arachnoiditis

Summary

Summary: Acute or chronic inflammation of the arachnoid membrane of the meninges most often involving the spinal cord or base of the brain. This term generally refers to a persistent inflammatory process characterized by thickening of the ARACHNOID membrane and dural adhesions. Associated conditions include prior surgery, infections, trauma, SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, and chemical irritation. Clinical features vary with the site of inflammation, but include cranial neuropathies, radiculopathies, and myelopathies. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch48, p25)

Top Publications

  1. Brammah T, Jayson M. Syringomyelia as a complication of spinal arachnoiditis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1994;19:2603-5 pubmed
    ..The MRI scanning of the thoracic spine showed an extensive complex syrinx within the thoracic cord. She underwent syringopleural shunting, and her condition has remained stable. ..
  2. Warnke J, Koppert H, Bensch Schreiter B, Dzelzitis J, Tschabitscher M. Thecaloscopy part III: first clinical application. Minim Invasive Neurosurg. 2003;46:94-9 pubmed
    ..Thecaloscopy is a safe procedure if skilfully performed. It provides an opening for a wide range of new diagnostic and therapeutic options. ..
  3. Koyanagi I, Iwasaki Y, Hida K, Houkin K. Clinical features and pathomechanisms of syringomyelia associated with spinal arachnoiditis. Surg Neurol. 2005;63:350-5; discussion 355-6 pubmed
    Syringomyelia is a common intramedullary lesion associated with spinal arachnoiditis and obstruction of the foramen magnum such as in Chiari's malformation...
  4. Lan H, Chen D, Chen C, Lan J, Hsieh C. Combination of transverse myelitis and arachnoiditis in cauda equina syndrome of long-standing ankylosing spondylitis: MRI features and its role in clinical management. Clin Rheumatol. 2007;26:1963-7 pubmed
    ..We report a patient of CES-AS in whom MRI disclosed acute transverse myelitis and arachnoiditis along the lower spinal cord, and discuss the pathogenesis of CES-AS and the role of MRI in clinical management.
  5. Brodbelt A, Stoodley M, Watling A, Tu J, Burke S, Jones N. Altered subarachnoid space compliance and fluid flow in an animal model of posttraumatic syringomyelia. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2003;28:E413-9 pubmed
    ..Preferential PVS flow occurs at the level of the syrinx. It has been suggested that arachnoiditis predisposes to posttraumatic syringomyelia formation by obstructing subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid flow and ..
  6. Ishizaka S, Hayashi K, Otsuka M, Fukuda S, Tsunoda K, Ushijima R, et al. Syringomyelia and arachnoid cysts associated with spinal arachnoiditis following subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2012;52:686-90 pubmed
    ..We should recognize syringomyelia and arachnoid cysts due to adhesive arachnoiditis as a late complication of SAH...
  7. Anupriya A, Sunithi M, Maya T, Goel M, Alexander M, Aaron S, et al. Tuberculous optochiasmatic arachnoiditis. Neurol India. 2010;58:732-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Arachnoiditis involving optic nerve and the optic chiasm can occur as a complication of tuberculous meningitis (TBM)...
  8. Faure A, Khalfallah M, Perrouin Verbe B, Caillon F, Deschamps C, Bord E, et al. Arachnoiditis ossificans of the cauda equina. Case report and review of the literature. J Neurosurg. 2002;97:239-43 pubmed
    The authors describe a case of arachnoiditis ossificans (AO) of the cauda equina...
  9. Papavlasopoulos F, Stranjalis G, Kouyialis A, Korfias S, Sakas D. Arachnoiditis ossificans with progressive syringomyelia and spinal arachnoid cyst. J Clin Neurosci. 2007;14:572-6 pubmed
    ..Radiological diagnosis was arachnoiditis ossificans and an attempt at surgical decompression was made because of progressive neurologic deterioration...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Chang H, Nakagawa H. Theoretical analysis of the pathophysiology of syringomyelia associated with adhesive arachnoiditis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2004;75:754-7 pubmed
    ..to analyse the derangement of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics in syringomyelia associated with adhesive arachnoiditis. An electrical circuit model of CSF dynamics in the spine was used...
  2. Koerts G, Rooijakkers H, Abu Serieh B, Cosnard G, Raftopoulos C. Postoperative spinal adhesive arachnoiditis presenting with hydrocephalus and cauda equina syndrome. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2008;110:171-5 pubmed
    To our knowledge, the association between hydrocephalus and postoperative spinal adhesive arachnoiditis (SAA) has never been reported...
  3. Wright M, Denney L. A comprehensive review of spinal arachnoiditis. Orthop Nurs. 2003;22:215-9; quiz 220-1 pubmed
    Spinal arachnoiditis is an insidious disease caused by an inflammatory process of the arachnoid membrane resulting from many possible causes, such as myelograms with oil-based radiographic contract agents and multiple back surgeries...
  4. Eroles Vega G, Castro Vilanova M, Mendivil Ferrer M, Gómez Rodrigo J, Lacambra Calvet C, Ruiz Capillas J, et al. [Arachnoiditis and intraspinal lesion. Complications of tuberculous meningitis in 2 patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection]. Rev Clin Esp. 2001;201:575-8 pubmed
    Radiculomyelitis (arachnoiditis) (RMA) is a severe complication of tuberculous meningitis (TM). Two patients with HIV infection and TM are here reported. These patients developed RMA...
  5. Poon T, Ho W, Pang K, Wong C. Tuberculous meningitis with spinal tuberculous arachnoiditis. Hong Kong Med J. 2003;9:59-61 pubmed
    ..Magnetic resonance imaging of the thoracic spine showed radiological features of tuberculous arachnoiditis with cord compression. Decompressive laminectomy was performed and high-dose systemic corticosteroid was given...
  6. Bilston L, Fletcher D, Stoodley M. Focal spinal arachnoiditis increases subarachnoid space pressure: a computational study. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2006;21:579-84 pubmed
    ..Localized scar tissue (arachnoiditis) within the subarachnoid space at the level of injury has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of ..
  7. de Goede C, Jardine P, Eunson P, Renowden S, Sharples P, Newton R. Severe progressive late onset myelopathy and arachnoiditis following neonatal meningitis. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2006;10:31-6 pubmed
    ..After a stable period of years, they developed a myelopathy caused by chronic arachnoiditis. The myelopathy was precipitated by a fall in two cases, and in two cases there was an acute deterioration ..
  8. Srivastava T, Kochar D. Asymptomatic spinal arachnoiditis in patients with tuberculous meningitis. Neuroradiology. 2003;45:727-9 pubmed
    Spinal arachnoiditis is one of the common and disabling complication of tuberculous meningitis (TBM)...
  9. Garg R, Paliwal V, Malhotra H. Tuberculous optochiasmatic arachnoiditis: a devastating form of tuberculous meningitis. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2011;9:719-29 pubmed publisher
    ..if dominantly present in the interpeduncular, suprasellar and Sylvian cisterns, result in optochiasmatic arachnoiditis and tuberculoma...
  10. Cheng S, Stoodley M, Wong J, Hemley S, Fletcher D, Bilston L. The presence of arachnoiditis affects the characteristics of CSF flow in the spinal subarachnoid space: a modelling study. J Biomech. 2012;45:1186-91 pubmed publisher
    ..models of the spinal subarachnoid space (SAS), this study aims to determine SAS obstructions, such as arachnoiditis, change in CSF dynamics in the SAS. The geometry of the SAS was reconstructed from a series of MRI images...
  11. Haughton V, Nguyen C, Ho K. The etiology of focal spinal arachnoiditis. An experimental study. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1993;18:1193-8 pubmed
    Focal arachnoiditis and back pain have been attributed to potentially irritating substances leaking into the spinal canal from the lumbar intervertebral disc or facet joints...
  12. Riley C, Spiegel J. Complications following large-volume epidural blood patches for postdural puncture headache. Lumbar subdural hematoma and arachnoiditis: initial cause or final effect?. J Clin Anesth. 2009;21:355-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The second case was a 33-year-old woman who received three LEBPs over a 4-day period totaling 165 mL of blood. She developed arachnoiditis and chronic sacral radiculopathy with resolution 4 months later.
  13. Inoue Y, Nemoto Y, Ohata K, Daikokuya H, Hakuba A, Tashiro T, et al. Syringomyelia associated with adhesive spinal arachnoiditis: MRI. Neuroradiology. 2001;43:325-30 pubmed
    We reviewed the MRI of seven patients with syringomyelia associated with surgically proven adhesive spinal arachnoiditis to describe clinical and MRI findings in this condition. Using 0.5, 1.0 or 1...
  14. Guyer D, Wiltse L, Eskay M, Guyer B. The long-range prognosis of arachnoiditis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1989;14:1332-41 pubmed
    Fifty patients with arachnoiditis were studied, and long-term follow-up ranging from 10 to 21 years was obtained on 36 (72%)...
  15. Brochert A, Reynolds T, Baker R. MRI in a case of muslin-induced granuloma. Neuroradiology. 2003;45:82-4 pubmed
    ..reactions, sometimes referred to as "muslinomas" or "gauzomas," and adhesive arachnoiditis are known but rare complications. Experience with MRI in these cases is limited...
  16. Mitsuyama T, Asamoto S, Kawamata T. Novel surgical management of spinal adhesive arachnoiditis by arachnoid microdissection and ventriculo-subarachnoid shunting. J Clin Neurosci. 2011;18:1702-4 pubmed publisher
    ..cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow disturbance are two major features in the pathophysiology of spinal adhesive arachnoiditis. We hypothesized that insufficient CSF supply to the surgically untethered spinal cord may be one of the ..
  17. Jaeckle K, Phuphanich S, Bent M, Aiken R, Batchelor T, Campbell T, et al. Intrathecal treatment of neoplastic meningitis due to breast cancer with a slow-release formulation of cytarabine. Br J Cancer. 2001;84:157-63 pubmed
    ..The major adverse events were headache and arachnoiditis. When drug-related, these were largely of low grade, transient and reversible...
  18. Bakhsh W, Mesfin A, Bridwell K. Arachnoiditis ossificans after revision adolescent idiopathic scoliosis surgery: a 22-year follow-up and review. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2013;38:E1166-70 pubmed publisher
    Case report. To report the clinical and imaging findings of a patient with arachnoiditis ossificans (AO) 22 years after revision surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS)...
  19. Gubian A, Rosahl S. Encasement of the Cauda Equina After Early Childhood Meningitis: Case Report and Review of the Literature. World Neurosurg. 2016;96:612.e15-612.e20 pubmed publisher
    Arachnopathy following meningitis has been described in the setting of chronic spinal arachnoiditis and more recently as shunt-related progressive myelopathy due to meningeal thickening...
  20. Liao S, Ni S, Cao Y, Yin X, Wu T, Lu H, et al. The 3D characteristics of post-traumatic syringomyelia in a rat model: a propagation-based synchrotron radiation microtomography study. J Synchrotron Radiat. 2017;24:1218-1225 pubmed publisher
    ..impactor to produce spinal cord injury (SCI), followed by a subarachnoid injection of kaolin to produce arachnoiditis. PB-SRµCT imaging and histological examination, as well as fluorescence staining, were conducted on the ..
  21. Todeschi J, Chibbaro S, Gubian A, Pop R, Proust F, Cebula H. Spinal adhesive arachnoiditis following the rupture of an Adamkiewicz aneurysm: Literature review and a case illustration. Neurochirurgie. 2018;64:177-182 pubmed publisher
    ..It might be responsible for a spinal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SSAH) that in rare cases can be complicated by arachnoiditis. Among the former the adhesive type is the most severe leading to the formation of a cyst and/or a syrinx...
  22. Ng P, Lorentz I, Soo Y. Arachnoiditis ossificans of the cauda equina demonstrated on computed tomography scanogram. A case report. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1996;21:2504-7 pubmed
    This case report illustrates a patient with arachnoiditis ossificans of the cauda equina of sufficient severity to be demonstrable on a computed tomography scout view...
  23. Iskandar B, Hedlund G, Grabb P, Oakes W. The resolution of syringohydromyelia without hindbrain herniation after posterior fossa decompression. J Neurosurg. 1998;89:212-6 pubmed
    ..with and without gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid revealed no evidence of spinal cord tumor, arachnoiditis, or spinal dysraphism...
  24. Nakano M, Matsui H, Miaki K, Yamagami T, Tsuji H. Postlaminectomy adhesion of the cauda equina. Changes of postoperative vascular permeability of the equina in rats. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1997;22:1105-14 pubmed
    ..To clarify the early vascular responses in postlaminectomy adhesive arachnoiditis. Laminectomy-induced cauda equina adhesion has been visualized by postoperative serial magnetic resonance ..
  25. Erdem H, Senbayrak S, Meriç K, Batirel A, Karahocagil M, Hasbun R, et al. Cranial imaging findings in neurobrucellosis: results of Istanbul-3 study. Infection. 2016;44:623-31 pubmed publisher
    ..cranial nerve involvements (14), spinal nerve roots enhancement (8), brain abscesses (7), granulomas (6), and arachnoiditis (4). (b) White-matter involvement: white-matter involvement (32) with or without demyelinating lesions (7)...
  26. Bakry S, Merhi Z, Scalise T, Mahmoud M, Fadiel A, Naftolin F. Depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate: an update. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2008;278:1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Counseling and understanding of women's concerns and experiences using Depo-Provera is important and could help health care providers redesign counseling strategies to improve contraceptive continuation and improve patient adherence. ..
  27. Sarrazin J. [Imaging of postoperative lumbar spine]. J Radiol. 2003;84:241-50; quiz 251-2 pubmed
    ..Spondylodiskitis, arachnoiditis and pseudomeningocele are other less frequent etiologies.
  28. Nelson D. Intraspinal therapy using methylprednisolone acetate. Twenty-three years of clinical controversy. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1993;18:278-86 pubmed
    ..Then in 1961, the intrathecal route was more widely used to treat arachnoiditis and multiple sclerosis...
  29. Silva J, Taricco M, Brito J, Neves V, Farias R. [Constrictive arachnoiditis after pantopaque myelography causing syringomyelia and paraparesis: case report]. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2001;59:619-22 pubmed
    We present an unusual case of thoracic constrictive arachnoiditis after pantopaque myelography, used 10 years before in the diagnosis of intradural arachnoid cyst.
  30. Abhinav K, Bradley M, Aquilina K, Patel N. Spinal arachnoiditis and cyst formation with subarachnoid haemorrhage. Br J Neurosurg. 2012;26:574-5 pubmed publisher
    ..secondary to a ruptured left posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm and then developed a rare complication of radiologically progressive spinal arachnoiditis despite maintained clinical response to definitive treatment measures.
  31. Delamarter R, Ross J, Masaryk T, Modic M, Bohlman H. Diagnosis of lumbar arachnoiditis by magnetic resonance imaging. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1990;15:304-10 pubmed
    Twenty-four cases of lumbar arachnoiditis were evaluated by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The morphologic changes of arachnoiditis by MR were compared in 20 cases with CT myelography (CTM) and plain film myelography (PFM)...
  32. Lolekha R, Chokephaibulkit K, Vanprapar N, Phongsamart W, Chearskul S. Breakthrough neurological manifestation during appropriate antituberculous therapy of miliary tuberculosis. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2003;34:634-5 pubmed
    ..A computerized tomogram revealed tuberculomas and basal arachnoiditis. The cerebrospinal fluid findings were compatible with tuberculous meningitis...
  33. Hwang S, Bhadelia R, Wu J. Thoracic spinal iophendylate-induced arachnoiditis mimicking an intramedullary spinal cord neoplasm. Case report. J Neurosurg Spine. 2008;8:292-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors describe an unusual case of arachnoiditis caused by residual thoracic iophendylate imitating an expansile intramedullary lesion on magnetic resonance ..
  34. Chan C, Lau P, Sun L, Lo S. Arachnoiditis ossificans. Hong Kong Med J. 2009;15:146-8 pubmed
    b>Arachnoiditis ossificans is a rare type of chronic arachnoiditis characterised by the presence of calcification or ossification of the spinal arachnoid...
  35. Wilson D, Fusco D, Rekate H. Terminal ventriculostomy as an adjuvant treatment of complex syringomyelia: a case report and review of the literature. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2011;153:1449-53; discussion 1453 pubmed publisher
    ..A 10-year-old boy with a history of arachnoiditis presented with complex syringomyelia, progressive lower extremity motor weakness, and spasticity...
  36. Sarifakioglu A, Yemisci O, Yalbuzdag S, Ciftkaya P, Cosar N. Cauda equina syndrome after cesarean section. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2013;92:179-82 pubmed publisher
    This report describes a case of cauda equina syndrome possibly caused by arachnoiditis due to levobupivacaine after spinal-epidural anesthesia. A 39-yr-old woman delivered by cesarean section under a combined spinal-epidural anesthesia...
  37. Hayashi K, Nagano J, Hattori S. Adhesive arachnoiditis after percutaneous fibrin glue treatment of a sacral meningeal cyst. J Neurosurg Spine. 2014;20:763-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors presumed that migrated fibrin glue caused the development of adhesive arachnoiditis. The risk of adhesive arachnoiditis should be considered when this therapy is planned...
  38. Malhotra A, Kalra V, Wu X, Grant R, Bronen R, Abbed K. Imaging of lumbar spinal surgery complications. Insights Imaging. 2015;6:579-90 pubmed publisher
    ..include loosening, hardware failure, symptomatic new or recurrent disc herniation, peri-/epidural fibrosis, arachnoiditis, and radiculitis...
  39. Scott M, Stones J, Payne N. Antiseptic solutions for central neuraxial blockade: which concentration of chlorhexidine in alcohol should we use?. Br J Anaesth. 2009;103:456; author reply 456-7 pubmed publisher
  40. Voskresenskaia O, Sholomov I. [Neurovisualization methods in diagnostics of consequences in light craniocerebral trauma]. Sud Med Ekspert. 2003;46:10-4 pubmed
    ..A conclusion was made on the need to examine the patients of the discussed category by neurovisualization in the acute and remote periods of trauma. ..
  41. Hutter C. Obstetric epidurals and chronic adhesive arachnoiditis. Br J Anaesth. 2004;92:902; author reply 902-3 pubmed
  42. Navani A, Dominguez C, Hald J, Fishman S. An injection from the past: fluoroscopic evidence of remote injections of radiopaque substances. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2006;31:82-5 pubmed
    ..In addition, concerns of worsening oil-based dye-induced arachnoiditis with the use of epidural steroid injections can complicate the treatment of patients with back pain.
  43. Berthelot J, Laredo J, Darrieutort Laffite C, Maugars Y. Stretching of roots contributes to the pathophysiology of radiculopathies. Joint Bone Spine. 2018;85:41-45 pubmed publisher
    ..For instance arachnoiditis, the lack of peridural fat around the thecal sac, and epidural fibrosis following surgery, can all promote ..
  44. Krishnamoorthy T, Thomas B. Unknown case. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2006;31:1633-4 pubmed
  45. van Heerden J, McAuliffe W. Spinal arachnoiditis as a consequence of aneurysm-related subarachnoid haemorrhage. J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol. 2013;57:61-4 pubmed publisher
    Only a few case reports currently exist regarding symptomatic spinal arachnoiditis following aneurysm-related subarachnoid haemorrhage...
  46. Murata K, Maeba A, Yamanegi M, Nakanishi I, Ito H. Methotrexate myelopathy after intrathecal chemotherapy: a case report. J Med Case Rep. 2015;9:135 pubmed publisher
    ..However, in addition to chemical arachnoiditis, methotrexate can induce severe myelopathy...
  47. Hasturk A, Coven I, Ozdemir O, Erinanc H, Bal A. Arachnoiditis ossificans in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis, syringomyelia, and a history of spinal surgery. J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil. 2013;26:479-82 pubmed publisher
    In this article, we describe a patient unusual presenting with both arachnoiditis ossificans and syringomyelia. We have reviewed the patient's evaluation, surgery, and treatment...
  48. Najafi E, Bilston L, Song X, Bongers A, Stoodley M, Cheng S, et al. Longitudinal measurements of syrinx size in a rat model of posttraumatic syringomyelia. J Neurosurg Spine. 2016;24:941-8 pubmed publisher
    ..device to produce the initial spinal cord injury, followed by a subarachnoid injection of kaolin to produce arachnoiditis. T2-weighted MRI was performed on each animal using a 9.4-T scanner at 7, 10, and 13 weeks after injury...
  49. Baallal H, El Asri A, Eljebbouri B, Akhaddar A, Gazzaz M, el Mostarchid B, et al. [Cryptococcal meningitis in a patient with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt and monitoring for pulmonary sarcoidosis]. Neurochirurgie. 2013;59:47-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Brain MRI showed arachnoiditis, with a mass in contact with the right frontal horn...
  50. Kahler R, Knuckey N, Davis S. Arachnoiditis ossificans and syringomyelia: a unique case report. J Clin Neurosci. 2000;7:66-8 pubmed
    ..Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine revealed a spinal cord syrinx but failed to detect extensive arachnoiditis ossificans noted on insertion of a syringopleural shunt...
  51. Sherman B, Crowell T. Corrosion of Harrington rod in idiopathic scoliosis: long-term effects. Eur Spine J. 2018;27:298-302 pubmed publisher
    ..Serial X-rays can demonstrate subtle corrosive changes but were not available. Adhesive arachnoiditis was diagnosed via CT/myelogram...
  52. Jabbour P, Samaha E, Abi Lahoud G, Koussa S, Abadjian G, Nohra G, et al. Hemicerebellitis mimicking a tumour on MRI. Childs Nerv Syst. 2003;19:122-5 pubmed
    ..It is unusual to have a unilateral cerebellitis; only two cases have been published so far. Although cerebellitis is considered to be benign and self limited, surgical intervention is sometimes mandatory. ..
  53. Cunha I, Nour D, Silva J, Silva J, Malcata A, Fernandes R. [Ossifying arachnoiditis in spondyloarthropathy patient]. Acta Reumatol Port. 2006;31:263-71 pubmed
    ..Imaging investigations revealed severe lesions from D1 to L5: epidural calcification; spinal cord compression and syringomyelia. Based on this case, the authors review the neurological complications of Ankylosing Spondylitis. ..