gray matter


Summary: Region of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that appears darker in color than the other type, WHITE MATTER. It is composed of neuronal CELL BODIES; NEUROPIL; GLIAL CELLS and CAPILLARIES but few MYELINATED NERVE FIBERS.

Top Publications

  1. Ash S, Jester C, York C, Kofman O, Langey R, Halpin A, et al. Longitudinal decline in speech production in Parkinson's disease spectrum disorders. Brain Lang. 2017;171:42-51 pubmed publisher
    ..with MRI scans (n=11) revealed that impaired language performance at Time 2 was associated with reduced gray matter (GM) volume at Time 1 in regions of interest important for language functioning but not with reduced GM volume ..
  2. Barnes S, Sawiak S, Caprioli D, Jupp B, Buonincontri G, Mar A, et al. Impaired limbic cortico-striatal structure and sustained visual attention in a rodent model of schizophrenia. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2014;18: pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, PCP exposure resulted in dissociable impairments in attentional function. ..
  3. Medaglia J, Huang W, Segarra S, Olm C, Gee J, Grossman M, et al. Brain network efficiency is influenced by the pathologic source of corticobasal syndrome. Neurology. 2017;89:1373-1381 pubmed publisher
    ..Using structural MRI data, we identify association areas in fronto-temporo-parietal cortex with reduced gray matter density in corticobasal syndrome (n = 40) relative to age-matched controls (n = 40)...
  4. van der Plas E, Schachar R, Hitzler J, Crosbie J, Guger S, Spiegler B, et al. Brain structure, working memory and response inhibition in childhood leukemia survivors. Brain Behav. 2017;7:e00621 pubmed publisher
    ..We performed MRI measurements of white and gray matter volume to explore how variation in brain structure may be related to cognitive abilities in ALL survivors and ..
  5. Rosso A, Verghese J, Metti A, Boudreau R, Aizenstein H, Kritchevsky S, et al. Slowing gait and risk for cognitive impairment: The hippocampus as a shared neural substrate. Neurology. 2017;89:336-342 pubmed publisher
    ..n = 175, mean age 73 years, 57% female, 65% white) with repeated measures of gait speed over 14 years, MRI for gray matter volume (GMV) at year 10 or 11, and adjudicated cognitive status at year 14...
  6. Righart R, Schmidt P, Dahnke R, Biberacher V, Beer A, Buck D, et al. Volume versus surface-based cortical thickness measurements: A comparative study with healthy controls and multiple sclerosis patients. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0179590 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that, for the analysis of cortical thickness, the volume-based CAT tool can be regarded a considerable alternative to the well-established surface-based FreeSurfer tool. ..
  7. Akaishi T, Nakashima I, Mugikura S, Aoki M, Fujihara K. Whole brain and grey matter volume of Japanese patients with multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimmunol. 2017;306:68-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients with progressive MS showed severer atrophy. We show the existence of pathological brain atrophy in Japanese MS patients for the first time, although the rate of atrophy may be much slower than in Caucasian patients. ..
  8. Kim G, Kim Y, Jeong G. Whole brain volume changes and its correlation with clinical symptom severity in patients with schizophrenia: A DARTEL-based VBM study. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0177251 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume alterations in whole-brain structures in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), and further to assess ..
  9. Lansdall C, Coyle Gilchrist I, Jones P, Vázquez Rodríguez P, Wilcox A, Wehmann E, et al. Apathy and impulsivity in frontotemporal lobar degeneration syndromes. Brain. 2017;140:1792-1807 pubmed publisher
    ..The separation of objective tests from subjective questionnaires, and patient from carer ratings, has important implications for clinical trial design.awx101media15448041163001. ..

More Information


  1. Takeuchi H, Kawashima R. [Voxel-Based Morphometry and Cognitive Function]. Brain Nerve. 2017;69:547-556 pubmed publisher
    ..These patterns of results suggest the difficulty in finding the specific neural bases that underlie individual cognitive functions through VBM. ..
  2. Matsuo K. [Neural Mechanism of Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Disorder in Voxel-Based Morphometric Studies]. Brain Nerve. 2017;69:519-527 pubmed publisher
    ..of voxel-based morphometric (VBM) studies has been accumulated, and patients with both disorders show small gray matter volumes in the anterior cingulate, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, insula, and regions related to emotion ..
  3. Friedrichs Maeder C, Griffa A, Schneider J, Hüppi P, Truttmann A, Hagmann P. Exploring the role of white matter connectivity in cortex maturation. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0177466 pubmed publisher
    The maturation of the cortical gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) are described as sequential processes following multiple, but distinct rules...
  4. Aubert Broche B, Weier K, Longoni G, Fonov V, Bar Or A, Marrie R, et al. Monophasic demyelination reduces brain growth in children. Neurology. 2017;88:1744-1750 pubmed publisher
    ..Cortical gray matter volumes were not reduced at onset but demonstrated reduced age-expected growth afterwards in all groups...
  5. Kuroki N, Kashiwagi H, Ota M, Ishikawa M, Kunugi H, Sato N, et al. Brain structure differences among male schizophrenic patients with history of serious violent acts: an MRI voxel-based morphometric study. BMC Psychiatry. 2017;17:105 pubmed publisher
    ..T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with voxel-based morphometry was used to assess gray matter volume...
  6. Lewis M, Du G, Lee E, Nasralah Z, Sterling N, Zhang L, et al. The pattern of gray matter atrophy in Parkinson's disease differs in cortical and subcortical regions. J Neurol. 2016;263:68-75 pubmed publisher
    Cortical and subcortical gray matter (GM) atrophy may progress differently during the course of Parkinson's disease (PD). We delineated and compared the longitudinal pattern of these PD-related changes...
  7. Masuda H, Hirano S, Takahashi N, Hatsugano E, Uzawa A, Uchida T, et al. Comparison of cognitive and brain grey matter volume profiles between multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0184012 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite being younger, MS patients demonstrated worse performance in certain cognitive variables than NMOSD patients, which might be associated with left STG GM volume loss. ..
  8. Pagnozzi A, Dowson N, Doecke J, Fiori S, Bradley A, Boyd R, et al. Identifying relevant biomarkers of brain injury from structural MRI: Validation using automated approaches in children with unilateral cerebral palsy. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0181605 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the strong and significant association between quantifications of injury observed on structural MRI and multiple clinical scores accord with empirically established structure-function relationships. ..
  9. Mueller K, Horstmann A, MOLLER H, Anwander A, Lepsien J, Schroeter M, et al. Obesity Associated Cerebral Gray and White Matter Alterations Are Interrelated in the Female Brain. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e114206 pubmed publisher
    Obesity is known to affect the brain's gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) structure but the interrelationship of such changes remains unclear...
  10. Dietsche B, Kircher T, Falkenberg I. Structural brain changes in schizophrenia at different stages of the illness: A selective review of longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging studies. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2017;51:500-508 pubmed publisher
    ..1) Studies from pre-clinical stages to conversion showed a more pronounced cortical gray matter loss (i.e...
  11. Mano H, Yoshida W, Shibata K, Zhang S, Koltzenburg M, Kawato M, et al. Thermosensory Perceptual Learning Is Associated with Structural Brain Changes in Parietal-Opercular (SII) Cortex. J Neurosci. 2017;37:9380-9388 pubmed publisher
    ..imaging to look for plastic changes associated with perceptual learning, we identified symmetrical increases in gray matter volume in the SII cortex...
  12. Nemoto K. [Understanding Voxel-Based Morphometry]. Brain Nerve. 2017;69:505-511 pubmed publisher
    ..Those who utilize VBM must pay attention to the choice of VBM algorithm, as data interpretation differs with each algorithm. ..
  13. Sandhya G, Babu Kande G, Savithri T. Multilevel Thresholding Method Based on Electromagnetism for Accurate Brain MRI Segmentation to Detect White Matter, Gray Matter, and CSF. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:6783209 pubmed publisher
    ..on the phenomenon of Electromagnetism and it segments the image into three tissues such as White Matter (WM), Gray Matter (GM), and CSF...
  14. Miller T, Chong T, Aimola Davies A, Ng T, Johnson M, Irani S, et al. Focal CA3 hippocampal subfield atrophy following LGI1 VGKC-complex antibody limbic encephalitis. Brain. 2017;140:1212-1219 pubmed publisher
  15. Palaniyappan L. Progressive cortical reorganisation: A framework for investigating structural changes in schizophrenia. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2017;79:1-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Quantifying cortical reorganization in the early stages of illness can enable prospective grading of the underlying pathophysiological process in schizophrenia. ..
  16. Rocca M, Sormani M, Rovaris M, Caputo D, Ghezzi A, Montanari E, et al. Long-term disability progression in primary progressive multiple sclerosis: a 15-year study. Brain. 2017;140:2814-2819 pubmed publisher
    ..6%). Integration of clinical and imaging measures allows identification of primary progressive multiple sclerosis patients at risk of long-term disease progression 4 years earlier than when using clinical assessment alone...
  17. Vilà Balló A, Mas Herrero E, Ripollés P, Simó M, Miró J, Cucurell D, et al. Unraveling the Role of the Hippocampus in Reversal Learning. J Neurosci. 2017;37:6686-6697 pubmed publisher
    ..strategies in reversal learning, we first studied, in 20 healthy individuals (11 women), whether the gray matter anatomy and volume of the hippocampus were related to anticipatory strategies in a reversal learning task...
  18. Freedman B, Sink K, Hugenschmidt C, Hughes T, Williamson J, Whitlow C, et al. Associations of Early Kidney Disease With Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Cognitive Function in African Americans With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Am J Kidney Dis. 2017;70:627-637 pubmed publisher
    ..eGFR (CKD-EPI creatinine equation), spot UACR. MRI-based cerebral white matter volume (WMV), gray matter volume (GMV), and white matter lesion volume; cognitive performance (Mini-Mental State Examination, Digit ..
  19. Hilbert K, Lueken U, Muehlhan M, Beesdo Baum K. Separating generalized anxiety disorder from major depression using clinical, hormonal, and structural MRI data: A multimodal machine learning study. Brain Behav. 2017;7:e00633 pubmed publisher
  20. Grundy J, Anderson J, Bialystok E. Neural correlates of cognitive processing in monolinguals and bilinguals. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2017;1396:183-201 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared with monolinguals, bilinguals generally show greater gray matter volume, especially in perceptual/motor regions, greater white matter integrity, and greater functional ..
  21. Sârbu N, Toledano P, Calvo A, Roura E, Sarbu M, Espinosa G, et al. Advanced MRI techniques: biomarkers in neuropsychiatric lupus. Lupus. 2017;26:510-516 pubmed publisher
    ..and Freesurfer to measure brain volume, plus diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) to assess white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM) damage. We compared the groups and correlated MRI abnormalities with clinical data...
  22. Saarela C, Joutsa J, Laine M, Parkkola R, Rinne J, Karrasch M. Regional gray matter correlates of memory for emotion-laden words in middle-aged and older adults: A voxel-based morphometry study. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182541 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous research on local gray matter correlates of emotional memory in older populations has mainly been conducted with patients suffering from ..
  23. Bernstein H, Steiner J, Dobrowolny H, Bogerts B. ZNF804A protein is widely expressed in human brain neurons: possible implications on normal brain structure and pathomorphologic changes in schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull. 2014;40:499-500 pubmed publisher
  24. Gennatas E, Avants B, Wolf D, Satterthwaite T, Ruparel K, Ciric R, et al. Age-Related Effects and Sex Differences in Gray Matter Density, Volume, Mass, and Cortical Thickness from Childhood to Young Adulthood. J Neurosci. 2017;37:5065-5073 pubmed publisher
    Developmental structural neuroimaging studies in humans have long described decreases in gray matter volume (GMV) and cortical thickness (CT) during adolescence...
  25. Pelletier A, Bernard C, Dilharreguy B, Helmer C, Le Goff M, Chanraud S, et al. Patterns of brain atrophy associated with episodic memory and semantic fluency decline in aging. Aging (Albany NY). 2017;9:741-752 pubmed publisher
  26. Baldinger P, Höflich A, Mitterhauser M, Hahn A, Rami Mark C, Spies M, et al. Effects of Silexan on the serotonin-1A receptor and microstructure of the human brain: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over study with molecular and structural neuroimaging. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2014;18: pubmed publisher
    ..magnetic resonance imaging and voxel-based morphometry analysis was performed to determine potential effects on gray matter microstructure...
  27. Samra K, Boon I, Packer G, Jacob S. Lethal high: acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) triggered by toxic effect of synthetic cannabinoid black mamba. BMJ Case Rep. 2017;2017: pubmed publisher
    ..The patient made a slow but significant recovery after a course of intravenous methylprednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulins and oral steroids, and was later transferred to a rehabilitation bed. ..
  28. Cruz Almeida Y, Rosso A, Marcum Z, Harris T, Newman A, Nevitt M, et al. Associations of Musculoskeletal Pain With Mobility in Older Adults: Potential Cerebral Mechanisms. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2017;72:1270-1276 pubmed publisher
    ..Microstructural gray matter integrity was measured by mean diffusivity (MD), WM microstructure and macrostructure were measured by ..
  29. Annus T, Wilson L, Acosta Cabronero J, Cárdenas Blanco A, Hong Y, Fryer T, et al. The Down syndrome brain in the presence and absence of fibrillar β-amyloidosis. Neurobiol Aging. 2017;53:11-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Age-matched controls (n = 30) underwent structural imaging. Group differences in deep gray matter volumetry and cortical thickness were studied...
  30. Ge Q, Peng W, Zhang J, Weng X, Zhang Y, Liu T, et al. Short-term apparent brain tissue changes are contributed by cerebral blood flow alterations. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182182 pubmed publisher
    ..These data clearly proved existence of the perfusion contribution to short-term ATC, and suggested a need for correcting perfusion changes in longitudinal T1-weighted structural MRI analysis if a short-term design is used. ..
  31. Ranasinghe K, Hinkley L, Beagle A, Mizuiri D, Honma S, Welch A, et al. Distinct spatiotemporal patterns of neuronal functional connectivity in primary progressive aphasia variants. Brain. 2017;140:2737-2751 pubmed publisher
    ..The unique spatiotemporal patterns of neuronal synchrony signify diverse neurophysiological disruptions and pathological underpinnings of the language network in each variant...
  32. Park B, Choi B, Sung Y, Woo D, Shim W, Kim K, et al. Influence of B1-Inhomogeneity on Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI: A Simulation Study. Korean J Radiol. 2017;18:585-596 pubmed publisher
    ..The 95% CIs of FA-dependent % errors in the gray matter and blood were as follows: -16.7-61.8% and -16.7-61.8% for the pre-contrast R1, -1.0-0.3% and -5.2-1...
  33. Cho H, Baek M, Choi J, Lee S, Kim J, Ryu Y, et al. 18F-AV-1451 binds to motor-related subcortical gray and white matter in corticobasal syndrome. Neurology. 2017;89:1170-1178 pubmed publisher
  34. Stellmann J, Cetin H, Young K, Hodecker S, Pöttgen J, Bittersohl D, et al. Pattern of gray matter volumes related to retinal thickness and its association with cognitive function in relapsing-remitting MS. Brain Behav. 2017;7:e00614 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, OCT should be further investigated as a marker for neurodegeneration in MS. ..
  35. Roberts B, Lind M, Wagen A, Rembach A, Frugier T, Li Q, et al. Biochemically-defined pools of amyloid-? in sporadic Alzheimer's disease: correlation with amyloid PET. Brain. 2017;140:1486-1498 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding these rates of amyloid-? accumulation allows for a more quantitative approach in targeting the failure of amyloid-? clearance in sporadic Alzheimer's disease. ..
  36. Koppelmans V, Bloomberg J, De Dios Y, Wood S, Reuter Lorenz P, Kofman I, et al. Brain plasticity and sensorimotor deterioration as a function of 70 days head down tilt bed rest. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182236 pubmed publisher
    ..We conducted a 70-day 6° HDBR study with 18 right-handed males to investigate how microgravity affects focal gray matter (GM) brain volume. MRI data were collected at 7 time points before, during and post-HDBR...
  37. García García R, Cruz Gómez Á, Mangas Losada A, Urios A, Forn C, Escudero García D, et al. Reduced resting state connectivity and gray matter volume correlate with cognitive impairment in minimal hepatic encephalopathy. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0186463 pubmed publisher
    ..We assessed the relationship of the abnormalities of resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) and gray matter (GM) volume with different cognitive alterations and biochemical parameters associated to MHE.
  38. Gellersen H, Guo C, O Callaghan C, Tan R, Sami S, Hornberger M. Cerebellar atrophy in neurodegeneration-a meta-analysis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2017;88:780-788 pubmed publisher
    ..High clinical variability in PD and HD samples may explain the absence of findings for consistent grey matter loss across studies. Our results have clinical implications for diagnosis and cerebellar neuroimaging referencing approaches. ..
  39. Vidorreta M, Wang Z, Chang Y, Wolk D, Fernandez Seara M, Detre J. Whole-brain background-suppressed pCASL MRI with 1D-accelerated 3D RARE Stack-Of-Spirals readout. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0183762 pubmed publisher
    ..The sequence is freely available upon request for academic use and could benefit a broad range of cognitive and clinical neuroscience research. ..
  40. Papma J, Jiskoot L, Panman J, Dopper E, den Heijer T, Donker Kaat L, et al. Cognition and gray and white matter characteristics of presymptomatic C9orf72 repeat expansion. Neurology. 2017;89:1256-1264 pubmed publisher
    To investigate cognitive function, gray matter volume, and white matter integrity in the presymptomatic stage of chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 repeat expansion (C9orf72RE)...
  41. Jiang L, Liu J, Wang C, Guo J, Cheng J, Han T, et al. Structural Alterations in Chronic Capsular versus Pontine Stroke. Radiology. 2017;285:214-222 pubmed publisher
    ..The gray matter volume (GMV) of each voxel was compared among the three groups while controlling for the effects of age, sex, ..
  42. Admon R, Treadway M, Valeri L, Mehta M, Douglas S, Pizzagalli D. Distinct Trajectories of Cortisol Response to Prolonged Acute Stress Are Linked to Affective Responses and Hippocampal Gray Matter Volume in Healthy Females. J Neurosci. 2017;37:7994-8002 pubmed publisher
    ..curve) showed that high and low levels of stress-induced cortisol release were associated with less hippocampal gray matter volume compared with moderate cortisol release...
  43. Perez D, Matin N, Barsky A, Costumero Ramos V, Makaretz S, Young S, et al. Cingulo-insular structural alterations associated with psychogenic symptoms, childhood abuse and PTSD in functional neurological disorders. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2017;88:491-497 pubmed publisher
  44. Premi E, Grassi M, van Swieten J, Galimberti D, Graff C, Masellis M, et al. Cognitive reserve and TMEM106B genotype modulate brain damage in presymptomatic frontotemporal dementia: a GENFI study. Brain. 2017;140:1784-1791 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings should be considered in evaluating outcomes in future disease-modifying trials, and support the search for protective mechanisms in people at risk of dementia that might facilitate new therapeutic strategies. ..
  45. Harper L, Bouwman F, Burton E, Barkhof F, Scheltens P, O Brien J, et al. Patterns of atrophy in pathologically confirmed dementias: a voxelwise analysis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2017;88:908-916 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study are available for further examination via NeuroVault ( ..
  46. Senda J, Atsuta N, Watanabe H, Bagarinao E, Imai K, Yokoi D, et al. Structural MRI correlates of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis progression. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2017;88:901-907 pubmed publisher
  47. Strijbis E, Kooi E, van der Valk P, Geurts J. Cortical Remyelination Is Heterogeneous in Multiple Sclerosis. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2017;76:390-401 pubmed publisher
    ..Because remyelination can be extensive in CLs, we quantified remyelination in gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM), addressing oligodendrocyte (OGD) maturation state and clinical relevance of ..
  48. Makizako H, Shimada H, Doi T, Park H, Yoshida D, Uemura K, et al. Poor balance and lower gray matter volume predict falls in older adults with mild cognitive impairment. BMC Neurol. 2013;13:102 pubmed publisher
    ..The current study examined the relationship between baseline physical performance, baseline gray matter volume and falls during a 12-month follow-up period among community-dwelling older adults with MCI...
  49. Morales A, Kohno M, Robertson C, Dean A, Mandelkern M, London E. Midbrain dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability and drug craving are associated with mesocorticolimbic gray matter volume in methamphetamine users. Mol Psychiatry. 2015;20:658 pubmed publisher
  50. Mah A, Geeraert B, Lebel C. Detailing neuroanatomical development in late childhood and early adolescence using NODDI. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182340 pubmed publisher
    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have provided much evidence of white and subcortical gray matter changes during late childhood and early adolescence that suggest increasing myelination, axon density, and/or fiber coherence...
  51. Heise V, Zsoldos E, Suri S, Sexton C, Topiwala A, Filippini N, et al. Uncoupling protein 2 haplotype does not affect human brain structure and function in a sample of community-dwelling older adults. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0181392 pubmed publisher
  52. Khoo H, von Ellenrieder N, Zazubovits N, Dubeau F, Gotman J. Epileptic networks in action: Synchrony between distant hemodynamic responses. Ann Neurol. 2017;82:57-66 pubmed publisher
    ..28 patients who underwent first EEG-fMRI and then iEEG, and had significant hemodynamic responses in the gray matter. We coregistered the hemodynamic responses to the iEEG electrode contact positions and analyzed synchrony, ..
  53. Olivito G, Dayan M, Battistoni V, Clausi S, Cercignani M, Molinari M, et al. Bilateral effects of unilateral cerebellar lesions as detected by voxel based morphometry and diffusion imaging. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0180439 pubmed publisher
    ..This could be in line with the evidence that in the presence of unilateral cerebellar lesions, different cognitive functions can be affected and they are not strictly linked to the side of the cerebellar lesion. ..