meningitis

Summary

Summary: Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)

Top Publications

  1. Igusa R, Narumi S, Murakami K, Kitawaki Y, Tamii T, Kato M, et al. Escherichia coli pneumonia in combination with fungal sinusitis and meningitis in a tsunami survivor after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2012;227:179-84 pubmed
    ..coli) pneumonia in combination with fungal sinusitis and meningitis. A 73-year-old woman survived the tsunami that engulfed the Sanriku coast...
  2. Hochberg N, Blackburn B, Park S, Sejvar J, Effler P, Herwaldt B. Eosinophilic meningitis attributable to Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in Hawaii: clinical characteristics and potential exposures. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011;85:685-90 pubmed publisher
    The most common infectious cause of eosinophilic meningitis is Angiostrongylus cantonensis, which is transmitted largely by consumption of snails/slugs...
  3. Hupp S, Heimeroth V, Wippel C, Förtsch C, Ma J, Mitchell T, et al. Astrocytic tissue remodeling by the meningitis neurotoxin pneumolysin facilitates pathogen tissue penetration and produces interstitial brain edema. Glia. 2012;60:137-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Streptococcus pneumoniae, the most common cause of bacterial meningitis, has a high lethality and causes serious disabilities in survivors...
  4. Dorta Contreras A, Padilla Docal B, Moreira J, Robles L, Aroca J, Alarcon F, et al. Neuroimmunological findings of Angiostrongylus cantonensis meningitis in Ecuadorian patients. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2011;69:466-9 pubmed
    b>Meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis has recently been reported in patients resulting from the first outbreaks in subtropical regions of Ecuador.
  5. Strik H, Prömmel P. Diagnosis and individualized therapy of neoplastic meningitis. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2010;10:1137-48 pubmed publisher
    Neoplastic meningitis is a diffuse dissemination of tumor cells into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and/or leptomeninges...
  6. Espírito Santo M, Pinto P, Mota D, Gryschek R. The first case of Angiostrongylus cantonensis eosinophilic meningitis diagnosed in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2013;55:129-32 pubmed
    ..cantonensis is a natural parasite found in lung arteries of rats, which in humans may cause eosinophilic meningitis. To report the first case of eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis in the city of São ..
  7. Bamberger D. Diagnosis, initial management, and prevention of meningitis. Am Fam Physician. 2010;82:1491-8 pubmed
    Although the annual incidence of bacterial meningitis in the United States is declining, it remains a medical emer- gency with a potential for high morbidity and mortality...
  8. NOH Y, Hong S, Yun J, Park H, Oh J, Kim Y, et al. Meningitis by Toxocara canis after ingestion of raw ostrich liver. J Korean Med Sci. 2012;27:1105-8 pubmed publisher
    ..He showed symptoms and signs of eosinophilic meningitis with involvement of the lungs and liver...
  9. Barichello T, Fagundes G, Generoso J, Paula Moreira A, Costa C, Zanatta J, et al. Brain-blood barrier breakdown and pro-inflammatory mediators in neonate rats submitted meningitis by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Brain Res. 2012;1471:162-8 pubmed publisher
    Neonatal meningitis is an illness characterized by inflammation of the meninges and occurring within the birth and the first 28 days of life...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Sawanyawisuth K, Sawanyawisuth K. Drug target in eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Infect Disord Drug Targets. 2010;10:322-8 pubmed
    Eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis is an emerging infectious disease. It is the most common form of human angiostrongyliasis...
  2. Liu L, Johnson H, Cousens S, Perin J, Scott S, Lawn J, et al. Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality: an updated systematic analysis for 2010 with time trends since 2000. Lancet. 2012;379:2151-61 pubmed publisher
    ..UR] 0·916-1·325), intrapartum-related complications (9·4%; 0·717 million, 0·610-0·876), and sepsis or meningitis (5·2%; 0·393 million, 0·252-0·552) were the leading causes of neonatal death...
  3. Toth B, Aleman M, Nógrádi N, Madigan J. Meningitis and meningoencephalomyelitis in horses: 28 cases (1985-2010). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2012;240:580-7 pubmed publisher
    To describe clinical and clinicopathologic findings and outcome of horses with meningitis and meningoencephalomyelitis. Retrospective case series. 28 horses...
  4. Close R, Ejidokun O, Verlander N, Fraser G, Meltzer M, Rehman Y, et al. Early diagnosis model for meningitis supports public health decision making. J Infect. 2011;63:32-8 pubmed publisher
    To develop a predictive model for rapid differential diagnosis of meningitis and meningococcal septicaemia to support public health decisions on chemoprophylaxis for contacts.
  5. Maiden M. The impact of protein-conjugate polysaccharide vaccines: an endgame for meningitis?. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2013;368:20120147 pubmed publisher
    ..This understanding has enabled the refinement of the implementation of conjugate polysaccharide vaccines against meningitis-associated bacteria, and will be crucial in maintaining and improving vaccine control of these infections...
  6. Durisin M, Bartling S, Arnoldner C, Ende M, Prokein J, Lesinski Schiedat A, et al. Cochlear osteoneogenesis after meningitis in cochlear implant patients: a retrospective analysis. Otol Neurotol. 2010;31:1072-8 pubmed
    ..Retrospective clinical study...
  7. Dobre M, Smoker W, Moritani T, Kirby P. Spontaneously ruptured intraspinal epidermoid cyst causing chemical meningitis. J Clin Neurosci. 2012;19:587-9 pubmed publisher
    We report a 53-year-old woman with a rare ruptured lumbar intraspinal epidermoid cyst causing chemical meningitis evaluated with MRI (including diffusion-weighted imaging), with histopathologic correlation.
  8. Shingyoji M, Kageyama H, Sakaida T, Nakajima T, Matsui Y, Itakura M, et al. Detection of epithelial growth factor receptor mutations in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with lung adenocarcinoma suspected of neoplastic meningitis. J Thorac Oncol. 2011;6:1215-20 pubmed publisher
    Neoplastic meningitis (NM) is a devastating neurological complication of cancer that needs to be diagnosed in the early stages of disease...
  9. He H, Lv Z, Li Z, Zhang L, Liao Q, Zheng H, et al. Efficacy of combined treatment with albendazole and baicalein against eosinophilic meningitis induced by Angiostrongylus cantonensis in mice. J Helminthol. 2011;85:92-9 pubmed publisher
    Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection causes eosinophilic meningitis in humans. Baicalein is a flavonoid originally isolated from the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi...
  10. Kim E, Kim S, Cho J, Ahn J, Chang J. Immunoglobulin G4-related hypertrophic pachymeningitis involving cerebral parenchyma. J Neurosurg. 2011;115:1242-7 pubmed publisher
    ..A nodular type of hypertrophic pachymeningitis that mimics a meningioma is rare. Nevertheless, preoperative presumption is very important, and immunohistochemical studies for IgG4 may be helpful in the differential diagnosis. ..
  11. Moore S, Kim M, Maiolini A, Tipold A, Oglesbee M. Extracellular hsp70 release in canine Steroid Responsive Meningitis-Arteritis. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2012;145:129-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the presence of ehsp70 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum of dogs with Steroid Responsive Meningitis-Arteritis (SRMA), with the hypothesis that an ehsp70 response would occur, and might play a role in the ..
  12. Zbinden A, Mueller N, Tarr P, Sproer C, Keller P, Bloemberg G. Streptococcus tigurinus sp. nov., isolated from blood of patients with endocarditis, meningitis and spondylodiscitis. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2012;62:2941-5 pubmed publisher
    ..coccus-shaped bacterial strains were isolated from multiple blood cultures of patients with endocarditis, meningitis and spondylodiscitis...
  13. Eamsobhana P, Wanachiwanawin D, Dechkum N, Parsartvit A, Yong H. Molecular diagnosis of eosinophilic meningitis due to Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) by polymerase chain reaction-DNA sequencing of cerebrospinal fluids of patients. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2013;108:116-8 pubmed
    ..cantonensis. These results indicate the potential application of this PCR assay with clinical CSF samples for additional support in the confirmation of eosinophilic meningitis due to A. cantonensis.
  14. Li Z, Sun R, Li J, Song Y, Lin Y, Zeng X, et al. Efficacy of albendazole combined with a marine fungal extract (m2-9) against Angiostrongylus cantonensis-induced meningitis in mice. J Helminthol. 2012;86:410-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, m2-9 is a natural product with potentially significant therapeutic value for angiostrongyliasis and is worthy of further study...
  15. Ichikawa H, Itoh K. Blood-arachnoid barrier disruption in experimental rat meningitis detected using gadolinium-enhancement ratio imaging. Brain Res. 2011;1390:142-9 pubmed publisher
    ..of the central nervous system (CNS) barriers is one of the major pathophysiological consequences of bacterial meningitis. The increase in the permeability of the CNS barriers caused by the disruption is thought to contribute to the ..
  16. Pouillot F, Chomton M, Blois H, Courroux C, Noelig J, Bidet P, et al. Efficacy of bacteriophage therapy in experimental sepsis and meningitis caused by a clone O25b:H4-ST131 Escherichia coli strain producing CTX-M-15. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012;56:3568-75 pubmed publisher
    We evaluated phage therapy in experimental infections due to S242, a fatal neonatal meningitis Escherichia coli strain belonging to the worldwide-distributed O25b:H4-ST131 clone that produces extended-spectrum beta-lactamase CTX-M-15...
  17. Wolzak N, Cooke M, Orth H, van Toorn R. The changing profile of pediatric meningitis at a referral centre in Cape Town, South Africa. J Trop Pediatr. 2012;58:491-5 pubmed publisher
    Pediatric meningitis remains a common cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries...
  18. Maiolini A, Otten M, Hewicker Trautwein M, Carlson R, Tipold A. Interleukin-6, vascular endothelial growth factor and transforming growth factor beta 1 in canine steroid responsive meningitis-arteritis. BMC Vet Res. 2013;9:23 pubmed publisher
    Steroid Responsive Meningitis-Arteritis (SRMA) is a common cause of inflammation of the canine central nervous system (CNS)...
  19. Kim D, Chung J, Yun N, Kim S, Lee J, Han M, et al. Scrub typhus meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2013;89:1206-11 pubmed publisher
    Orientia tsutsugamushi induces vasculitis leading to symptoms of systemic organ invasion including meningitis and meningoencephalitis...
  20. Pascal T, Abrol R, Mittal R, Wang Y, Prasadarao N, Goddard W. Experimental validation of the predicted binding site of Escherichia coli K1 outer membrane protein A to human brain microvascular endothelial cells: identification of critical mutations that prevent E. coli meningitis. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:37753-61 pubmed publisher
    Escherichia coli K1, the most common cause of meningitis in neonates, has been shown to interact with GlcNAc1-4GlcNAc epitopes of Ecgp96 on human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) via OmpA (outer membrane protein A)...
  21. Mathisen G, Shelub A, Truong J, Wigen C. Coccidioidal meningitis: clinical presentation and management in the fluconazole era. Medicine (Baltimore). 2010;89:251-84 pubmed publisher
    Despite the advent of new antifungal agents, coccidioidal meningitis (CM) remains a difficult-to-treat condition with significant morbidity and mortality...
  22. Kono Y, Prevedello D, Snyderman C, Gardner P, Kassam A, Carrau R, et al. One thousand endoscopic skull base surgical procedures demystifying the infection potential: incidence and description of postoperative meningitis and brain abscesses. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2011;32:77-83 pubmed publisher
    ..In 18 cases (1.8%), the patient developed meningitis. In 2 cases, the patient died within 2 months after surgery, of noninfectious causes...
  23. Sun Q, Sha W, Xiao H, Tian Q, Zhu H. Evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid adenosine deaminase activity for the differential diagnosis of tuberculous and nontuberculous meningitis. Am J Med Sci. 2012;344:116-21 pubmed publisher
    The diagnosis value of adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) has been well documented. However, the cutoff point of CSF ADA has not been fully assessed...
  24. Wei P, Tsai C, Chiu P, Lai S. Matrix metalloproteinase-12 leads to elastin degradation in BALB/c mice with eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Int J Parasitol. 2011;41:1175-83 pubmed publisher
    The rat lugworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis can cause eosinophilic meningitis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-12 and its substrate elastin participate in this inflammatory response...
  25. Tseng Y, Tsai H, Sy C, Lee S, Wann S, Wang Y, et al. Clinical manifestations of eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis: 18 years' experience in a medical center in southern Taiwan. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2011;44:382-9 pubmed publisher
    With the improvement of public health, eosinophilic meningitis associated with Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection is now seldom reported in Taiwan. Eosinophilic meningitis typically occurred sporadically in children...
  26. Lombardi G, Zustovich F, Farina P, Della Puppa A, Manara R, Cecchin D, et al. Neoplastic meningitis from solid tumors: new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Oncologist. 2011;16:1175-88 pubmed publisher
    Neoplastic meningitis is a result of the spread of malignant cells to the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space and their dissemination within the cerebrospinal fluid...
  27. van Mourik M, Groenwold R, Berkelbach van der Sprenkel J, van Solinge W, Troelstra A, Bonten M. Automated detection of external ventricular and lumbar drain-related meningitis using laboratory and microbiology results and medication data. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22846 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim was, therefore, to develop a prediction model to retrospectively detect drain-related meningitis (DRM), a frequently occurring nosocomial infection, using routinely collected data from a clinical data ..
  28. Murphy G, Johnson S. Clinical aspects of eosinophilic meningitis and meningoencephalitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the rat lungworm. Hawaii J Med Public Health. 2013;72:35-40 pubmed
    Angiostrongylus Eosinophilic Meningitis is caused by human infection with larvae of the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis...
  29. Lindstrom K, Cousar J, Lopes M. IgG4-related meningeal disease: clinico-pathological features and proposal for diagnostic criteria. Acta Neuropathol. 2010;120:765-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Given these findings, IgG4-related meningitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of meningeal inflammatory lesions after stringent clinical ..
  30. Mohan S, Jain K, Arabi M, Shah G. Imaging of meningitis and ventriculitis. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 2012;22:557-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Characteristic findings and recent advances in neuroimaging of meningitis and its complications and ventriculitis are summarized, and certain noninfectious causes of meningitis and ..
  31. Ahluwalia M, Wallace P, Peereboom D. Flow cytometry as a diagnostic tool in lymphomatous or leukemic meningitis: ready for prime time?. Cancer. 2012;118:1747-53 pubmed publisher
    In patients with neoplastic meningitis (NM), early diagnosis is highly desirable because the rapid institution of intrathecal therapy may mitigate the course of the disease...
  32. Podwall D, Gupta R, Furuya E, Sevigny J, Resor S. Angiostrongylus cantonensis meningitis presenting with facial nerve palsy. J Neurol. 2004;251:1280-1 pubmed
  33. Nath K, Husain M, Trivedi R, Kumar R, Prasad K, Rathore R, et al. Clinical implications of increased fractional anisotropy in meningitis associated with brain abscess. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2007;31:888-93 pubmed
    To look for the clinical implications of increased cortical fractional anisotropy (FA) in meningitis patients associated with brain abscess...
  34. Chotmongkol V, Sawadpanitch K, Sawanyawisuth K, Louhawilai S, Limpawattana P. Treatment of eosinophilic meningitis with a combination of prednisolone and mebendazole. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006;74:1122-4 pubmed
    To study the efficacy of the combination of prednisolone and mebendazole for the treatment of eosinophilic meningitis, we conducted a pilot study among Thai patients with eosinophilic meningitis...
  35. Diao Z, Chen X, Yin C, Wang J, Qi H, Ji A. Angiostrongylus cantonensis: effect of combination therapy with albendazole and dexamethasone on Th cytokine gene expression in PBMC from patients with eosinophilic meningitis. Exp Parasitol. 2009;123:1-5 pubmed publisher
    ..changed cytokine responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in patients with eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis (EOMA), we measured mRNA levels of Th2 (IL-5, IL-4 and IL-10) and Th1 (IL-..
  36. Odetola F, Tilford J, Davis M. Variation in the use of intracranial-pressure monitoring and mortality in critically ill children with meningitis in the United States. Pediatrics. 2006;117:1893-900 pubmed
    ..associated with the use of intracranial pressure monitors and outcomes in critically ill children with meningitis. This was a retrospective cohort study of children 0 to 17 years of age hospitalized with meningitis and ..
  37. Wildemann B. [Meningitis]. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr. 2005;73:102-17; quiz 118-9 pubmed
  38. Hou R, Tu W, Lee H, Chen K, Chou H, Lai S. Elevation of plasminogen activators in cerebrospinal fluid of mice with eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Int J Parasitol. 2004;34:1355-64 pubmed
    A hallmark of parasitic meningitis is the infiltration of eosinophils into the subarachnoid space...
  39. Lowrie M, Penderis J, Eckersall P, McLaughlin M, Mellor D, Anderson T. The role of acute phase proteins in diagnosis and management of steroid-responsive meningitis arteritis in dogs. Vet J. 2009;182:125-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Steroid-responsive meningitis arteritis (SRMA) is a well-recognised inflammatory disease of the dog, the diagnosis of which remains ..
  40. Negrin A, Cherubini G, Steeves E. Angiostrongylus vasorum causing meningitis and detection of parasite larvae in the cerebrospinal fluid of a pug dog. J Small Anim Pract. 2008;49:468-71 pubmed publisher
    ..fluid in an 11-month-old pug dog and the relative magnetic resonance images compatible with a focal meningitis. Clinical signs were compatible with a cerebellar lesion, and diagnosis was confirmed by parasitological ..
  41. Mellor P, Fetz K, Maggi R, Haugland S, Dunning M, Villiers E, et al. Alpha1-proteinase inhibitor deficiency and Bartonella infection in association with panniculitis, polyarthritis, and meningitis in a dog. J Vet Intern Med. 2006;20:1023-8 pubmed
  42. Durisin M, Arnoldner C, Stover T, Lenarz T, Lesinski Schiedat A. Audiological performance in cochlear implanted patients deafened by meningitis depending on duration of deafness. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2008;265:381-8 pubmed publisher
    The objective of our study was to evaluate audiological outcome in cochlear implanted children deafened by meningitis and its correlation with duration of deafness from meningitis in a retrospective clinical study at an academic tertiary ..
  43. Papadopoulos D, Dukes S, Patel R, Nicholas R, Vora A, Reynolds R. Substantial archaeocortical atrophy and neuronal loss in multiple sclerosis. Brain Pathol. 2009;19:238-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study provides evidence of substantial archaeocortical pathology largely resembling patterns seen in the neocortex and suggests that hippocampal involvement could contribute to memory impairments often seen in MS. ..
  44. Lai C, Yen C, Chin C, Chung H, Kuo H, Lin H. Eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis after ingestion of raw frogs. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;76:399-402 pubmed
    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the most common cause of eosinophilic meningitis in humans after ingestion of raw or inadequately cooked intermediate hosts or food contaminated with infective third-stage larvae...
  45. Chen K, Lai S. Biochemical and pathological evaluation of albendazole/thalidomide co-therapy against eosinophilic meningitis or meningoencephalitis induced by Angiostrongylus cantonensis. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2007;59:264-76 pubmed
    To evaluate the curative effect of albendazole/thalidomide co-therapy on eosinophilic meningitis in BALB/c mice caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Male mice were infected with 50 A...
  46. Ginsberg L, Kidd D. Chronic and recurrent meningitis. Pract Neurol. 2008;8:348-61 pubmed publisher
    Chronic meningitis is defined as the persistence of clinical symptoms and signs of meningitis, with or without abnormal cerebrospinal fluid, for more than four weeks. In as many as one third of cases, no cause is found...
  47. Beer R, Lackner P, Pfausler B, Schmutzhard E. Nosocomial ventriculitis and meningitis in neurocritical care patients. J Neurol. 2008;255:1617-24 pubmed publisher
    ..A major complication of this procedure is an EVD-related venticulitis or meningitis. The purpose of this review is (1) to address the magnitude of the problem in the neurocritical care patient ..
  48. Scheithauer S, Burgel U, Ryang Y, Haase G, Schiefer J, Koch S, et al. Prospective surveillance of drain associated meningitis/ventriculitis in a neurosurgery and neurological intensive care unit. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2009;80:1381-5 pubmed publisher
    ..infection rates and DD of hospital acquired external ventricular drain (EVD) and lumbar drain (LD) associated meningitis/ventriculitis in a neurosurgery and a neurological intensive care unit...
  49. Lan K, Wang C, Lai S, Chen K, Lee S, Hsu J, et al. The efficacy of therapy with albendazole in mice with parasitic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Parasitol Res. 2004;93:311-7 pubmed
    Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) is involved in the pathogenesis of parasitic meningitis caused by the nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis...
  50. Wu K, Li L, Yan J, Tsao N, Liao T, Tsai H, et al. Genome sequencing and comparative analysis of Klebsiella pneumoniae NTUH-K2044, a strain causing liver abscess and meningitis. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:4492-501 pubmed publisher
    ..pneumoniae NTUH-K2044, which was isolated from a patient with liver abscess and meningitis, and analyzed differences compared to strain MGH 78578, which was isolated from a patient with pneumonia...
  51. Baradaran N, Ahmadi H, Nejat F, El Khashab M, Mahdavi A, Rahbarimanesh A. Recurrent meningitis caused by cervico-medullary abscess, a rare presentation. Childs Nerv Syst. 2008;24:767-71 pubmed publisher
    Recurrent bacterial meningitis is usually a complication of cranial anatomical defect or the result of impaired humoral immunity, notably, defects of the complement system and agammaglobulinemia...
  52. Schwartz M, Carlson R, Tipold A. Selective CD11a upregulation on neutrophils in the acute phase of steroid-responsive meningitis-arteritis in dogs. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2008;126:248-55 pubmed publisher
    Steroid-responsive meningitis-arteritis (SRMA) is a systemic inflammatory disease of juvenile to young adult dogs with a relapsing course and most prominent manifestation in the cervical meninges...
  53. Lowrie M, Penderis J, McLaughlin M, Eckersall P, Anderson T. Steroid responsive meningitis-arteritis: a prospective study of potential disease markers, prednisolone treatment, and long-term outcome in 20 dogs (2006-2008). J Vet Intern Med. 2009;23:862-70 pubmed publisher
    Previous multidrug studies have identified the value of prednisolone in treating steroid responsive meningitis-arteritis (SRMA) and the potential value of acute phase proteins (APPs) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) in diagnosis and monitoring...