erythematodes with recurrent longitudinal myelitis and cerebral infarction. Lupus. 2006;15:240-3 pubmed
    ..a 19-year old woman with neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematodes (NPSLE) presenting with acute longitudinal myelitis and aseptic meningitis...
  27. Osoegawa M, Ochi H, Minohara M, Murai H, Umehara F, Furuya H, et al. Myelitis with atopic diathesis: a nationwide survey of 79 cases in Japan. J Neurol Sci. 2003;209:5-11 pubmed
    We recently reported the occurrence of myelitis in patients with atopic disorders and its pathology to be eosinophilic inflammation...
  28. Jabbour R, Kanj S, Sawaya R, Awar G, Hourani M, Atweh S. Toxocara canis myelitis: clinical features, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, and treatment outcome in 17 patients. Medicine (Baltimore). 2011;90:337-43 pubmed publisher
    Toxocara myelitis is a rare disease. Few cases have been reported in the literature...
  29. Satoh J, Yukitake M, Kurohara K, Takashima H, Kuroda Y. Detection of the 14-3-3 protein in the cerebrospinal fluid of Japanese multiple sclerosis patients presenting with severe myelitis. J Neurol Sci. 2003;212:11-20 pubmed
    ..in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of prion-unrelated neurological diseases, such as meningoencephalitis and myelitis. To investigate the possible association between the amounts of the 14-3-3 protein in the CSF and the clinical ..
  30. Dauriac Le Masson V, Chochon F, Demeret S, Pierrot Deseilligny C. Toxocara canis meningomyelitis. J Neurol. 2005;252:1267-8 pubmed
  31. Bombeiro A, D Império Lima M, Chadi G, Alvarez J. Neurodegeneration and increased production of nitrotyrosine, nitric oxide synthase, IFN-gamma and S100beta protein in the spinal cord of IL-12p40-deficient mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Neuroimmunomodulation. 2010;17:67-78 pubmed publisher
    ..In the current work, we studied the expression of NO, interferon (IFN)-gamma and S100beta in the spinal cord tissue of IL-12p40KO mice infected with T. cruzi, a model of neurodegenerative process...
  32. Takahashi Fujigasaki J, Takagi S, Sakamoto T, Inoue K. Spinal cord biopsy findings of anti-aquaporin-4 antibody-negative recurrent longitudinal myelitis in a patient with sicca symptoms and hepatitis C viral infection. Neuropathology. 2009;29:472-9 pubmed publisher
    ..of a spinal cord biopsy from a 69-year-old woman with anti-aquaporin-4 antibody-negative recurrent longitudinal myelitis. Spinal cord MRI showed T2 high-intensity lesions with strong gadolinium enhancement, when episodes of sensory-..
  33. Aktipi K, Ravaglia S, Ceroni M, Nemni R, Debiaggi M, Bastianello S, et al. Severe recurrent myelitis in patients with hepatitis C virus infection. Neurology. 2007;68:468-9 pubmed
  34. Nagayoshi M, Takahashi M, Saeki S, Hachisuka K. Disability and lifestyle of subacute myelo-optico-neuropathy and stroke patients and elderly persons living at home: A comparison of the Barthel Index score and the Frenchay Activities Index score. J UOEH. 2007;29:407-15 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the scores of the BI and FAI differentiated the features of disability and lifestyle of the SMON patients from those of stroke patients and elderly persons...
  35. Kincaid O, Lipton H. Viral myelitis: an update. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2006;6:469-74 pubmed
    ..Acute viral myelitis can present as acute flaccid paralysis (poliomyelitis) or neurologic dysfunction due to involvement of the white ..
  36. Ben Abdelhafidh N, Battikh R, Laabidi J, M sadek F, Ajili F, Ben Moussa M, et al. [Cytomegalovirus myelitis in immunocompetent adult]. Rev Med Interne. 2006;27:883-5 pubmed
    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection occurs in 40 to 100% of general population. It is often asymptomatic in immunocompetent subject but may induce neurological syndromes such as encephalitis and myelitis.
  37. Sakakibara R, Yamanishi T, Uchiyama T, Hattori T. Acute urinary retention due to benign inflammatory nervous diseases. J Neurol. 2006;253:1103-10 pubmed
    ..Clinical features of sacral herpes or MRS differ markedly from those of the original "Elsberg syndrome" cases...
  38. Kunishige M, Mitsui T, Tan B, Leong H, Takasaki T, Kurane I, et al. Preferential gray matter involvement in dengue myelitis. Neurology. 2004;63:1980-1 pubmed
  39. Lan H, Chen D, Chen C, Lan J, Hsieh C. Combination of transverse myelitis and arachnoiditis in cauda equina syndrome of long-standing ankylosing spondylitis: MRI features and its role in clinical management. Clin Rheumatol. 2007;26:1963-7 pubmed
    ..We report a patient of CES-AS in whom MRI disclosed acute transverse myelitis and arachnoiditis along the lower spinal cord, and discuss the pathogenesis of CES-AS and the role of MRI in ..
  40. Schittone S, Dionne K, Tyler K, Clarke P. Activation of innate immune responses in the central nervous system during reovirus myelitis. J Virol. 2012;86:8107-18 pubmed publisher
    ..of the murine spinal cord (SC) was used as a model system to investigate innate immune responses during viral myelitis, including the activation of glia (microglia and astrocytes) and interferon (IFN) signaling and increased ..
  41. Pina M, Ara J, Capablo J, Omenaca M. [Myelitis and optic neuritis caused by varicella]. Rev Neurol. 1997;25:1575-6 pubmed
    ..caused by the Varicella-Zoster virus are infrequent and include: meningitis, encephalitis, cerebellar ataxia, Reye's syndrome, myelitis, optic neuritis, mononeuropathy, polyneuropathy, necrosis of the retina and cerebral arteritis.
  42. Kastenbauer S, Winkler F, Fesl G, Schiel X, Ostermann H, Yousry T, et al. Acute severe spinal cord dysfunction in bacterial meningitis in adults: MRI findings suggest extensive myelitis. Arch Neurol. 2001;58:806-10 pubmed
    Bacterial meningitis is rarely complicated by acute spinal cord involvement (eg, myelitis, ischemic infarction, spinal abscess, or epidural hemorrhage)...
  43. Shen W, Tsai C, Chiu H, Chow K. MRI of Enterovirus 71 myelitis with monoplegia. Neuroradiology. 2000;42:124-7 pubmed
    ..Although the MRI findings and sites of these lesions were similar to those of poliovirus-associated poliomyelitis, the virological data indicated that these boys were infected with enterovirus type 71...
  44. Lucas D, Kennedy A, Dob D. Dural puncture and iatrogenic pneumocephalus with subsequent transverse myelitis in a parturient. Can J Anaesth. 2000;47:1103-6 pubmed
    To report a case of transverse myelitis following inadvertent dural puncture and iatrogenic pneumocephalus and any possible causal relationship is explored.
  45. Kikuchi H, Osoegawa M, Ochi H, Murai H, Horiuchi I, Takahashi H, et al. Spinal cord lesions of myelitis with hyperIgEemia and mite antigen specific IgE (atopic myelitis) manifest eosinophilic inflammation. J Neurol Sci. 2001;183:73-8 pubmed
    We report the neuropathological findings of spinal cord specimens obtained from two patients who had localized myelitis with hyperIgEemia and mite antigen specific IgE (atopic myelitis)...
  46. Kira J, Horiuchi I, Suzuki J, Osoegawa M, Tobimatsu S, Murai H, et al. Myelitis associated with atopic disorders in Japan: a retrospective clinical study of the past 20 years. Intern Med. 2001;40:613-9 pubmed
    To clarify the clinical features of myelitis associated with atopic disorders in Japanese patients.
  47. Ochi H, Wu X, Osoegawa M, Horiuchi I, Minohara M, Murai H, et al. Tc1/Tc2 and Th1/Th2 balance in Asian and Western types of multiple sclerosis, HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis and hyperIgEaemic myelitis. J Neuroimmunol. 2001;119:297-305 pubmed
    ..virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and 17 with hyperIgEaemic myelitis. Twenty-two healthy subjects were also examined as controls...
  48. Karacostas D, Christodoulou C, Drevelengas A, Paschalidou M, Ioannides P, Constantinou A, et al. Cytomegalovirus-associated transverse myelitis in a non-immunocompromised patient. Spinal Cord. 2002;40:145-9 pubmed
    ..Single case report...
  49. Antunes N, Wolden S, Souweidane M, Lis E, Rosenblum M, Steinherz P. Radiation myelitis in a 5-year-old girl. J Child Neurol. 2002;17:217-9 pubmed
    ..This case suggests that patients who develop neurologic dysfunction when treated with methotrexate can also be particularly susceptible to radiation-related injury...
  50. Haran M, Jenney A, Keenan R, Flavell H, Anstey N, Currie B. Paraplegia secondary to Burkholderia pseudomallei myelitis: a case report. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2001;82:1630-2 pubmed
    ..A 42-year-old Aboriginal man presented to a remote health clinic in northern Australia with myelitis associated with Burkholderia pseudomallei...
  51. Kira J. Atopy and neural damage. Intern Med. 2002;41:169-74 pubmed
    The occurrence of myelitis with atopic diathesis (atopic myelitis) affecting young adults has recently been noted in Japan...
  52. Pannu R, Barbosa E, Singh A, Singh I. Attenuation of acute inflammatory response by atorvastatin after spinal cord injury in rats. J Neurosci Res. 2005;79:340-50 pubmed
    ..13 +/- 0.53) than did untreated rats (9.04 +/- 1.22). This study therefore reports the beneficial effect of atorvastatin for the treatment of SCI-related pathology and disability. ..
  53. Weckbach S. Whole-body MRI for inflammatory arthritis and other multifocal rheumatoid diseases. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2012;16:377-88 pubmed publisher
    ..WBMRI is particularly useful for studying internal organ involvement, especially the brain, heart, and lungs in connective tissue diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus in one whole-body exam. ..
  54. Rivera Arconada I, Lopez Garcia J. Changes in membrane excitability and potassium currents in sensitized dorsal horn neurons of mice pups. J Neurosci. 2010;30:5376-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The decreased excitability observed after long-term inflammation is interpreted as a homeostatic correction to an abnormal state of synaptic activity...
  55. Mygland A, Trydal T, Vinje B, Vedeler C. Isoelectric focusing is superior to immunofixation electrophoresis in diagnosing CNS inflammation. Acta Neurol Scand. 2007;115:122-5 pubmed
    ..A sensitive method to detect intrathecal IgG production is important in diagnosing inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS)...