tic disorders


Summary: Disorders characterized by recurrent TICS that may interfere with speech and other activities. Tics are sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic, stereotyped motor movements or vocalizations which may be exacerbated by stress and are generally attenuated during absorbing activities. Tic disorders are distinguished from conditions which feature other types of abnormal movements that may accompany another another condition. (From DSM-IV, 1994)

Top Publications

  1. Swedo S, Leonard H, Garvey M, Mittleman B, Allen A, Perlmutter S, et al. Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections: clinical description of the first 50 cases. Am J Psychiatry. 1998;155:264-71 pubmed
    ..the clinical characteristics of a novel group of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and tic disorders, designated as pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal (group A beta-..
  2. Kirov R, Kinkelbur J, Banaschewski T, Rothenberger A. Sleep patterns in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, tic disorder, and comorbidity. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2007;48:561-70 pubmed
    ..ADHD and TD are characterized by specific sleep alterations. When coexisting, the two disorders alter the sleep pattern in an additive manner, suggesting a high impact on clinical and therapeutic perspectives. ..
  3. Stewart S, Jenike M, Keuthen N. Severe obsessive-compulsive disorder with and without comorbid hair pulling: comparisons and clinical implications. J Clin Psychiatry. 2005;66:864-9 pubmed
    ..Women and early-onset OCD patients appear to be more vulnerable to comorbid hair pulling. OCD sufferers with comorbid hair pulling also exhibit an increased risk for tics and may present with different OCD symptomatology. ..
  4. Singer H. Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders. Handb Clin Neurol. 2011;100:641-57 pubmed publisher
    b>Tic disorders, including Tourette syndrome, are an intriguing group of paroxysmal movement abnormalities that begin in childhood, have a fluctuating course, are capable of causing psychosocial and physical problems, and often improve by ..
  5. Bronfeld M, Bar Gad I. Tic disorders: what happens in the basal ganglia?. Neuroscientist. 2013;19:101-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This line of research provides a mechanistic description of the underlying neurophysiology of motor tics and may supply the much needed infrastructure for methodical hypothesis-driven studies of novel clinical treatments. ..
  6. Knight T, Steeves T, Day L, Lowerison M, Jette N, Pringsheim T. Prevalence of tic disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Pediatr Neurol. 2012;47:77-90 pubmed publisher
    This study evaluated the prevalence of tic disorders. MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched, using terms specific to Tourette syndrome and tic disorders, for studies of incidence, prevalence, and epidemiology...
  7. Harris K, Singer H. Tic disorders: neural circuits, neurochemistry, and neuroimmunology. J Child Neurol. 2006;21:678-89 pubmed
    The neuroanatomy and neurochemistry underlying tic disorders are thought to involve corticostriatothalamocortical circuits and dysregulation of their component neurotransmitter systems...
  8. Kuperman S. Tic disorders in the adolescent. Adolesc Med. 2002;13:537-51 pubmed
    This chapter addresses the multidimensional nature of tic disorders. The several major dimensions include (1) duration of symptoms (from less than 1 year to lifelong); (2) intensity of symptoms (from mild to severe); (3) frequency of ..
  9. Wang H, Kuo M. Tourette's syndrome in Taiwan: an epidemiological study of tic disorders in an elementary school at Taipei County. Brain Dev. 2003;25 Suppl 1:S29-31 pubmed
    ..The familial rate of Tourette's syndrome was 27%. We also found that another 98 children had transient tic disorders. For 73% of patients with mild tics, understanding and acceptance from family, teachers, and friends are the ..

More Information


  1. Prado H, Rosario M, Lee J, Hounie A, Shavitt R, Miguel E. Sensory phenomena in obsessive-compulsive disorder and tic disorders: a review of the literature. CNS Spectr. 2008;13:425-32 pubmed
  2. Moll G, Heinrich H, Trott G, Wirth S, Bock N, Rothenberger A. Children with comorbid attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder and tic disorder: evidence for additive inhibitory deficits within the motor system. Ann Neurol. 2001;49:393-6 pubmed
    ..The findings of a reduced intracortical inhibition as well as a shortened cortical silent period in these comorbid children provide evidence for additive effects at the level of motor system excitability. ..
  3. Grados M, Riddle M, Samuels J, Liang K, Hoehn Saric R, Bienvenu O, et al. The familial phenotype of obsessive-compulsive disorder in relation to tic disorders: the Hopkins OCD family study. Biol Psychiatry. 2001;50:559-65 pubmed
    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and tic disorders have phenomenological and familial-genetic overlaps...
  4. Roessner V, Robatzek M, Knapp G, Banaschewski T, Rothenberger A. First-onset tics in patients with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder: impact of stimulants. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2006;48:616-21 pubmed
    ..The results of high quality studies, in addition to specialized studies with methodological limitations, suggest that stimulants are the criterion standard for the safe and successful treatment of ADHD...
  5. Gilbert D, Batterson J, Sethuraman G, Sallee F. Tic reduction with risperidone versus pimozide in a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2004;43:206-14 pubmed
    ..changes, weight gain, and side effect profiles of pimozide versus risperidone in children and adolescents with tic disorders. This was a randomized, double-blind, crossover (evaluable patient analysis) study...
  6. Rothenberger A, Banaschewski T, Heinrich H, Moll G, Schmidt M, van t Klooster B. Comorbidity in ADHD-children: effects of coexisting conduct disorder or tic disorder on event-related brain potentials in an auditory selective-attention task. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2000;250:101-10 pubmed
    ..Nd and P300 amplitudes showed no significant group differences. It may be assumed that neurodynamic sufficiency in ADHD-only and ADHD + Tic children seems to be similarly impaired while there might be a greater deficit in ADHD + CD. ..
  7. Bloch M, Peterson B, Scahill L, Otka J, Katsovich L, Zhang H, et al. Adulthood outcome of tic and obsessive-compulsive symptom severity in children with Tourette syndrome. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2006;160:65-9 pubmed
    ..Increased childhood IQ was strongly associated with increased OCD severity at follow-up. Obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms in children with TS became more severe at a later age and were more likely to persist than tic symptoms. ..
  8. Kim B, Lee C, Hwang J, Shin M, Cho S. Effectiveness and safety of risperidone for children and adolescents with chronic tic or tourette disorders in Korea. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2005;15:318-24 pubmed
  9. Khalifa N, von Knorring A. Prevalence of tic disorders and Tourette syndrome in a Swedish school population. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2003;45:315-9 pubmed
    The aim of the study was to find the epidemiological distribution of tic disorders and Tourette syndrome (TS) in Swedish school children aged 7 to 15 years...
  10. Spencer T, Biederman J, Coffey B, Geller D, Crawford M, Bearman S, et al. A double-blind comparison of desipramine and placebo in children and adolescents with chronic tic disorder and comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2002;59:649-56 pubmed
    Currently, there is no consensus on the best therapeutic approach to chronic tic disorders and comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
  11. Shin M, Chung S, Hong K. Comparative study of the behavioral and neuropsychologic characteristics of tic disorder with or without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). J Child Neurol. 2001;16:719-26 pubmed
    ..The tic disorder with ADHD group might represent a true comorbidity of the two disorders. ..
  12. Moll G, Heinrich H, Rothenberger A. [Transcranial magnetic stimulation in child and adolescent psychiatry: excitability of the motor system in tic disorders and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorders]. Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother. 2001;29:312-23 pubmed
  13. Kopp S, Kelly K, Gillberg C. Girls with social and/or attention deficits: a descriptive study of 100 clinic attenders. J Atten Disord. 2010;14:167-81 pubmed publisher
    Examine clinical correlates and distinguishing features of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), ADHD, and tic disorders in girls referred for social impairment, attention/academic deficits, and/or tics...
  14. Hoekstra P, Minderaa R, Kallenberg C. Lack of effect of intravenous immunoglobulins on tics: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. J Clin Psychiatry. 2004;65:537-42 pubmed
    ..No data are available on the effectiveness of intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) on tic severity in unselected tic disorder patients...
  15. Aguirregomozcorta M, Pagonabarraga J, Diaz Manera J, Pascual Sedano B, Gironell A, Kulisevsky J. Efficacy of botulinum toxin in severe Tourette syndrome with dystonic tics involving the neck. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2008;14:443-5 pubmed publisher
  16. Lichtenstein P, Carlström E, Rastam M, Gillberg C, Anckarsater H. The genetics of autism spectrum disorders and related neuropsychiatric disorders in childhood. Am J Psychiatry. 2010;167:1357-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Population-based studies of the heritability of other neuropsychiatric disorders and comorbidities among them have also been sparse. The authors sought to address both of these issues...
  17. Boon Yasidhi V, Kim Y, Scahill L. An open-label, prospective study of guanfacine in children with ADHD and tic disorders. J Med Assoc Thai. 2005;88 Suppl 8:S156-62 pubmed
    ..the efficacy and safety of guanfacine in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and tic disorders. Twenty-five medication-free subjects (23 males and 2 females), aged 7-16 (mean = 10.6 +/- 2...
  18. Leckman J, Bloch M, King R, Scahill L. Phenomenology of tics and natural history of tic disorders. Adv Neurol. 2006;99:1-16 pubmed
  19. Storch E, Stigge Kaufman D, Marien W, Sajid M, Jacob M, Geffken G, et al. Obsessive-compulsive disorder in youth with and without a chronic tic disorder. Depress Anxiety. 2008;25:761-7 pubmed
    ..Implications of these findings on clinical presentation and treatment efficacy are highlighted. ..
  20. Ledbetter M. Atomoxetine use associated with onset of a motor tic. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2005;15:331-3 pubmed
    ..with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for Tourette's Disorder and other tic disorders. Stimulant medications and bupropion have been associated with the onset or exacerbation of a tic disorder...
  21. Larson T, Anckarsater H, Gillberg C, Stahlberg O, Carlström E, Kadesjö B, et al. The autism--tics, AD/HD and other comorbidities inventory (A-TAC): further validation of a telephone interview for epidemiological research. BMC Psychiatry. 2010;10:1 pubmed publisher
    ..most disorders, including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD), tic disorders, developmental coordination disorders (DCD) and learning disorders, indicating excellent screening properties...
  22. Müller Vahl K, Cath D, Cavanna A, Dehning S, Porta M, Robertson M, et al. European clinical guidelines for Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders. Part IV: deep brain stimulation. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2011;20:209-17 pubmed publisher
    ..It is highly recommended to perform DBS in the context of controlled trials...
  23. Scahill L, Chappell P, Kim Y, Schultz R, Katsovich L, Shepherd E, et al. A placebo-controlled study of guanfacine in the treatment of children with tic disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2001;158:1067-74 pubmed
    This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of guanfacine in treating children with tic disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
  24. do Rosario Campos M, Leckman J, Curi M, Quatrano S, Katsovitch L, Miguel E, et al. A family study of early-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2005;136B:92-7 pubmed
    ..Childhood onset OCD is a highly familial disorder. Some early-onset cases may represent a valid subgroup, with higher genetic loading and shared vulnerability with chronic tic disorders.
  25. Sears J, Patel N. Development of tics in a thirteen-year-old male following atomoxetine use. CNS Spectr. 2008;13:301-3 pubmed
    ..We present a unique case of a patient, without any prior history of a movement disorder, who developed tics following a single dose of atomoxetine that did not improve until interventional therapy was initiated. ..
  26. Yoo H, Choi S, Park S, Wang H, Hong J, Kim C. An open-label study of the efficacy and tolerability of aripiprazole for children and adolescents with tic disorders. J Clin Psychiatry. 2007;68:1088-93 pubmed
    ..imbalance and partial serotonin-2A receptor antagonism, for treating children and adolescents with tic disorders. Twenty-four outpatients aged 7 to 18 years with DSM-IV-diagnosed tic disorders were treated with aripiprazole ..
  27. Halleröd S, Larson T, Stahlberg O, Carlström E, Gillberg C, Anckarsater H, et al. The Autism--Tics, AD/HD and other Comorbidities (A-TAC) telephone interview: convergence with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Nord J Psychiatry. 2010;64:218-24 pubmed publisher
  28. Scahill L, Sukhodolsky D, Williams S, Leckman J. Public health significance of tic disorders in children and adolescents. Adv Neurol. 2005;96:240-8 pubmed
    In conclusion, data from community surveys suggest that tic disorders, including TS, exist on a spectrum from transient to persistent, multiple motor, and vocal tics that interfere with activities of daily living...
  29. Martino D, Defazio G, Giovannoni G. The PANDAS subgroup of tic disorders and childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder. J Psychosom Res. 2009;67:547-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the relevance of this topic for general pediatric health, additional research efforts to solve all the pending issues and the hottest points of debate are warranted. ..
  30. Luo F, Leckman J, Katsovich L, Findley D, Grantz H, Tucker D, et al. Prospective longitudinal study of children with tic disorders and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder: relationship of symptom exacerbations to newly acquired streptococcal infections. Pediatrics. 2004;113:e578-85 pubmed
    ..The results suggest no clear relationship between new GABHS infections and symptom exacerbations in an unselected group of patients with TS and/or OCD. ..
  31. Spencer T, Biederman J, Faraone S, Mick E, Coffey B, Geller D, et al. Impact of tic disorders on ADHD outcome across the life cycle: findings from a large group of adults with and without ADHD. Am J Psychiatry. 2001;158:611-7 pubmed
    The impact of tic disorders on the outcome of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) remains a subject of high scientific and clinical interest...
  32. Roessner V, Banaschewski T, Fillmer Otte A, Becker A, Albrecht B, Uebel H, et al. Color perception deficits in co-existing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and chronic tic disorders. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2008;115:235-9 pubmed
    ..of blue-yellow stimuli, is impaired in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as in chronic tic disorders (CTD)...
  33. Bloch M, Panza K, Landeros Weisenberger A, Leckman J. Meta-analysis: treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children with comorbid tic disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2009;48:884-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Atomoxetine and desipramine offer additional evidence-based treatments of ADHD in children with comorbid tics. Supratherapeutic doses of dextroamphetamine should be avoided. ..
  34. Kurlan R, Como P, Miller B, Palumbo D, Deeley C, Andresen E, et al. The behavioral spectrum of tic disorders: a community-based study. Neurology. 2002;59:414-20 pubmed
    Tourette syndrome (TS) and related tic disorders are commonly associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
  35. Fusco C, Bertani G, Caricati G, Della Giustina E. Stress fracture of the peroneal bone secondary to a complex tic. Brain Dev. 2006;28:52-4 pubmed
    ..The clinical history was strongly suggestive of obsessive-compulsive disorder and Tourette syndrome with associated simple and complex motor tics. Radiographic follow-up showed spontaneous resolution of the fractures. ..
  36. Woods D, Piacentini J, Himle M, Chang S. Premonitory Urge for Tics Scale (PUTS): initial psychometric results and examination of the premonitory urge phenomenon in youths with Tic disorders. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2005;26:397-403 pubmed
    ..Likewise, significant correlations found between the YGTSS subscales, CBCL subscales, CYBOCS, and the PUTS did not emerge in this younger age group. The clinical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed. ..
  37. Verdellen C, van de Griendt J, Hartmann A, Murphy T. European clinical guidelines for Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders. Part III: behavioural and psychosocial interventions. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2011;20:197-207 pubmed publisher
    ..recommendations for the behavioural and psychosocial interventions (BPI) of children and adolescents with tic disorders prepared by a working group of the European Society for the Study of Tourette Syndrome (ESSTS)...
  38. Gilbert D. Treatment of children and adolescents with tics and Tourette syndrome. J Child Neurol. 2006;21:690-700 pubmed
    ..This review focuses primarily on the diagnosis and medical treatment of tics in children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome. ..
  39. Roessner V, Becker A, Banaschewski T, Rothenberger A. Psychopathological profile in children with chronic tic disorder and co-existing ADHD: additive effects. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2007;35:79-85 pubmed
    The nature of the co-occurrence of chronic tic disorders (CTD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is unclear. Especially in the field of psychopathology, the relationship of CTD and ADHD remains to be clarified...
  40. Flessner C. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for childhood repetitive behavior disorders: tic disorders and trichotillomania. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2011;20:319-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Because tic disorders and trichotillomania are the most often studied and most debilitating of these conditions, this article ..
  41. Rampello L, Alvano A, Battaglia G, Bruno V, Raffaele R, Nicoletti F. Tic disorders: from pathophysiology to treatment. J Neurol. 2006;253:1-15 pubmed
    b>Tic disorders are stereotypic behaviours,more frequent than once believed, and therefore likely to be encountered by primary care physicians...
  42. McGuire J, Kugler B, Park J, Horng B, Lewin A, Murphy T, et al. Evidence-based assessment of compulsive skin picking, chronic tic disorders and trichotillomania in children. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev. 2012;43:855-83 pubmed publisher
    ..evidence-base for assessments in youth across three BFRB-related disorders: compulsive skin picking, chronic tic disorders and trichotillomania...
  43. Little A, Augustin S, Kissack J. Quetiapine in the treatment of tic disorder. Ann Pharmacother. 2006;40:1472 pubmed
  44. Chadehumbe M, Greydanus D, Feucht C, Patel D. Psychopharmacology of tic disorders in children and adolescents. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2011;58:259-72, xiii pubmed publisher
    ..This article reviews medications used to treat tic disorders in children and adolescents.
  45. Młodzikowska Albrecht J, Zarowski M, Steinborn B. The symptomatology of tic disorders and concomitant sleep habits in children. Adv Med Sci. 2007;52 Suppl 1:212-4 pubmed
    The aim of study was to analyze the clinical symptoms of tic disorders (TG) and sleep habits in children. The sleep habits were compared with those of a control group (CG). The study included 84 children with TG...
  46. Hansson S, Svanström Röjvall A, Rastam M, Gillberg C, Gillberg C, Anckarsater H. Psychiatric telephone interview with parents for screening of childhood autism - tics, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and other comorbidities (A-TAC): preliminary reliability and validity. Br J Psychiatry. 2005;187:262-7 pubmed
    ..The A-TAC appears to be a reliable and valid instrument for identifying autistic spectrum disorder, ADHD, tics, learning disorders and developmental coordination disorder. ..
  47. Robertson M. The prevalence and epidemiology of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Part 1: the epidemiological and prevalence studies. J Psychosom Res. 2008;65:461-72 pubmed publisher
    ..GTS is found in all other cultures, although to possibly differing degrees. In all cultures where GTS has been reported, the phenomenology is similar, highlighting the biological underpinnings of the disorder. ..
  48. Gadow K, Nolan E, Sprafkin J, Schwartz J. Tics and psychiatric comorbidity in children and adolescents. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2002;44:330-8 pubmed
    ..a community-based sample show many similarities with studies of clinically referred samples suggesting that teacher-completed ratings of DSM-IV symptoms may be a useful methodology for investigating the phenomenology of tic disorders.
  49. Allen A, Kurlan R, Gilbert D, Coffey B, Linder S, Lewis D, et al. Atomoxetine treatment in children and adolescents with ADHD and comorbid tic disorders. Neurology. 2005;65:1941-9 pubmed
    To test the hypothesis that atomoxetine does not significantly worsen tic severity relative to placebo in children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid tic disorders.
  50. Swain J, Scahill L, Lombroso P, King R, Leckman J. Tourette syndrome and tic disorders: a decade of progress. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2007;46:947-68 pubmed
    ..However, fully explanatory models are needed that would allow for more accurate prognosis and the development of targeted and efficacious treatments. ..
  51. Rothenberger A, Roessner V, Banaschewski T, Leckman J. Co-existence of tic disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-recent advances in understanding and treatment. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2007;16 Suppl 1:1-4 pubmed publisher
    In daily clinical practice of child psychiatry tic disorders (TD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as their co-existence are common and need careful evidence-based approaches in differential diagnostics and ..
  52. Gilbert D, Dure L, Sethuraman G, Raab D, Lane J, Sallee F. Tic reduction with pergolide in a randomized controlled trial in children. Neurology. 2003;60:606-11 pubmed
    ..a mixed D1/D2/D3 dopamine agonist, is efficacious and safe in the treatment of children with chronic tic disorders and Tourette syndrome...
  53. Banaschewski T, Neale B, Rothenberger A, Roessner V. Comorbidity of tic disorders & ADHD: conceptual and methodological considerations. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2007;16 Suppl 1:5-14 pubmed publisher
    The causes and pathophysiological mechanisms of the common comorbidity of tic disorders and Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (TD + ADHD; about 50% of TD, about 20% of ADHD) still remain unclear...