esotropia

Summary

Summary: A form of ocular misalignment characterized by an excessive convergence of the visual axes, resulting in a "cross-eye" appearance. An example of this condition occurs when paralysis of the lateral rectus muscle causes an abnormal inward deviation of one eye on attempted gaze.

Top Publications

  1. Musazadeh M, Hartmann K, Simon F. Late onset esotropia as first symptom of a cerebellar tumor. Strabismus. 2004;12:119-23 pubmed
    The authors present a case with a presumed neurologic cause of late onset esotropia. The first symptom was sudden occurrence of esotropia at the age of 3 3/4 years...
  2. Yang H, Han S, Hwang J, Kim Y, Jeong C, Kim K. Assessment of binocular alignment using the three-dimensional Strabismus Photo Analyzer. Br J Ophthalmol. 2012;96:78-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Thirty-two subjects with exotropia, 30 subjects with esotropia and 38 orthotropic subjects were included...
  3. Lueder G, Norman A. Strabismus surgery for elimination of bifocals in accommodative esotropia. Am J Ophthalmol. 2006;142:632-5 pubmed
    This study reports the outcomes of strabismus surgery to eliminate bifocals in patients with accommodative esotropia with a high accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC:A) ratio. Retrospective interventional case series...
  4. Hauviller V, Gamio S, Sors M. Essential infantile esotropia in neurologically impaired pediatric patients: is botulinum toxin better primary treatment than surgery?. Binocul Vis Strabismus Q. 2007;22:221-6 pubmed
    A prospective study was performed over a 10 year period on 25 children with infantile esotropia and neurological problems to answer this question...
  5. Farahi A, Hashemi H. The effect of hyperopic laser in situ keratomileusis on refractive accommodative esotropia. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2005;15:688-94 pubmed
    To evaluate the efficacy of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for discarding spectacles and simultaneously correcting ocular alignment in patients with refractive accommodative esotropia.
  6. Brodsky M. Dissociated horizontal deviation: clinical spectrum, pathogenesis, evolutionary underpinnings, diagnosis, treatment, and potential role in the development of infantile esotropia (an American Ophthalmological Society thesis). Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 2007;105:272-93 pubmed
    ..in 28 patients who developed consecutive exotropia following horizontal extraocular muscle surgery for infantile esotropia. All patients were assessed for the presence of adduction weakness, latent nystagmus, dissociated vertical ..
  7. Lee J, Kim S, Lee J, Ryou J, Kim S. Acute comitant esotropia in a child with a cerebellar tumor. Korean J Ophthalmol. 2009;23:228-31 pubmed publisher
    We report a case of acute comitant esotropia in a child with a cerebellar tumor. A 3-year-old boy was referred for management of a 9 month history of acute acquired comitant esotropia...
  8. Mömke S, Fink S, Wohlke A, Drogemuller C, Distl O. Linkage of bilateral convergent strabismus with exophthalmus (BCSE) to BTA5 and BTA18 in German Brown cattle. Anim Genet. 2008;39:544-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, it is possible that two genes are involved in the development of BCSE. Alternatively, one of these loci could be the cause for the development of BCSE and the other locus could affect the progression and severity of the defect...
  9. Farvardin M, Rad A, Ashrafzadeh A. Results of bilateral medial rectus muscle recession in unilateral esotropic Duane syndrome. J AAPOS. 2009;13:339-42 pubmed publisher
    ..To report the results of bilateral medial rectus muscle recession in improvement of the ocular alignment and motility of patients with unilateral esotropic Duane syndrome...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Fink S, Mömke S, Wohlke A, Distl O. Genes on bovine chromosome 18 associated with bilateral convergent strabismus with exophthalmos in German Brown cattle. Mol Vis. 2008;14:1737-51 pubmed
    ..In addition, we developed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within these three candidate genes and nine other genes that are contained in this genomic BCSE-region to perform association analyses with BCSE in German Brown cattle...
  2. Mömke S, Distl O. Bilateral convergent strabismus with exophthalmus (BCSE) in cattle: an overview of clinical signs and genetic traits. Vet J. 2007;173:272-7 pubmed
    ..Comparative molecular genetic approaches could help to characterize the responsible genes for this ocular disease in cattle...
  3. Brodsky M, Fray K. Does infantile esotropia arise from a dissociated deviation?. Arch Ophthalmol. 2007;125:1703-6 pubmed
    ..When binocular visual input is preempted early in life, monocular fixation may give rise to a larger dissociated esotonus that gradually drives the 2 eyes into a "convergent" position, resulting in infantile esotropia.(2).
  4. Rutstein R. Update on accommodative esotropia. Optometry. 2008;79:422-31 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to present an update on accommodative esotropia. The diagnosis, clinical features, etiology, treatment, prognosis, and clinical course for the 3 types of accommodative esotropia are presented...
  5. Khan A, Kahn A. Cycloplegic refractions in children who never wore and who always wore prescribed spectacles for refractive accommodative esotropia: exploring the natural history of this form of strabismus and the effect of treatment on their hyperopia. Binocul Vis Strabismus Q. 2009;24:151-6 pubmed
    ..To compare cycloplegic refractions in accommodative esotropes who never and who always wore prescribed spectacles...
  6. Scott A, Miller J, Shieh K. Bupivacaine injection of the lateral rectus muscle to treat esotropia. J AAPOS. 2009;13:119-22 pubmed publisher
    ..75% to 3.0%, was injected into 1 lateral rectus muscle in each of 6 patients with comitant esotropia with the use of the electrical activity recorded from the needle tip to guide injection...
  7. Wong A. Timing of surgery for infantile esotropia: sensory and motor outcomes. Can J Ophthalmol. 2008;43:643-51 pubmed publisher
    Infantile esotropia is a common ophthalmic disorder in childhood. It is often accompanied by profound maldevelopment of stereopsis, motion processing, and eye movements, despite successful surgical realignment of the eyes...
  8. Greenberg A, Mohney B, Diehl N, Burke J. Incidence and types of childhood esotropia: a population-based study. Ophthalmology. 2007;114:170-4 pubmed
    To describe the incidence and types of childhood esotropia in a defined population. Retrospective population-based cohort...
  9. Khan A, Shinwari J, Al Sharif L, Khalil D, Al Gehedan S, Tassan N. Infantile esotropia could be oligogenic and allelic with Duane retraction syndrome. Mol Vis. 2011;17:1997-2002 pubmed
    ..01%. Three children had non-syndromic large-angle infantile esotropia without significant hyperopia. A fourth child had left esotropic Duane retraction syndrome...
  10. Rice A, Nsengimana J, Simmons I, Toomes C, Hoole J, Willoughby C, et al. Replication of the recessive STBMS1 locus but with dominant inheritance. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:3210-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of STBMS1 as a cause of primary nonsyndromic comitant esotropia (PNCE)...
  11. Cho Y, Yi S, Kim S. Clinical evaluation of cessation of hyperopia in 123 children with accommodative esotropia treated with glasses for best corrected vision. Acta Ophthalmol. 2009;87:532-7 pubmed publisher
    ..the influence of hyperopia on the esotropic angle and age at discontinuation of glasses in accommodative esotropia (AE) patients...
  12. Tychsen L. Causing and curing infantile esotropia in primates: the role of decorrelated binocular input (an American Ophthalmological Society thesis). Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 2007;105:564-93 pubmed
    Human infants at greatest risk for esotropia are those who suffer cerebral insults that could decorrelate signals from the 2 eyes during an early critical period of binocular, visuomotor development...
  13. Demirkilinç Biler E, Uretmen O, Kose S. The effect of optical correction on refractive development in children with accommodative esotropia. J AAPOS. 2010;14:305-10 pubmed publisher
    ..effects of partial or full hyperopic optical correction on refractive development in children with accommodative esotropia. Children with accommodative esotropia and hyperopia >3 D were enrolled in this prospective, nonrandomized ..
  14. Mohney B, Lilley C, Green Simms A, Diehl N. The long-term follow-up of accommodative esotropia in a population-based cohort of children. Ophthalmology. 2011;118:581-5 pubmed publisher
    To report refractive and surgical outcomes in a cohort of children with accommodative esotropia. Retrospective population-based cohort...
  15. Magli A, Iovine A, Gagliardi V, Fimiani F, Nucci P. LASIK and PRK in refractive accommodative esotropia: a retrospective study on 20 adolescent and adult patients. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2009;19:188-95 pubmed
    To evaluate the clinical results obtained with excimer laser treatment of fully refractive accommodative esotropia.
  16. Rowe F, Noonan C. Surgical treatment for progressive esotropia in the setting of high-axial myopia. J AAPOS. 2006;10:596-7 pubmed
    Acquired esotropia in association with high myopia may be secondary to displacement of the lateral rectus muscle pulley system or to the mechanical restriction due to the contact between the posterior elongated globe and the orbital apex ..
  17. Kothari M. Clinical characteristics of spontaneous late-onset comitant acute nonaccommodative esotropia in children. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2007;55:117-20 pubmed
    To describe the clinical characteristics of spontaneous, late-onset comitant acute, nonaccommodative esotropia (ANAET) in children...
  18. Gharabaghi D, Zanjani L. Comparison of results of medial rectus muscle recession using augmentation, Faden procedure, and slanted recession in the treatment of high accommodative convergence/accommodation ratio esotropia. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2006;43:91-4 pubmed
    According to the literature, accommodative esotropia has an unpredictable course when nonsurgical treatment is considered, especially in cases with a high accommodative convergence/accommodation ratio (AC/A)...
  19. Camuglia J, Walsh M, Gole G. Three horizontal muscle surgery for large-angle infantile esotropia: validation of a table of amounts of surgery. Eye (Lond). 2011;25:1435-41 pubmed publisher
    To validate a table of amounts of three horizontal muscle surgery in patients with large-angle infantile esotropia (?60 prism dioptres, PD)...
  20. Black B. The influence of refractive error management on the natural history and treatment outcome of accommodative esotropia (an American Ophthalmological Society thesis). Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 2006;104:303-21 pubmed
    To evaluate the effect of refractive error management on resolution of accommodative esotropia, deterioration of accommodative esotropia, and the natural history of hypermetropia in accommodative esotropia...
  21. Tukkers van Aalst F, Rensen C, de Graaf M, van Nieuwenhuizen O, Wittebol Post D. Assessment of psychomotor development before and after strabismus surgery for infantile esotropia. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2007;44:350-5; quiz 372-3 pubmed
    To assess motor and mental development before and after strabismus surgery in children with infantile esotropia. Mental and motor development indexes of 20 children with infantile esotropia without neurologic abnormalities and 17 age-..
  22. Hutchinson A, Serafino M, Nucci P. Photorefractive keratectomy for the treatment of purely refractive accommodative esotropia: 6 years' experience. Br J Ophthalmol. 2010;94:236-40 pubmed publisher
    ..photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) for the treatment of hyperopia associated with purely refractive accommodative esotropia. This study was a retrospective chart review of 40 patients aged 17-39 years who underwent PRK to eliminate ..
  23. Polat S, Can C, Ilhan B, Mutluay A, Zilelioglu O. Laser in situ keratomileusis for treatment of fully or partially refractive accommodative esotropia. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2009;19:733-7 pubmed
    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) in partially refractive accommodative esotropia (pRAE) and fully refractive accommodative esotropia (fRAE).
  24. Pellanda N, Mojon D. Minimally invasive strabismus surgery technique in horizontal rectus muscle surgery for esotropia. Ophthalmologica. 2010;224:67-71 pubmed publisher
    ..invasive strabismus surgery (MISS) technique in combined unilateral horizontal rectus muscle operations for esotropia. This study included 61 patients operated by one surgeon with MISS medial rectus muscle recession and lateral ..
  25. Birch E, Stager D. Long-term motor and sensory outcomes after early surgery for infantile esotropia. J AAPOS. 2006;10:409-13 pubmed
    The proper timing of surgery for infantile esotropia remains controversial. Early surgery may yield better sensory outcomes whereas later surgery may result in better alignment...
  26. Louwagie C, Diehl N, Greenberg A, Mohney B. Is the incidence of infantile esotropia declining?: a population-based study from Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1965 to 1994. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009;127:200-3 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the incidence of infantile esotropia from a defined population in the United States over a 30-year period...
  27. Park K, Kim S, Oh S. Long-term changes in refractive error in patients with accommodative esotropia. Ophthalmology. 2010;117:2196-207.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..changes in the spherical equivalent (SE) refractive error and astigmatism in Korean patients with accommodative esotropia. Retrospective cases series...
  28. Lyons C, Tiffin P, Oystreck D. Acute acquired comitant esotropia: a prospective study. Eye (Lond). 1999;13 ( Pt 5):617-20 pubmed
    To define the clinical characteristics of patients presenting with acute onset esotropia and features suggestive of possible underlying central nervous system pathology...
  29. Amitava A, Goswami A, Mishra A. Large-angle strabismus and primary true muscle transplantation. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2005;42:211-5 pubmed
    ..Three patients with large-angle esotropia, not amenable to standard recession and resection procedures, underwent primary true muscle transplantation ..
  30. Stidham D, Borissova O, Borissov V, Prager T. Effect of hyperopic laser in situ keratomileusis on ocular alignment and stereopsis in patients with accommodative esotropia. Ophthalmology. 2002;109:1148-53 pubmed
    ..effect of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) on ocular alignment and stereopsis in patients with accommodative esotropia. Retrospective, non-comparative, interventional case series. Since 1998, 27 patients (mean age, 33...
  31. Kim S, Kim S, Cho Y. Deterioration of accommodative esotropia during part-time occlusion therapy. Korean J Ophthalmol. 2005;19:77-9 pubmed
    The authors report two cases of suddenly deteriorated accommodative esotropia with amblyopia during part-time occlusion therapy...
  32. Hoyos J, Cigales M, Hoyos Chacón J, Ferrer J, Maldonado Bas A. Hyperopic laser in situ keratomileusis for refractive accommodative esotropia. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2002;28:1522-9 pubmed
    ..LASIK) in creating orthophoria without optical correction in adult patients with refractive accommodative esotropia (RAE). Instituto Oftalmológico de Sabadell, Sabadell, Barcelona, Spain...
  33. Phillips C, Prager T, McClellan G, Mintz Hittner H. Laser in situ keratomileusis for high hyperopia in awake, autofixating pediatric and adolescent patients with fully or partially accommodative esotropia. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2004;30:2124-9 pubmed
    ..adolescent patients with bilateral visual acuity of 20/30 or better and accommodative or partially accommodative esotropia. Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, University of Texas-Houston Medical School, Houston, Texas, USA...
  34. Berk A, Kocak N, Ellidokuz H. Treatment outcomes in refractive accommodative esotropia. J AAPOS. 2004;8:384-8 pubmed
    To document and compare the clinical features and functional outcomes in patients with accommodative esotropia. To assess the efficacy of conventional management of accommodative esotropia, to determine functional outcomes of amblyopia ..
  35. Clark R, Ariyasu R, Demer J. Medial rectus pulley posterior fixation is as effective as scleral posterior fixation for acquired esotropia with a high AC/A ratio. Am J Ophthalmol. 2004;137:1026-33 pubmed
    ..posterior fixation versus MR pulley posterior fixation without scleral sutures for the treatment of acquired esotropia (ET) with a high accommodative convergence over accommodation (AC/A) ratio...
  36. Birch E, Fawcett S, Stager D. Why does early surgical alignment improve stereoacuity outcomes in infantile esotropia?. J AAPOS. 2000;4:10-4 pubmed
    Recent studies of infantile esotropia suggest that early surgical alignment may enhance stereopsis and that alignment during the first 6 months of life may be optimal...
  37. Burdon K, Wilkinson R, Barbour J, Dickinson J, Stankovich J, Mackey D, et al. Investigation of albinism genes in congenital esotropia. Mol Vis. 2003;9:710-4 pubmed
    b>Esotropia is a feature of albinism. Amongst esotropic patients there may be mild unrecognised albinos. Oculocutaneous albinism shares several clinical features with congenital esotropia...
  38. Semmlow J, Putteman A, Vercher J, Gauther G, Berard P. Surgical modification of the AC/A ratio and the binocular alignment ("Phoria") at distance; its influence on accommodative esotropia: a study of 21 cases. Binocul Vis Strabismus Q. 2000;15:121-30 pubmed
    To study these changes in patients and their relation to manifestation of accommodative esotropia and response to surgery...
  39. Uretmen O, Egrilmez S, Kose S, Pamukcu K, Akkin C, Palamar M. Negative social bias against children with strabismus. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2003;81:138-42 pubmed
    ..Children with esotropia and exotropia were rated more negatively than orthotropic children on all 10 characteristics...
  40. Ingram R, Gill L, Lambert T. Emmetropisation in normal and strabismic children and the associated changes of anisometropia. Strabismus. 2003;11:71-84 pubmed
    ..We also report how often hypermetropia increased before these children presented with esotropia. A total of 2920 infants had a cycloplegic retinoscopy at age 5-7 months and again at 42 months or when ..
  41. Koc F, Ozal H, Yasar H, Firat E. Resolution in partially accomodative esotropia during occlusion treatment for amblyopia. Eye (Lond). 2006;20:325-8 pubmed
    To evaluate alignment changes in partially accommodative esotropia during occlusion treatment for amblyopia...
  42. Aoki Y, Nishida Y, Hayashi O, Nakamura J, Oda S, Yamade S, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging measurements of extraocular muscle path shift and posterior eyeball prolapse from the muscle cone in acquired esotropia with high myopia. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003;136:482-9 pubmed
    To investigate extraocular muscle (EOM) path shift and prolapse of posterior eyeball from muscle cone in acquired esotropia with high myopia (AEHM), using magnetic resonance imaging. A case-control study...
  43. Tychsen L, Scott C. Maldevelopment of convergence eye movements in macaque monkeys with small- and large-angle infantile esotropia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003;44:3358-68 pubmed
    ..monkeys, with the goal of determining whether these animals have the vergence deficits found in humans with esotropia. Physical far and near targets were used to evoke large (approximately 8 degrees) symmetric convergence eye ..
  44. Nucci P, Serafino M, Hutchinson A. Photorefractive keratectomy for the treatment of purely refractive accommodative esotropia. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2003;29:889-94 pubmed
    ..photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) for the treatment of young adult patients with purely refractive accommodative esotropia. Private practice and university hospital, Milan, Italy...
  45. Hutcheson K, Ellish N, Lambert S. Weaning children with accommodative esotropia out of spectacles: a pilot study. Br J Ophthalmol. 2003;87:4-7 pubmed
    Many children with accommodative esotropia must continue spectacle use throughout life. This study was undertaken to determine which factors are predictive of successfully weaning children with accommodative esotropia out of spectacles.
  46. Forrest M, Finnigan S, Finnigan S, Gole G. Three horizontal muscle squint surgery for large angle infantile esotropia. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2003;31:509-16 pubmed
    ..of a series of 49 patients who underwent three horizontal muscle squint surgery for large angle infantile esotropia. METHODS; The patient records were retrospectively reviewed of 49 (24 girls [49%], 25 boys) consecutive patients ..
  47. Birch E, Stager D, Berry P, Leffler J. Stereopsis and long-term stability of alignment in esotropia. J AAPOS. 2004;8:146-50 pubmed
    Recent studies of infantile and accommodative esotropia (ET) have focused on stereoacuity as a final outcome measurement for judging the success or failure of treatment...
  48. Connell B, Wilkinson R, Barbour J, Scotter L, Poulsen J, Wirth M, et al. Are Duane syndrome and infantile esotropia allelic?. Ophthalmic Genet. 2004;25:189-98 pubmed
    To evaluate the clinical overlap of families with Duane syndrome and infantile esotropia to determine whether the identification of genes for Duane syndrome may explain some cases of infantile esotropia...
  49. Ejzenbaum F, Goldchmit M, Souza Dias C. [Surgical correction of progressive high myopic esotropia by Yamada's technique: report of two cases]. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2005;68:547-50 pubmed
    quot;Progressive esotropia fixus" is a disease present in high myopic patients with a large angle esotropia associated with hypotropia with poor surgical results...
  50. Birch E. Marshall Parks lecture. Binocular sensory outcomes in accommodative ET. J AAPOS. 2003;7:369-73 pubmed
    ..maturational sequence for fusion and stereopsis and the binocular sensory deficits associated with accommodative esotropia (ET) and to explore the clues that accommodative ET provides about critical periods for binocular sensory ..
  51. Lambert S, Lynn M, Sramek J, Hutcheson K. Clinical features predictive of successfully weaning from spectacles those children with accommodative esotropia. J AAPOS. 2003;7:7-13 pubmed
    It has been reported that most children with accommodative esotropia are not able to discontinue spectacle wear as they become older...
  52. Birch E, Felius J, Stager D, Weakley D, Bosworth R. Pre-operative stability of infantile esotropia and post-operative outcome. Am J Ophthalmol. 2004;138:1003-9 pubmed
    ..course of significant changes in angle of deviation during the first months after the diagnosis of infantile esotropia and to determine whether long-term alignment and sensory outcomes differ when surgical alignment is performed on ..
  53. Britt M, Velez F, Velez G, Rosenbaum A. Vertical rectus muscle transposition for bilateral Duane syndrome. J AAPOS. 2005;9:416-21 pubmed
    ..of the superior and inferior rectus muscles to the lateral rectus muscle is effective surgical treatment for esotropia in unilateral Duane syndrome...