multiple system atrophy

Summary

Summary: A syndrome complex composed of three conditions which represent clinical variants of the same disease process: STRIATONIGRAL DEGENERATION; SHY-DRAGER SYNDROME; and the sporadic form of OLIVOPONTOCEREBELLAR ATROPHIES. Clinical features include autonomic, cerebellar, and basal ganglia dysfunction. Pathologic examination reveals atrophy of the basal ganglia, cerebellum, pons, and medulla, with prominent loss of autonomic neurons in the brain stem and spinal cord. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1076; Baillieres Clin Neurol 1997 Apr;6(1):187-204; Med Clin North Am 1999 Mar;83(2):381-92)

Top Publications

  1. Brudek T, Winge K, Agander T, Pakkenberg B. Screening of Toll-like receptors expression in multiple system atrophy brains. Neurochem Res. 2013;38:1252-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Multiple system atrophy (MSA) together with Parkinson's disease belongs to a diverse group of neurodegenerative conditions termed ..
  2. Silveira Moriyama L, Mathias C, Mason L, Best C, Quinn N, Lees A. Hyposmia in pure autonomic failure. Neurology. 2009;72:1677-81 pubmed publisher
    Parkinson disease (PD), multiple system atrophy (MSA), and pure autonomic failure (PAF) all present with varying degrees of dysautonomia and are pathologically characterized by accumulation of alpha-synuclein...
  3. Masui K, Nakata Y, Fujii N, Iwaki T. Extensive distribution of glial cytoplasmic inclusions in an autopsied case of multiple system atrophy with a prolonged 18-year clinical course. Neuropathology. 2012;32:69-76 pubmed publisher
    We describe herein an autopsied case of multiple system atrophy (MSA) with prolonged clinical course of 18 years, and evaluate the extent of neurodegeneration and glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs) in the entire brain of this rare case...
  4. Winter Y, Spottke A, Stamelou M, Cabanel N, Eggert K, Höglinger G, et al. Health-related quality of life in multiple system atrophy and progressive supranuclear palsy. Neurodegener Dis. 2011;8:438-46 pubmed publisher
    b>Multiple system atrophy (MSA) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), known as atypical parkinsonian syndromes (APS), are neurodegenerative disorders with severe disability and decreased life expectancy...
  5. Wenning G, Stefanova N, Jellinger K, Poewe W, Schlossmacher M. Multiple system atrophy: a primary oligodendrogliopathy. Ann Neurol. 2008;64:239-46 pubmed publisher
    To this day, the cause of multiple system atrophy (MSA) remains stubbornly enigmatic...
  6. Messina D, Cerasa A, Condino F, Arabia G, Novellino F, Nicoletti G, et al. Patterns of brain atrophy in Parkinson's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy and multiple system atrophy. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2011;17:172-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Parkinson's Disease (PD) from Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) and parkinsonian variant of Multiple System Atrophy (MSA-P); the aim of this study was to identify the volumetric differences of subcortical structures in ..
  7. Kuzniar T, Morgenthaler T, Prakash U, Pallanch J, Silber M, Tippmann Peikert M. Effects of continuous positive airway pressure on stridor in multiple system atrophy-sleep laryngoscopy. J Clin Sleep Med. 2009;5:65-7 pubmed
    The presence of stridor in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) is associated with poor prognosis, mainly due to a high risk of complete airway obstruction at night...
  8. Wu Y, Shyu K, Jao C, Wang Z, Soong B, Wu H, et al. Fractal dimension analysis for quantifying cerebellar morphological change of multiple system atrophy of the cerebellar type (MSA-C). Neuroimage. 2010;49:539-51 pubmed publisher
    b>Multiple system atrophy of the cerebellar type (MSA-C) is a degenerative neurological disease of the central nervous system...
  9. Foulds P, Yokota O, Thurston A, Davidson Y, Ahmed Z, Holton J, et al. Post mortem cerebrospinal fluid ?-synuclein levels are raised in multiple system atrophy and distinguish this from the other ?-synucleinopathies, Parkinson's disease and Dementia with Lewy bodies. Neurobiol Dis. 2012;45:188-95 pubmed publisher
    ..atypical parkinsonian syndromes of Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), corticobasal syndrome (CBS) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) is challenging but crucial for patient management and recruitment into clinical trials...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Sasaki H, Emi M, Iijima H, Ito N, Sato H, Yabe I, et al. Copy number loss of (src homology 2 domain containing)-transforming protein 2 (SHC2) gene: discordant loss in monozygotic twins and frequent loss in patients with multiple system atrophy. Mol Brain. 2011;4:24 pubmed publisher
    b>Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a sporadic disease. Its pathogenesis may involve multiple genetic and nongenetic factors, but its etiology remains largely unknown...
  2. Pellecchia M, Barone P, Vicidomini C, Mollica C, Salvatore E, Ianniciello M, et al. Progression of striatal and extrastriatal degeneration in multiple system atrophy: a longitudinal diffusion-weighted MR study. Mov Disord. 2011;26:1303-9 pubmed publisher
    ..imaging has been largely used to detect and quantify early degenerative changes in patients with multiple system atrophy, but progression of neurodegeneration has been poorly investigated...
  3. Paik M, Ahn Y, Lee P, Kang H, Park C, Choi S, et al. Polyamine patterns in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy. Clin Chim Acta. 2010;411:1532-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we investigated the change of PA concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA).
  4. Wang P, Wu H, Lin C, Soong B. Use of diffusion tensor imaging to identify similarities and differences between cerebellar and Parkinsonism forms of multiple system atrophy. Neuroradiology. 2011;53:471-81 pubmed publisher
    We performed diffusion tensor imaging to determine if multiple system atrophy (MSA)-cerebellar (C) and MSA-Parkinsonism (P) show similar changes, as shown in pathological studies.
  5. Vidal J, Vidailhet M, Derkinderen P, Tzourio C, Alperovitch A. Familial aggregation in atypical Parkinson's disease: a case control study in multiple system atrophy and progressive supranuclear palsy. J Neurol. 2010;257:1388-93 pubmed publisher
    ..found in PD, but it is unclear whether there is a familial aggregation in families of patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) or progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP)...
  6. Colosimo C. Nonmotor presentations of multiple system atrophy. Nat Rev Neurol. 2011;7:295-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized clinically by a combination of parkinsonian, cerebellar, autonomic and pyramidal features...
  7. Rolland Y, Verin M, Payan C, Duchesne S, Kraft E, Hauser T, et al. A new MRI rating scale for progressive supranuclear palsy and multiple system atrophy: validity and reliability. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2011;82:1025-32 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate a standardised MRI acquisition protocol and a new image rating scale for disease severity in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and multiple systems atrophy (MSA) in a large multicentre study...
  8. Wenning G, Litvan I, Tolosa E. Milestones in atypical and secondary Parkinsonisms. Mov Disord. 2011;26:1083-95 pubmed publisher
    During the last decades, atypical parkinsonian disorders such as multiple system atrophy, dementia with Lewy bodies, progressive supranuclear palsy, and corticobasal degeneration along with secondary parkinsonian disorders have been ..
  9. Halliday G, Holton J, Revesz T, Dickson D. Neuropathology underlying clinical variability in patients with synucleinopathies. Acta Neuropathol. 2011;122:187-204 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, ?-synuclein deposits largely in oligodendroglial cytoplasmic inclusions in multiple system atrophy (MSA)...
  10. Ullman M, Vedam Mai V, Resnick A, Yachnis A, McFarland N, Merritt S, et al. Deep brain stimulation response in pathologically confirmed cases of multiple system atrophy. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2012;18:86-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Deep brain stimulation has not been recommended for treatment in multiple system atrophy patients...
  11. Nakayama K, Suzuki Y, Yazawa I. Binding of neuronal ?-synuclein to ?-III tubulin and accumulation in a model of multiple system atrophy. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;417:1170-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by ?-synuclein (?-syn) accumulation in oligodendrocytes and neurons...
  12. Iodice V, Lipp A, Ahlskog J, Sandroni P, Fealey R, Parisi J, et al. Autopsy confirmed multiple system atrophy cases: Mayo experience and role of autonomic function tests. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2012;83:453-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a sporadic progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterised by autonomic failure, manifested as orthostatic hypotension or urogenital dysfunction, with combinations of parkinsonism that is poorly ..
  13. Matsuura K, Maeda M, Yata K, Ichiba Y, Yamaguchi T, Kanamaru K, et al. Neuromelanin magnetic resonance imaging in Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy. Eur Neurol. 2013;70:70-7 pubmed publisher
    ..SNc) and locus coeruleus (LC) show decreased numbers differentially in Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA)...
  14. Brooks J, Houlden H, Melchers A, Islam A, Ding J, Li A, et al. Mutational analysis of parkin and PINK1 in multiple system atrophy. Neurobiol Aging. 2011;32:548.e5-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Multiple system atrophy (MSA) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are progressive neurodegenerative disorders with overlapping clinical, biochemical and genetic features...
  15. Lee P, Lim T, Shin H, Yong S, Nam H, Sohn Y. Serum cholesterol levels and the risk of multiple system atrophy: a case-control study. Mov Disord. 2009;24:752-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the association between serum cholesterol and the risk of multiple system atrophy (MSA), one of the alpha-synucleinopathies...
  16. Watts J, Giles K, Oehler A, Middleton L, Dexter D, Gentleman S, et al. Transmission of multiple system atrophy prions to transgenic mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:19555-60 pubmed publisher
    ..that prions feature in the synucleinopathies that include Parkinson's disease, Lewy body dementia, and multiple system atrophy (MSA)...
  17. Gama R, Távora D, Bomfim R, Silva C, de Bruin V, de Bruin P. Sleep disturbances and brain MRI morphometry in Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy and progressive supranuclear palsy - a comparative study. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2010;16:275-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study evaluated and compared sleep disturbances in patients with PD, multiple system atrophy (MSA) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and analyzed associations with brain magnetic resonance ..
  18. Stemberger S, Poewe W, Wenning G, Stefanova N. Targeted overexpression of human alpha-synuclein in oligodendroglia induces lesions linked to MSA-like progressive autonomic failure. Exp Neurol. 2010;224:459-64 pubmed publisher
    b>Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare neurodegenerative disease of undetermined cause manifesting with progressive autonomic failure (AF), cerebellar ataxia and parkinsonism due to neuronal loss in multiple brain areas associated with (..
  19. Miyatake S, Mochizuki H, Naka T, Ugawa Y, Tanabe H, Kuzume D, et al. Brain volume analyses and somatosensory evoked potentials in multiple system atrophy. J Neurol. 2010;257:419-25 pubmed publisher
    We investigated a progression of brain atrophy and somatosensory system dysfunction in multiple system atrophy (MSA). Subjects were 21 MSA patients [12 MSA-C (cerebellar type) and 9 MSA-P (parkinsonism type)]...
  20. McCrone P, Payan C, Knapp M, Ludolph A, Agid Y, Leigh P, et al. The economic costs of progressive supranuclear palsy and multiple system atrophy in France, Germany and the United Kingdom. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24369 pubmed publisher
    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) are progressive disabling neurological conditions usually fatal within 10 years of onset. Little is known about the economic costs of these conditions...
  21. Nagaishi M, Yokoo H, Nakazato Y. Tau-positive glial cytoplasmic granules in multiple system atrophy. Neuropathology. 2011;31:299-305 pubmed publisher
    b>Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a sporadic neurodegenerative disease that is pathologically characterized by the filamentous aggregation of ?-synuclein...
  22. Lee J, Yun J, Shin C, Kim H, Jeon B. Putaminal abnormality on 3-T magnetic resonance imaging in early parkinsonism-predominant multiple system atrophy. J Neurol. 2010;257:2065-70 pubmed publisher
    ..abnormality on 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for differentiating early parkinsonism-predominant multiple system atrophy (MSA-p) from Parkinson disease (PD) based on long-term clinical follow-up data...
  23. Tsukamoto K, Matsusue E, Kanasaki Y, Kakite S, Fujii S, Kaminou T, et al. Significance of apparent diffusion coefficient measurement for the differential diagnosis of multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, and Parkinson's disease: evaluation by 3.0-T MR imaging. Neuroradiology. 2012;54:947-55 pubmed publisher
    The clinical differentiation of Parkinson's disease (PD) from multiple system atrophy (MSA) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) may be challenging, especially in their early stages...
  24. Ahmed Z, Asi Y, Lees A, Revesz T, Holton J. Identification and quantification of oligodendrocyte precursor cells in multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy and Parkinson's disease. Brain Pathol. 2013;23:263-73 pubmed publisher
    b>Multiple system atrophy is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized pathologically by abnormal accumulations of ?-synuclein in the cytoplasm of oligodendrocytes, which are termed glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs)...
  25. Fernagut P, Tison F. Animal models of multiple system atrophy. Neuroscience. 2012;211:77-82 pubmed publisher
    b>Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a sporadic adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder clinically characterized by a variable combination of dysautonomia, levodopa-unresponsive parkinsonian and cerebellar symptoms...
  26. Ubhi K, Low P, Masliah E. Multiple system atrophy: a clinical and neuropathological perspective. Trends Neurosci. 2011;34:581-90 pubmed publisher
    b>Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a neurodegenerative disease involving motor abnormalities that include akinesia, rigidity and postural instability...
  27. Wullner U, Schmitt I, Kammal M, Kretzschmar H, Neumann M. Definite multiple system atrophy in a German family. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2009;80:449-50 pubmed publisher
  28. Petzold A, Thompson E, Keir G, Quinn N, Holmberg B, Dizdar N, et al. Longitudinal one-year study of levels and stoichiometry of neurofilament heavy and light chain concentrations in CSF in patients with multiple system atrophy. J Neurol Sci. 2009;279:76-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study investigated whether the CSF NfH and NfL levels or their stoichiometric relationship changed over time in a neuroprotective treatment trial...
  29. Al Chalabi A, Dürr A, Wood N, Parkinson M, Camuzat A, Hulot J, et al. Genetic variants of the alpha-synuclein gene SNCA are associated with multiple system atrophy. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7114 pubmed publisher
    b>Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by parkinsonism, cerebellar ataxia and autonomic dysfunction...
  30. Buttarelli F, Circella A, Pellicano C, Tiple D, Giovannelli M, Colosimo C, et al. Dopamine transporter immunoreactivity in peripheral blood lymphocytes in multiple system atrophy. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2009;116:161-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report the reduction of DAT-IR in PBL in the extrapyramidal variant of multiple system atrophy. These results suggest the reduction of DAT-IR in PBL in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders, ..
  31. Kao A, Racine C, Quitania L, Kramer J, Christine C, Miller B. Cognitive and neuropsychiatric profile of the synucleinopathies: Parkinson disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2009;23:365-70 pubmed publisher
    Parkinson disease (PD), multiple system atrophy (MSA), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) share alpha-synuclein immunoreactivity...
  32. Gama R, Távora D, Bomfim R, Silva C, Bruin V, Bruin P. Morphometry MRI in the differential diagnosis of parkinsonian syndromes. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2010;68:333-8 pubmed
    ..in the differential diagnosis among Parkinson's disease (PD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and multiple system atrophy (MSA). We studied 21 PD cases, 11 MSA-c, 8 MSA-p and 20 PSP cases...
  33. Ozawa T, Kakita A, Onodera O, Tada M, Ishihara T, Morita T, et al. The phenotype spectrum of Japanese multiple system atrophy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2010;81:1253-5 pubmed publisher
    ..involvement of the striatonigral (StrN) and olivopontocerebellar (OPC) systems in Japanese patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA)...
  34. Watanabe H, Ito M, Fukatsu H, Senda J, Atsuta N, Kaga T, et al. Putaminal magnetic resonance imaging features at various magnetic field strengths in multiple system atrophy. Mov Disord. 2010;25:1916-23 pubmed publisher
    ..the effects of magnetic field strength on signal intensities to facilitate the specific findings of multiple system atrophy (MSA). Fifteen patients with probable MSA were imaged by 0.35T fast spin-echo (FSE), 1.5T FSE, and 3...
  35. Seo J, Yong S, Song S, Lee J, Sohn Y, Lee P. A case-control study of multiple system atrophy in Korean patients. Mov Disord. 2010;25:1953-9 pubmed publisher
    A few case-control studies of multiple system atrophy (MSA) have been reported in Western populations...
  36. De Cock V, Debs R, Oudiette D, Leu S, Radji F, Tiberge M, et al. The improvement of movement and speech during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in multiple system atrophy. Brain. 2011;134:856-62 pubmed publisher
    b>Multiple system atrophy is an atypical parkinsonism characterized by severe motor disabilities that are poorly levodopa responsive. Most patients develop rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder...
  37. Friedrich C, Rudiger H, Schmidt C, Herting B, Prieur S, Junghanns S, et al. Baroreflex sensitivity and power spectral analysis in different extrapyramidal syndromes. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2008;115:1527-36 pubmed publisher
    ..We recorded continuously blood pressure, ECG and respiration in 35 patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA), 32 patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), 46 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's ..
  38. Guevara C, Blain C, Stahl D, Lythgoe D, Leigh P, Barker G. Quantitative magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging in Parkinson's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy and multiple system atrophy. Eur J Neurol. 2010;17:1193-202 pubmed publisher
  39. Tha K, Terae S, Yabe I, Miyamoto T, Soma H, Zaitsu Y, et al. Microstructural white matter abnormalities of multiple system atrophy: in vivo topographic illustration by using diffusion-tensor MR imaging. Radiology. 2010;255:563-9 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether diffusion-tensor (DT) imaging can demonstrate microstructural white matter abnormalities of multiple system atrophy (MSA) and to correlate these imaging findings with clinical signs and symptoms.
  40. Kim H, Jeon B, Lee J, Yun J. Survival of Korean patients with multiple system atrophy. Mov Disord. 2011;26:909-12 pubmed publisher
    We conducted a retrospective medical record review to determine the survival of 455 Korean multiple system atrophy (MSA) patients and examined the effect of clinical factors that could possibly influence survival...
  41. Wedge F. The impact of resistance training on balance and functional ability of a patient with multiple system atrophy. J Geriatr Phys Ther. 2008;31:79-83 pubmed
    This case study documents the impact of a resistance-training program on a female patient with Multiple System Atrophy (MSA).
  42. Brown R, Lacomblez L, Landwehrmeyer B, Bak T, Uttner I, Dubois B, et al. Cognitive impairment in patients with multiple system atrophy and progressive supranuclear palsy. Brain. 2010;133:2382-93 pubmed publisher
    ..of neuropsychological impairment on a prevalent cohort of patients with a clinical diagnosis of either multiple system atrophy (n=372) or progressive supranuclear palsy (n=311) from the Neuroprotection and Natural History in ..
  43. Ubhi K, Rockenstein E, Mante M, Inglis C, Adame A, Patrick C, et al. Neurodegeneration in a transgenic mouse model of multiple system atrophy is associated with altered expression of oligodendroglial-derived neurotrophic factors. J Neurosci. 2010;30:6236-46 pubmed publisher
    b>Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by striatonigral degeneration and olivo-pontocerebellar atrophy...
  44. OZ G, Iltis I, Hutter D, Thomas W, Bushara K, Gomez C. Distinct neurochemical profiles of spinocerebellar ataxias 1, 2, 6, and cerebellar multiple system atrophy. Cerebellum. 2011;10:208-17 pubmed publisher
    ..4 T from 26 patients with spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA1, N?=?9; SCA2, N?=?7; SCA6, N?=?5) or cerebellar multiple system atrophy (MSA-C, N?=?5) and 15 age-matched healthy controls...
  45. Yoon H, Lee C, Hong S, Min J, Kim Y, Hwang O, et al. Evaluation of a multiple system atrophy model in rats using multitracer microPET. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2012;154:935-40 pubmed publisher
    ..is limited, animal models must be well characterized prior to testing of therapeutic approaches to treat multiple system atrophy. In double-toxin animal models, however, reduced contralateral rotation after apomorphine injection is ..
  46. Nocker M, Seppi K, Donnemiller E, Virgolini I, Wenning G, Poewe W, et al. Progression of dopamine transporter decline in patients with the Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy: a voxel-based analysis of [123I]?-CIT SPECT. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2012;39:1012-20 pubmed publisher
    ..and extrastriatal regions including the midbrain and pons of patients with the Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy (MSA-P) and compared longitudinally collected SPECT results with those in a cohort of patients with ..
  47. Benarroch E, Schmeichel A, Dugger B, Sandroni P, Parisi J, Low P. Dopamine cell loss in the periaqueductal gray in multiple system atrophy and Lewy body dementia. Neurology. 2009;73:106-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is a common manifestation of multiple system atrophy (MSA) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) but involvement of these neurons has not yet been explored.
  48. Boudes M, Uvin P, Pinto S, Voets T, Fowler C, Wenning G, et al. Bladder dysfunction in a transgenic mouse model of multiple system atrophy. Mov Disord. 2013;28:347-55 pubmed publisher
    b>Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder presenting with motor impairment and autonomic dysfunction...
  49. Köllensperger M, Krismer F, Pallua A, Stefanova N, Poewe W, Wenning G. Erythropoietin is neuroprotective in a transgenic mouse model of multiple system atrophy. Mov Disord. 2011;26:507-515 pubmed publisher
    b>Multiple system atrophy is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disorder with a markedly reduced life expectancy. Failure of symptomatic treatment raises an urgent need for disease-modifying strategies...
  50. Sakurai K, Kawaguchi T, Kawai T, Ogino H, Hara M, Okita K, et al. Usefulness of 3D-PRESTO imaging in evaluating putaminal abnormality in parkinsonian variant of multiple system atrophy. Neuroradiology. 2010;52:809-14 pubmed publisher
    ..our study was to evaluate the ability of 3D-PRESTO sequence in detecting putaminal hypointensity in patients with parkinsonian variant of multiple system atrophy (MSA-P) and in discriminating between MSA-P and Parkinson's disease (PD).
  51. Ross O, Vilariño Güell C, Wszolek Z, Farrer M, Dickson D. Reply to: SNCA variants are associated with increased risk of multiple system atrophy. Ann Neurol. 2010;67:414-5 pubmed publisher
  52. Dodel R, Spottke A, Gerhard A, Reuss A, Reinecker S, Schimke N, et al. Minocycline 1-year therapy in multiple-system-atrophy: effect on clinical symptoms and [(11)C] (R)-PK11195 PET (MEMSA-trial). Mov Disord. 2010;25:97-107 pubmed publisher
    ..This prospective, 48 week, randomized, double-blind, multinational study failed to show a clinical effect of minocycline on symptom severity as assessed by clinical motor function...
  53. Zhao T, Severijnen L, van der Weiden M, Zheng P, Oostra B, Hukema R, et al. FBXO7 immunoreactivity in ?-synuclein-containing inclusions in Parkinson disease and multiple system atrophy. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2013;72:482-8 pubmed publisher
    ..FBXO7 protein expression in brain samples of normal controls (n = 9) and from patients with PD (n = 13), multiple system atrophy (MSA) (n = 5), Alzheimer disease (AD) (n = 5), and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) (n = 5) using ..