pia mater


Summary: The innermost layer of the three meninges covering the brain and spinal cord. It is the fine vascular membrane that lies under the ARACHNOID and the DURA MATER.

Top Publications

  1. Nakagomi T, Molnar Z, Nakano Doi A, Taguchi A, Saino O, Kubo S, et al. Ischemia-induced neural stem/progenitor cells in the pia mater following cortical infarction. Stem Cells Dev. 2011;20:2037-51 pubmed publisher
    ..In our present study, using an adult mouse cortical infarction model, we found that the leptomeninges (pia mater), which is widely distributed within and closely associated with blood vessels as microvascular pericytes/..
  2. Ozawa H, Matsumoto T, Ohashi T, Sato M, Kokubun S. Mechanical properties and function of the spinal pia mater. J Neurosurg Spine. 2004;1:122-7 pubmed
    The pia mater has received little attention regarding its function in the deformation of the spinal cord under compression...
  3. Saito N, Hatori T, Murata N, Zhang Z, Nonaka H, Aoki K, et al. Comparison of metastatic brain tumour models using three different methods: the morphological role of the pia mater. Int J Exp Pathol. 2008;89:38-44 pubmed
    ..In this study, we attempted to elucidate the roles of the pia mater in brain metastasis...
  4. Sparrey C, Manley G, Keaveny T. Effects of white, grey, and pia mater properties on tissue level stresses and strains in the compressed spinal cord. J Neurotrauma. 2009;26:585-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The material models and stiffness responses for the grey and white matter and pia mater were varied across a range of reported values to observe the sensitivity of model outcomes to the assigned ..
  5. Urabe N, Naito I, Saito K, Yonezawa T, Sado Y, Yoshioka H, et al. Basement membrane type IV collagen molecules in the choroid plexus, pia mater and capillaries in the mouse brain. Arch Histol Cytol. 2002;65:133-43 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, the pia mater contained a thin basement membrane which was positive for alpha1, alpha2, alpha5, and alpha6 chains, suggesting ..
  6. Saito N, Hatori T, Murata N, Zhang Z, Ishikawa F, Nonaka H, et al. A double three-step theory of brain metastasis in mice: the role of the pia mater and matrix metalloproteinases. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2007;33:288-98 pubmed
    ..The pia-glial membrane and perivascular space are the barriers that neoplastic cells must overcome to infiltrate the brain. In conclusion, our findings suggest that brain metastasis requires two distinct processes. ..
  7. Wickström H, Holgert H, Hokfelt T, Lagercrantz H. Birth-related expression of c-fos, c-jun and substance P mRNAs in the rat brainstem and pia mater: possible relationship to changes in central chemosensitivity. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 1999;112:255-66 pubmed
    ..There was, however, an increase in the expression of c-jun mRNA in the pia mater surrounding the brainstem after birth...
  8. Sun H, Patel K, Mayhan W. Tetrahydrobiopterin, a cofactor for NOS, improves endothelial dysfunction during chronic alcohol consumption. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2001;281:H1863-9 pubmed
    ..Thus impaired NOS-dependent vasodilatation during alcohol consumption does not appear to be related to an alteration in eNOS protein but may be related to a deficiency and/or alteration in the utilization of BH4. ..
  9. Reina M, De León Casasola O, Villanueva M, Lopez A, Machés F, De Andrés J. Ultrastructural findings in human spinal pia mater in relation to subarachnoid anesthesia. Anesth Analg. 2004;98:1479-85, table of contents pubmed
    We examined ultrastructural details such as the cellular component and membrane thickness of human spinal pia mater with the aim of determining whether fenestrations are present...

More Information

Publications116 found, 100 shown here

  1. Zinck T, Illum R, Jansen Olesen I. Increased expression of endothelial and neuronal nitric oxide synthase in dura and pia mater after air stress. Cephalalgia. 2006;26:14-25 pubmed
    ..in Wistar rats the effect of air stress on nitric oxide synthase (NOS) mRNA and protein expression in dura and pia mater using real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively...
  2. Lee H, Lee B. Visualization of the network of primo vessels and primo nodes above the pia mater of the brain and spine of rats by using Alcian blue. J Acupunct Meridian Stud. 2012;5:218-25 pubmed publisher
    ..into the lateral ventricle, we were able to visualize the network of the nerve primo vascular system above the pia mater of the brain and spine of rats...
  3. Su D, Riley J, Armstead W, Liu R. Salvinorin A pretreatment preserves cerebrovascular autoregulation after brain hypoxic/ischemic injury via extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase in piglets. Anesth Analg. 2012;114:200-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated whether pretreatment with salvinorin A, the only natural nonopioid ? receptor agonist, could preserve autoregulation of the pial artery via MAPK...
  4. Risling M, Dalsgaard C, Frisen J, Sjögren A, Fried K. Substance P-, calcitonin gene-related peptide, growth-associated protein-43, and neurotrophin receptor-like immunoreactivity associated with unmyelinated axons in feline ventral roots and pia mater. J Comp Neurol. 1994;339:365-86 pubmed
    The spinal pia mater receives a rich innervation of small sensory axons via the ventral roots...
  5. Zhang E, Inman C, Weller R. Interrelationships of the pia mater and the perivascular (Virchow-Robin) spaces in the human cerebrum. J Anat. 1990;170:111-23 pubmed
    ..A thin sheath of pia mater cells was found to surround completely arterioles and arteries in the brain, in the subpial space and in the ..
  6. Arat A, Inci S. Treatment of a superior sagittal sinus dural arteriovenous fistula with Onyx: technical case report. Neurosurgery. 2006;59:ONSE169-70; discussion ONSE169-70 pubmed
    ..The endovascular treatment of a complex superior sagittal sinus dural arteriovenous fistula with ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (Onyx) in one session is described...
  7. Armstead W. Role of altered cyclooxygenase metabolism in impaired cerebrovasodilation to nociceptin/orphanin FQ following brain injury. Brain Res Bull. 2000;53:807-12 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that altered NOC/oFQ induced cyclooxygenase metabolism contributes to impairment of dilation to this opioid following FPI. ..
  8. Ueda Y, Wei E, Kontos H, Suehiro E, Povlishock J. Effects of delayed, prolonged hypothermia on the pial vascular response after traumatic brain injury in rats. J Neurosurg. 2003;99:899-906 pubmed
    ..The results of this study show that early as well as delayed but prolonged hypothermia attenuate the impaired vascular responsiveness seen after TBI, indicating the potential clinical usefulness of this treatment. ..
  9. Liu R, Yang Y, Shen J, Chen H, Zhang Q, Ba R, et al. Fstl1 is involved in the regulation of radial glial scaffold development. Mol Brain. 2015;8:53 pubmed publisher
    ..The ablation of Fstl1 in both of its cortical expression domains, the ventricular zone (VZ) and the pia mater, resulted in RGC morphologic disruption; basal processes were not parallel to each other, and endfeet exhibited ..
  10. Tomita Y, Tomita M, Schiszler I, Amano T, Tanahashi N, Kobari M, et al. Moment analysis of microflow histogram in focal ischemic lesion to evaluate microvascular derangement after small pial arterial occlusion in rats. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2002;22:663-9 pubmed
    ..The authors conclude that flow in ischemic tissue is quite heterogeneous and that an averaged flow value tends to smear important information about ischemic microvascular derangement. ..
  11. Gess B, Niederstadt T, Ringelstein E, Schäbitz W. [Clinical relevance of normal and enlarged Virchow-Robin spaces]. Nervenarzt. 2010;81:727-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we present an overview of the current knowledge on the anatomy, physiology and pathology of Virchow-Robin spaces. ..
  12. Barkoudah E, Jaggar J, Leffler C. The permissive role of endothelial NO in CO-induced cerebrovascular dilation. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2004;287:H1459-65 pubmed
    ..Such a requirement for NO could explain the endothelium dependency of CO-induced dilation in piglet pial arterioles. ..
  13. Jin X, Lee J, Leung L, Zhang L, Yang K, King A. Biomechanical response of the bovine pia-arachnoid complex to tensile loading at varying strain-rates. Stapp Car Crash J. 2006;50:637-49 pubmed
    ..Results from this study revealed the pia-arachnoid complex was rate-dependent and isotropic, suggesting that the pia-arachnoid complex can provide omnidirectional support and load bearing to the adjacent brain tissue during an impact. ..
  14. Sampei K, Ulatowski J, Asano Y, Kwansa H, Bucci E, Koehler R. Role of nitric oxide scavenging in vascular response to cell-free hemoglobin transfusion. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2005;289:H1191-201 pubmed
    ..The data support increasing the molecular size of Hb by polymerization or conjugation to limit extravasation in all vascular beds to preserve normal vascular reactivity. ..
  15. Borrell V, Kaspar B, Gage F, Callaway E. In vivo evidence for radial migration of neurons by long-distance somal translocation in the developing ferret visual cortex. Cereb Cortex. 2006;16:1571-83 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, by combining different labeling methods we find the simultaneous presence in the developing ferret cortex of long-distance translocating neurons and neurons migrating within a short leading process. ..
  16. Sokolova I, Sergeev I, Fedotova O, Melnikova N, Dvoretsky D. Age-related changes of microcirculation in pia mater of rats' sensorimotor cortex. Adv Gerontol. 2016;29:567-572 pubmed
    We studied the density of the microvascular network in the pia mater, the tissue perfusion and saturation of the oxygen of sensorimotor cortex of hypertensive rats of different ages...
  17. Armstead W. NOC/oFQ PKC-dependent superoxide generation contributes to hypoxic-ischemic impairment of NMDA cerebrovasodilation. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2000;279:H2678-84 pubmed
  18. Régrigny O, Delagrange P, Scalbert E, Atkinson J, Chillon J. Melatonin increases pial artery tone and decreases the lower limit of cerebral blood flow autoregulation. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2001;15:233-8 pubmed
    ..Our results show that melatonin shifts the LL of CBF autoregulation to a lower systemic pressure level. This effect does not appear to be explained by the effect of melatonin on cerebral arteriolar diameter. ..
  19. Lehmberg J, Putz C, Fürst M, Beck J, Baethmann A, Uhl E. Impact of the endothelin-A receptor antagonist BQ 610 on microcirculation in global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. Brain Res. 2003;961:277-86 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that application of endothelin-A antagonists may be a useful approach to interfere with derangements in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. ..
  20. Walcott B, Smith E, Scott R, Orbach D. Pial arteriovenous fistulae in pediatric patients: associated syndromes and treatment outcome. J Neurointerv Surg. 2013;5:10-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic screening is indicated, with capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation being the most frequently seen syndrome. No patients had hemorrhagic hereditary telangiectasia. ..
  21. Greene S, Bansal L, Coffman K, Nardone R, Zuccoli G. Pial Synangiosis Ameliorates Movement Disorders in the Absence of Prior Stroke in Moyamoya Disease. J Child Neurol. 2016;31:646-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Magnetic resonance imaging disclosed moyamoya disease-related basal ganglia anomalies in all patients. Moyamoya disease is an important and surgically treatable cause of movement disorders. ..
  22. Armstead W. Superoxide generation links protein kinase C activation to impaired ATP-sensitive K+ channel function after brain injury. Stroke. 1999;30:153-9 pubmed
    ..These data suggest, therefore, that O2- generation links PKC activation to impaired KATP channel function after FPI. ..
  23. Meng J, Okeda R. Histopathological structure of the pial arteriovenous malformation in adults: observation by reconstruction of serial sections of four surgical specimens. Acta Neuropathol. 2001;102:63-8 pubmed
    ..Moreover, our reconstruction study suggested that hemorrhage of AVM is caused by rupture of not only dilated veins, but also intranidal microaneurysms and that thrombosis is not always necessary. ..
  24. Gozalov A, Petersen K, Mortensen C, Jansen Olesen I, Klaerke D, Olesen J. Role of KATP channels in the regulation of rat dura and pia artery diameter. Cephalalgia. 2005;25:249-60 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, dural arteries were more sensitive to K(ATP) channel openers than pial arteries. ..
  25. Juhl L, Petersen K, Larsen E, Jansen Olesen I, Olesen J. The in vivo effect of adrenomedullin on rat dural and pial arteries. Eur J Pharmacol. 2006;538:101-7 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, we suggest that adrenomedullin in the rat cranial circulation dilates dural and pial arteries, reduces mean arterial blood pressure and increases LCBF(Flux), probably via a CGRP1-receptor. ..
  26. Yuan W, Lv Y, Zeng M, Fu B. Non-invasive measurement of solute permeability in cerebral microvessels of the rat. Microvasc Res. 2009;77:166-73 pubmed publisher
    ..These values were 1/10 to 1/6 of those of rat mesenteric microvessels for similar sized solutes (Fu, B.M., Shen, S., 2004. Acute VEGF effect on solute permeability of mammalian microvessels in vivo. Microvasc. Res. 68, 51-62.). ..
  27. Stuckmann I, Weigmann A, Shevchenko A, Mann M, Huttner W. Ephrin B1 is expressed on neuroepithelial cells in correlation with neocortical neurogenesis. J Neurosci. 2001;21:2726-37 pubmed
  28. Armstead W. NOC/oFQ and NMDA contribute to piglet hypoxic ischemic hypotensive cerebrovasodilation impairment. Pediatr Res. 2002;51:586-91 pubmed
    ..These data show that NOC/oFQ and NMDA contribute to hypoxic ischemic hypotensive cerebrovasodilation impairment. These data suggest that NOC/oFQ modulation of NMDA vascular activity also contributes to such hypotensive impairment. ..
  29. Price D, Ludwig J, Mi H, Schwarz T, Ellisman M. Distribution of rSlo Ca2+-activated K+ channels in rat astrocyte perivascular endfeet. Brain Res. 2002;956:183-93 pubmed
    ..that the rSlo staining was concentrated in astrocytic endfeet ensheathing capillaries as well as abutting the pia mater. Immunostaining within the endfeet was predominantly distributed at the plasma membrane directly adjacent to ..
  30. Smith E, McClain C, Heeney M, Scott R. Pial synangiosis in patients with moyamoya syndrome and sickle cell anemia: perioperative management and surgical outcome. Neurosurg Focus. 2009;26:E10 pubmed publisher
    ..This study underscores the potential merit of screening patients with SCA for moyamoya syndrome. ..
  31. Bechmann I, Priller J, Kovac A, Böntert M, Wehner T, Klett F, et al. Immune surveillance of mouse brain perivascular spaces by blood-borne macrophages. Eur J Neurosci. 2001;14:1651-8 pubmed
    ..At 14 weeks post transplantation, all perivascular cells were donor-derived. These data show that brain perivascular cells are a population of migratory macrophages and not resident histiocytes. ..
  32. Didion S, Faraci F. Angiotensin II produces superoxide-mediated impairment of endothelial function in cerebral arterioles. Stroke. 2003;34:2038-42 pubmed
    ..These findings are the first evidence that local Ang II produces superoxide-mediated vascular dysfunction in cerebral microvessels. The results with DPI suggest that the source of superoxide may be an NAD(P)H oxidase. ..
  33. Yamamoto A, Miki Y, Fushimi Y, Okada T, Tomimoto H. Mid-anterior surface of the callosal splenium: subependymal or subpial?. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2004;25:664-5 pubmed
  34. Pais V, Danaila L, Pais E. The vascular stem cell niches and their significance in the brain. J Neurosurg Sci. 2014;58:161-8 pubmed
    ..the presence of stem cells in the vascular wall of microvessels in the cerebral and cerebellar cortex, pia mater (considered by us a cordocytic-vascular tissue), adventitia of larger cortical arteries and veins, and around ..
  35. Gidday J, Park T, Shah A, Gonzales E. Modulation of basal and postischemic leukocyte-endothelial adherence by nitric oxide. Stroke. 1998;29:1423-9; discussion 1429-30 pubmed
    ..The latter may be useful therapeutically to prevent the purported vascular and parenchymal dysfunction and injury caused by activated leukocytes in ischemic brain. ..
  36. Goldblum D, Kipfer Kauer A, Sarra G, Wolf S, Frueh B. Distribution of amyloid precursor protein and amyloid-beta immunoreactivity in DBA/2J glaucomatous mouse retinas. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:5085-90 pubmed
    ..Disruption of the homeostatic properties of secreted APP with consecutive Abeta cytotoxicity might be a contributing factor of ganglion cell loss in glaucomatous mouse retinas. ..
  37. Zhou J, Pavlovic D, Willecke J, Friedel C, Whynot S, Hung O, et al. Activated protein C improves pial microcirculation in experimental endotoxemia in rats. Microvasc Res. 2012;83:276-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Our hypothesis is rhAPC protects pial microcirculation in endotoxemia...
  38. Zargaran A, Borhani Haghighi A, Faridi P, Daneshamouz S, Mohagheghzadeh A. A review on the management of migraine in the Avicenna's Canon of Medicine. Neurol Sci. 2016;37:471-8 pubmed publisher
  39. Hanse M, van T Veer M, van Lom K, van den Bent M. Incidence of central nervous system involvement in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and outcome to treatment. J Neurol. 2008;255:828-30 pubmed publisher
    ..They found an incidence of 1-2% of LI. Most of the patients with LI had a longterm survival, despite failure to clear the cerebrospinal fluid from tumor cells. ..
  40. Wachter D, Psychogios M, Gilsbach J, Rohde V. Spinal cord cavernoma--operative strategy and results in 30 patients. J Neurol Surg A Cent Eur Neurosurg. 2012;73:125-31 pubmed publisher
    ..In the majority of patients limited approaches are sufficient for successful cavernoma removal. In our series anterior approaches had not been necessary. ..
  41. Chapenko S, Roga S, Skuja S, Rasa S, Cistjakovs M, Svirskis S, et al. Detection frequency of human herpesviruses-6A, -6B, and -7 genomic sequences in central nervous system DNA samples from post-mortem individuals with unspecified encephalopathy. J Neurovirol. 2016;22:488-97 pubmed publisher
    ..higher detection frequency of single HHV-6 and concurrent HHV-6 + HHV-7 DNA was found in pia mater meninges, frontal lobe, temporal lobe, and olfactory tract DNAs in individuals with encephalopathy compared to ..
  42. Beuckmann C, Lazarus M, Gerashchenko D, Mizoguchi A, Nomura S, Mohri I, et al. Cellular localization of lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (beta-trace) in the central nervous system of the adult rat. J Comp Neurol. 2000;428:62-78 pubmed
    ..for prostaglandin D synthase were located in arachnoid barrier cells, arachnoid trabecular cells, and arachnoid pia mater cells...
  43. Inoue S, Kawaguchi M, Kurehara K, Sakamoto T, Kitaguchi K, Furuya H. Effect of mild hypothermia on inodilator-induced vasodilation of pial arterioles in cats. J Trauma. 2002;53:646-53 pubmed
    ..The vasodilation induced by these inodilators was not affected by mild hypothermia. The vasodilation induced by topical administration of isoproterenol, colforsin dapropate, and amrinone was not affected by mild hypothermia. ..
  44. Meno J, Nguyen T, Jensen E, Alexander West G, Groysman L, Kung D, et al. Effect of caffeine on cerebral blood flow response to somatosensory stimulation. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2005;25:775-84 pubmed
  45. Lanotte M, Perez R, Boccaletti R, Castellano I, Cassoni P, Ducati A. Atypical growth pattern of a meningioma in an adult. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2007;47:360-3 pubmed
    ..A biopsy of the lesion was performed. Histological examination indicated that the lesion was a meningioma. Intraparenchymal meningiomas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of intraaxial lesions in patients of any age. ..
  46. Shin H, Lee J, Kim K, Kim C, Lee W, Rhim B, et al. Impairment of autoregulatory vasodilation by NAD(P)H oxidase-dependent superoxide generation during acute stage of subarachnoid hemorrhage in rat pial artery. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2002;22:869-77 pubmed
  47. Jimbo H, Ikeda Y, Izawa H, Otsuka K, Haraoka J. Mixed pial-dural arteriovenous malformation in the anterior cranial fossa--two case reports. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2010;50:470-5 pubmed
    ..The presence of a pial feeder should be considered before diagnosis of dural AVF of the anterior cranial fossa, and preoperative detailed evaluation for the pial supply and shunting point is mandatory. ..
  48. Lohani S, Madsen J, Bergin A, Smith E. Moyamoya disease with mesial temporal sclerosis. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2013;11:713-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This case of moyamoya is unique in its association with MTS, and for the simultaneous operations for pial synangiosis and temporal lobectomy, highlighting the importance of surgical planning in patients with dual pathological processes. ..
  49. Ding J, Sigurðsson S, Jonsson P, Eiriksdottir G, Charidimou A, Lopez O, et al. Large Perivascular Spaces Visible on Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cerebral Small Vessel Disease Progression, and Risk of Dementia: The Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study. JAMA Neurol. 2017;74:1105-1112 pubmed publisher
    ..Large PVSs should be included in assessments of vascular cognitive impairment in the older population and as potential targets for interventions. ..
  50. Yang Y, Zhang P, Xiong Y, Li X, Qi Y, Hu H. Ectopia of meningeal fibroblasts and reactive gliosis in the cerebral cortex of the mouse model of muscle-eye-brain disease. J Comp Neurol. 2007;505:459-77 pubmed
  51. Gutiérrez Morales J, Gutiérrez Morales S, Ruiz Moya B, Palomeque M, García A. Neural surfaces coverage with "collagen films and cigarettes": A revisited and modified method of protection and retraction during microsurgical approaches to craniospinal lesions. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2010;112:144-8 pubmed publisher
    ..It seems to be a good alternative to surgical cotton patties and other materials owing to its hemostatic, protection, retraction, and dissection capacity. ..
  52. Moos T, Morgan E. Kinetics and distribution of [59Fe-125I]transferrin injected into the ventricular system of the rat. Brain Res. 1998;790:115-28 pubmed
    ..However, it may serve these functions in young animals due to a lower rate of turnover of CSF. ..
  53. Goldbrunner R, Bernstein J, Plate K, Vince G, Roosen K, Tonn J. Vascularization of human glioma spheroids implanted into rat cortex is conferred by two distinct mechanisms. J Neurosci Res. 1999;55:486-95 pubmed
    ..Our model proves to be a reliable, reproducible system to study in vivo angiogenesis of human gliomas. ..
  54. Bahuleyan B, Daniel R, Chacko G, Chacko A. Epidermoid cysts of the velum interpositum. J Clin Neurosci. 2008;15:1159-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Tumors of the third ventricle displace the internal cerebral veins dorsally. A transcallosal approach was used in both patients to effectively excise the tumors...
  55. Zhang X, Kainz V, Jakubowski M, Burstein R, Strassman A, Levy D. Localization of COX-1 and COX-2 in the intracranial dura mater of the rat. Neurosci Lett. 2009;452:33-6 pubmed
    ..The findings suggest that NSAIDs may abort headache, at least in part, by inhibiting either neuronal or non-neuronal COX activity in the dura mater. ..
  56. Lapi D, Mastantuono T, Sapio D, Paterni M, Colantuoni A. Pial microvascular responses induced by transient bilateral common carotid artery occlusion in Zucker rats. Clin Hemorheol Microcirc. 2013;54:415-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, ZO rats showed more pronounced lesion in the cortex and striatum. Obesity and hyperglycemia could increase vascular remodeling in cerebral networks, with elevated risk of adverse outcome after brain hypoperfusion-reperfusion. ..
  57. Vilela P, Terbrugge K, Willinsky R. Association of distinct intracranial pial and dural arteriovenous shunts. Neuroradiology. 2001;43:770-7 pubmed
    ..Presentation was related to the dural lesion in 5 cases (62.5 %) and to the pial malformation in three (37.5%). Treatment of these lesions should be considered separately based on their angio-architecture and natural history. ..
  58. Pourcyrous M, Bada H, Parfenova H, Daley M, Korones S, Leffler C. Cerebrovasodilatory contribution of endogenous carbon monoxide during seizures in newborn pigs. Pediatr Res. 2002;51:579-85 pubmed
    ..Therefore, CO appears to be involved in cerebral vasodilation caused by glutamatergic seizures. ..
  59. Ando Y, Terazaki H, Nakamura M, Ando E, Haraoka K, Yamashita T, et al. A different amyloid formation mechanism: de novo oculoleptomeningeal amyloid deposits after liver transplantation. Transplantation. 2004;77:345-9 pubmed
    ..However, the effect on amyloid formation of TTR that is synthesised by the retina and the choroid plexus remains to be elucidated in FAP patients with liver transplants...
  60. Xu H, Santizo R, Koenig H, Pelligrino D. Chronic estrogen depletion alters adenosine diphosphate-induced pial arteriolar dilation in female rats. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2001;281:H2105-12 pubmed
    ..The continued sensitivity to IbTX in Ovx rats, despite the loss of a NO contribution, is suggestive of a conversion to a hyperpolarizing factor dependency in the absence of E2. ..
  61. Reyal F, Vuillard E, Sibony O, Magnier S, Oury J, Luton D. Prenatal diagnosis of pial-superficial arteriovenous malformation. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2002;17:255-6 pubmed
    ..This paper highlights the importance of careful prenatal cerebral examination in cases of cardiac ventricle enlargement. ..
  62. Armstead W. ET-1 contributes to age-dependent G protein impairment after brain injury. J Neurotrauma. 2003;20:105-10 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that ET-1 contributes to the impairment of G protein-mediated vasodilation in an age-dependent manner after FPI. ..
  63. Tosun D, Rettmann M, Naiman D, Resnick S, Kraut M, Prince J. Cortical reconstruction using implicit surface evolution: accuracy and precision analysis. Neuroimage. 2006;29:838-52 pubmed
    ..Parameters were adjusted on the basis of this analysis in order to improve the algorithm's overall performance. ..
  64. Mastantuono T, Starita N, Sapio D, D Avanzo S, Di Maro M, Muscariello E, et al. The Effects of Vaccinium myrtillus Extract on Hamster Pial Microcirculation during Hypoperfusion-Reperfusion Injury. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0150659 pubmed publisher
  65. Mi H, Haeberle H, Barres B. Induction of astrocyte differentiation by endothelial cells. J Neurosci. 2001;21:1538-47 pubmed
    ..The ability to purify and culture astrocytes and endothelial cells should provide an excellent model system for future studies of blood-brain barrier development. ..
  66. Xu H, Feinstein D, Santizo R, Koenig H, Pelligrino D. Agonist-specific differences in mechanisms mediating eNOS-dependent pial arteriolar dilation in rats. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2002;282:H237-43 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that muscarinic (ACh) and purinergic (ADP) receptor-mediated eNOS activation in cerebral arterioles involve distinctly different signal transduction pathways. ..
  67. Borel C, McKee A, Parra A, Haglund M, Solan A, Prabhakar V, et al. Possible role for vascular cell proliferation in cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke. 2003;34:427-33 pubmed
    ..Proliferation of cells in the vascular wall is associated with perivascular thrombus. Cellular proliferation and subsequent vessel wall thickening may contribute to the syndrome of delayed cerebral vasospasm. ..
  68. Herzig M, Winkler D, Burgermeister P, Pfeifer M, Kohler E, Schmidt S, et al. Abeta is targeted to the vasculature in a mouse model of hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis. Nat Neurosci. 2004;7:954-60 pubmed
  69. Hashizume K, Tanaka T. Multiple subpial transection in kainic acid-induced focal cortical seizure. Epilepsy Res. 1998;32:389-99 pubmed
    ..However, clinical seizures were not completely inhibited because vertical interactions between the focus and subcortical areas were preserved. Glucose metabolic changes provided evidence of conserved cortical function following MST. ..
  70. Goddard A, Phatouros C, Khangure M. Spontaneous regression of an infantile dural sinus fistula with pial recruitment. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2002;23:1482-4 pubmed
    ..Subsequent spontaneous regression of the lesion occurred over 11 months. The clinical and angiographic features that indicated a probable favorable prognosis are discussed. ..
  71. Lee J, Lee J, Kim J, Kim I, Evans A, Kim S. A novel quantitative cross-validation of different cortical surface reconstruction algorithms using MRI phantom. Neuroimage. 2006;31:572-84 pubmed
    ..In the validation of local density of points, Freesurfer and BrainVISA showed more even distribution of points on the cortical surface compared to CLASP. ..
  72. Tubbs R, Louis R, Wartmann C, Loukas M, Shoja M, Apaydin N, et al. The velum interpositum revisited and redefined. Surg Radiol Anat. 2008;30:131-5 pubmed
    ..Clear planes exist between the VI and surrounding structures such as the pineal gland. Such data may be useful to neurosurgeons who operate in this region and to clinicians who interpret imaging in the area of the VI. ..
  73. Lacerda Queiroz N, Rodrigues D, Vilela M, Miranda A, Amaral D, Camargos E, et al. Inflammatory changes in the central nervous system are associated with behavioral impairment in Plasmodium berghei (strain ANKA)-infected mice. Exp Parasitol. 2010;125:271-8 pubmed publisher
    ..i. onwards. Thus, early leukocyte migration into the brain and associated inflammatory changes may be involved in neurological impairment in parasite-infected C57Bl/6 mice. ..
  74. Fricke B, Andres K, von Düring M. Nerve fibers innervating the cranial and spinal meninges: morphology of nerve fiber terminals and their structural integration. Microsc Res Tech. 2001;53:96-105 pubmed
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