subarachnoid space


Summary: The space between the arachnoid membrane and PIA MATER, filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID. It contains large blood vessels that supply the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.

Top Publications

  1. Linge S, Haughton V, Løvgren A, Mardal K, Langtangen H. CSF flow dynamics at the craniovertebral junction studied with an idealized model of the subarachnoid space and computational flow analysis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2010;31:185-92 pubmed publisher
    How CSF flow varies with the anatomy of the subarachnoid space has not been sufficiently well studied...
  2. Stockman H. Effect of anatomical fine structure on the dispersion of solutes in the spinal subarachnoid space. J Biomech Eng. 2007;129:666-75 pubmed
    The dispersion of a solute bolus is calculated for cerebrospinal fluid undergoing oscillatory flow in the subarachnoid space of the spine...
  3. Rekate H, Nadkarni T, Wallace D. The importance of the cortical subarachnoid space in understanding hydrocephalus. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2008;2:1-11 pubmed publisher
    In this paper the authors define the role of the cortical subarachnoid space (CSAS) in poorly understood forms of hydrocephalus to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics to improve understanding of the importance of the CSAS and its role in ..
  4. Shimizu J, Yamada K, Mochida K, Kako T, Muroya N, Teratani Y, et al. Comparison of the diagnosis of intervertebral disc herniation in dogs by CT before and after contrast enhancement of the subarachnoid space. Vet Rec. 2009;165:200-2 pubmed
    ..a herniated intervertebral disc were examined by CT, first before and then after contrast enhancement of the subarachnoid space. The images were classified into three grades by three veterinarians...
  5. Ohno Matsui K, Akiba M, Moriyama M, Ishibashi T, Tokoro T, Spaide R. Imaging retrobulbar subarachnoid space around optic nerve by swept-source optical coherence tomography in eyes with pathologic myopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:9644-50 pubmed publisher
    To examine the subarachnoid space (SAS) of eyes with pathologic myopia and analyze the characteristics of the SAS and the surrounding tissues by swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT)...
  6. Moon S, Cha R, Lee M, Kim S, Soh K. Primo vascular system in the subarachnoid space of the spinal cord of a pig. J Acupunct Meridian Stud. 2012;5:226-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The primo vessels were expected to lie in the subarachnoid space between the pia mater and the arachnoid mater...
  7. Bech Azeddine R, Nielsen O, Løgager V, Juhler M. Lumbar elastance and resistance to CSF outflow correlated to patency of the cranial subarachnoid space and clinical outcome of endoscopic third ventriculostomy in obstructive hydrocephalus. Minim Invasive Neurosurg. 2007;50:189-94 pubmed
    ..OH) for endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV), and whether the presence of a diminished cranial subarachnoid space was a source of error in the interpretation of the results...
  8. Gupta S, Soellinger M, Boesiger P, Poulikakos D, Kurtcuoglu V. Three-dimensional computational modeling of subject-specific cerebrospinal fluid flow in the subarachnoid space. J Biomech Eng. 2009;131:021010 pubmed publisher
    ..subject-specific cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics in the inferior cranial space, the superior spinal subarachnoid space (SAS), and the fourth cerebral ventricle using a combination of a finite-volume computational fluid dynamics ..
  9. Gupta S, Soellinger M, Grzybowski D, Boesiger P, Biddiscombe J, Poulikakos D, et al. Cerebrospinal fluid dynamics in the human cranial subarachnoid space: an overlooked mediator of cerebral disease. I. Computational model. J R Soc Interface. 2010;7:1195-204 pubmed publisher
    ..a three-dimensional, transient, subject-specific computational analysis of CSF flow in the human cranial subarachnoid space (SAS) based on in vivo magnetic resonance imaging...

More Information

Publications102 found, 100 shown here

  1. Stuckey S, Goh T, Heffernan T, Rowan D. Hyperintensity in the subarachnoid space on FLAIR MRI. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2007;189:913-21 pubmed
    The purposes of this essay are to illustrate the causes of FLAIR hyperintensity in the subarachnoid space and to outline the mechanisms of the findings...
  2. Martin B, LABUDA R, Royston T, Oshinski J, Iskandar B, Loth F. Spinal subarachnoid space pressure measurements in an in vitro spinal stenosis model: implications on syringomyelia theories. J Biomech Eng. 2010;132:111007 pubmed publisher
    ..It has been hypothesized that abnormal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure, caused by subarachnoid space (SAS) flow blockage (stenosis), is an underlying cause of syrinx formation and subsequent pain in the ..
  3. Cheng S, Stoodley M, Wong J, Hemley S, Fletcher D, Bilston L. The presence of arachnoiditis affects the characteristics of CSF flow in the spinal subarachnoid space: a modelling study. J Biomech. 2012;45:1186-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Using three-dimensional computational models of the spinal subarachnoid space (SAS), this study aims to determine SAS obstructions, such as arachnoiditis, change in CSF dynamics in the ..
  4. Holman D, Kurtcuoglu V, Grzybowski D. Cerebrospinal fluid dynamics in the human cranial subarachnoid space: an overlooked mediator of cerebral disease. II. In vitro arachnoid outflow model. J R Soc Interface. 2010;7:1205-18 pubmed publisher
  5. Pluciński J, Frydrychowski A. New aspects in assessment of changes in width of subarachnoid space with near-infrared transillumination/backscattering sounding, part 1: Monte Carlo numerical modeling. J Biomed Opt. 2007;12:044015 pubmed
    ..The study demonstrates the effect of the cardiac pump function-dependent changes in the width of the subarachnoid space (SAS) on the intensity of the backscattered radiation...
  6. Frydrychowski A, Pluciński J. New aspects in assessment of changes in width of subarachnoid space with near-infrared transillumination-backscattering sounding, part 2: clinical verification in the patient. J Biomed Opt. 2007;12:044016 pubmed
    ..when changes of signals received by the detectors are recorded, along with changes of the width of the subarachnoid space. What is more, the power distribution of the spectrum of near-infrared backscattered radiation returning to ..
  7. Li J, Mcallister J, Shen Y, Wagshul M, Miller J, Egnor M, et al. Communicating hydrocephalus in adult rats with kaolin obstruction of the basal cisterns or the cortical subarachnoid space. Exp Neurol. 2008;211:351-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to develop and characterize models of subarachnoid space (SAS) obstruction at the basal cisterns (BC) or cerebral convexities (CX), 25% kaolin was injected in adult ..
  8. Watanabe A, Kinouchi H, Horikoshi T, Uchida M, Ishigame K. Effect of intracranial pressure on the diameter of the optic nerve sheath. J Neurosurg. 2008;109:255-8 pubmed publisher
    The subarachnoid space around the optic nerve in the orbit can be visualized using T2-weighted MR imaging with the fat-saturation pulse sequence...
  9. Xu F, Li T, Zhang B. An improved method for protecting and fixing the lumbar catheters placed in the spinal subarachnoid space of rats. J Neurosci Methods. 2009;183:114-8 pubmed publisher
    The chronic intrathecal catheterization of the subarachnoid space in the rat is a very useful model in the research of neuroscience, anesthesiology, neurotoxicity, and etc...
  10. Frydrychowski A, Szarmach A, Czaplewski B, Winklewski P. Subarachnoid space: new tricks by an old dog. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37529 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of the study was to: (1) evaluate the subarachnoid space (SAS) width and pial artery pulsation in both hemispheres, and (2) directly compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to near-infrared transillumination/backscattering ..
  11. Gardner C, Magliozzi R, Durrenberger P, Howell O, Rundle J, Reynolds R. Cortical grey matter demyelination can be induced by elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines in the subarachnoid space of MOG-immunized rats. Brain. 2013;136:3596-608 pubmed publisher
    ..Injection of tumour necrosis factor and interferon gamma into the subarachnoid space of female Dark Agouti rats pre-immunized with a subclinical dose of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein ..
  12. Frydrychowski A, Pankiewicz P, Sowinski P, Krzyzowski J. Cerebrovascular pulsation and width of subarachnoid space during electroconvulsive therapy. J ECT. 2009;25:99-105 pubmed publisher
    ..The investigations on changes in the width of the subarachnoid space (SAS) and intracranial pulsation amplitude by near infrared-transillumination/backscattering sounding method ..
  13. Akers S, Rellick S, Fortney J, Gibson L. Cellular elements of the subarachnoid space promote ALL survival during chemotherapy. Leuk Res. 2011;35:705-11 pubmed publisher
  14. Wszedybyl Winklewska M, Frydrychowski A, Michalska B, Winklewski P. Effects of the Valsalva maneuver on pial artery pulsation and subarachnoid width in healthy adults. Microvasc Res. 2011;82:369-73 pubmed publisher
    ..3 ± SE 4.0) were studied. Changes in the amplitude of CVP (cc-TQ) and width of subarachnoid space (SAS; sas-TQ) were recorded with NIR-T/BSS sensor...
  15. Wang N, Xie X, Yang D, Xian J, Li Y, Ren R, et al. Orbital cerebrospinal fluid space in glaucoma: the Beijing intracranial and intraocular pressure (iCOP) study. Ophthalmology. 2012;119:2065-2073.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..We measured the optic nerve subarachnoid space width (ONSASW) as a surrogate for orbital CSF-P in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) with ..
  16. Frydrychowski A, Winklewski P, Gumiński W. Influence of acute jugular vein compression on the cerebral blood flow velocity, pial artery pulsation and width of subarachnoid space in humans. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e48245 pubmed publisher
    ..This study clarifies the potential mechanism linking jugular outflow insufficiency with arterial small vessel cerebral disease. ..
  17. Narli N, Soyupak S, Yildizdaş H, Tutak E, Ozcan K, Sertdemir Y, et al. Ultrasonographic measurement of subarachnoid space in normal term newborns. Eur J Radiol. 2006;58:110-2 pubmed
    This study was conducted in order to assess the normal range of subarachnoid space width in healthy term newborns. A total of 230 healthy newborns were evaluated within the first 28 days of life...
  18. Firouzi M, Moshayedi P, Saberi H, Mobasheri H, Abolhassani F, Jahanzad I, et al. Transplantation of Schwann cells to subarachnoid space induces repair in contused rat spinal cord. Neurosci Lett. 2006;402:66-70 pubmed
    ..Schwann cells (5x10(4) cells in 5 microl) or medium were injected to the animals of corresponding groups via subarachnoid space at the injured site 7 days after injury...
  19. Maeda M, Yagishita A, Yamamoto T, Sakuma H, Takeda K. Abnormal hyperintensity within the subarachnoid space evaluated by fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery MR imaging: a spectrum of central nervous system diseases. Eur Radiol. 2003;13 Suppl 4:L192-201 pubmed
    A variety of central nervous system (CNS) diseases are associated with abnormal hyperintensity within the subarachnoid space (SAS) by fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) MR imaging...
  20. Yu Q, Kong X, Liu D. Differential diagnosis of arachnoid cyst from subarachnoid space enlargement by phase-contrast cine MRI. Chin Med J (Engl). 2003;116:116-20 pubmed phase-contrast cine MRI, and to evaluate this technique in differentiating between arachnoid cysts and subarachnoid space enlargement...
  21. Pease A, Sullivan S, Olby N, Galano H, Cerda Gonzalez S, Robertson I, et al. Value of a single-shot turbo spin-echo pulse sequence for assessing the architecture of the subarachnoid space and the constitutive nature of cerebrospinal fluid. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2006;47:254-9 pubmed
    ..presented to illustrate the value of the single-shot turbo spin-echo pulse sequence for assessment of the subarachnoid space. The use of the single-shot turbo spin-echo pulse sequence, which is a heavily T2-weighted sequence, allows ..
  22. Shin T, Kojima T, Tanuma N, Ishihara Y, Matsumoto Y. The subarachnoid space as a site for precursor T cell proliferation and effector T cell selection in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Neuroimmunol. 1995;56:171-8 pubmed
    ..In the early stage of EAE, inflammatory cells first appeared in the subarachnoid space (SAS) and infiltrated the subpial region...
  23. Stoodley M, Jones N, Brown C. Evidence for rapid fluid flow from the subarachnoid space into the spinal cord central canal in the rat. Brain Res. 1996;707:155-64 pubmed
    ..received an injection of HRP in the cisterna magna and a second group was injected in the thoracic spinal subarachnoid space. The animals were sacrificed 0, 10 or 30 min after HRP injection by rapid perfusion with paraformaldehyde ..
  24. Shin T, Matsumoto Y. A quantitative analysis of CD45Rlow CD4+ T cells in the subarachnoid space of Lewis rats with autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Immunol Invest. 2001;30:57-64 pubmed
    In order to quantify encephalitogenic effector T cells in the subarachnoid space (SAS) and spinal cord afflicted with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), we immunized Lewis rats using myelin basic protein and complete Freund'..
  25. Eidlitz Markus T, Shuper A, Constantini S. Short-term subarachnoid space drainage: a potential treatment for extraventricular hydrocephalus. Childs Nerv Syst. 2003;19:367-70 pubmed
    ..describe a 6-month-old girl with EVOH and developmental delay who was treated with temporary drainage of the subarachnoid space. Clinical response was immediate, with stabilization of the head circumference and improvement in motor ..
  26. Petzold G, Einhaupl K, Dirnagl U, Dreier J. Ischemia triggered by spreading neuronal activation is induced by endothelin-1 and hemoglobin in the subarachnoid space. Ann Neurol. 2003;54:591-8 pubmed
    ..The results may have implications for the understanding of subarachnoid hemorrhage-related cortical lesions. ..
  27. Bilston L, Fletcher D, Stoodley M. Focal spinal arachnoiditis increases subarachnoid space pressure: a computational study. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2006;21:579-84 pubmed
    ..Localized scar tissue (arachnoiditis) within the subarachnoid space at the level of injury has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of syrinx formation...
  28. Killer H, Jaggi G, Flammer J, Miller N, Huber A, Mironov A. Cerebrospinal fluid dynamics between the intracranial and the subarachnoid space of the optic nerve. Is it always bidirectional?. Brain. 2007;130:514-20 pubmed
    ..The concept of an optic nerve compartment syndrome is further supported by a concentration gradient of brain-derived L-PGDS between the spinal CSF and the CSF from the optic nerve SAS in the same patients. ..
  29. Lee J, Chung C, Kim H. Decompression of the spinal subarachnoid space as a solution for syringomyelia without Chiari malformation. Spinal Cord. 2002;40:501-6 pubmed
    ..A comparison between the pre- and post-operative syrinx size and CSF flow in the subarachnoid space was made using cine-mode magnetic resonance imaging (cine-MRI) and then correlated with clinical improvement...
  30. Dreier J, Windmüller O, Petzold G, Lindauer U, Einhaupl K, Dirnagl U. Ischemia triggered by red blood cell products in the subarachnoid space is inhibited by nimodipine administration or moderate volume expansion/hemodilution in rats. Neurosurgery. 2002;51:1457-65; discussion 1465-7 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that a mechanism involving the cortical microcirculation might underlie the therapeutic effects of nimodipine and volume expansion. ..
  31. Wu W, Xu X, Hao J. Chronic lumbar catheterization of the spinal subarachnoid space in mice. J Neurosci Methods. 2004;133:65-9 pubmed
    A simple method for chronic intrathecal (i.t.) catheterization of the lumbar subarachnoid space in mice is described. The procedure does not require major surgery and does not produce neurological deficits...
  32. Kida S, Pantazis A, Weller R. CSF drains directly from the subarachnoid space into nasal lymphatics in the rat. Anatomy, histology and immunological significance. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 1993;19:480-8 pubmed
    ..Carbon particles in the subarachnoid space beneath the olfactory bulbs drained directly into discrete channels which passed through the cribriform ..
  33. Nau R, Zettl U, Gerber J, Trostdorf F, Michel U, Böttcher T, et al. Granulocytes in the subarachnoid space of humans and rabbits with bacterial meningitis undergo apoptosis and are eliminated by macrophages. Acta Neuropathol. 1998;96:472-80 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, during resolution of subarachnoid space inflammation in bacterial meningitis, a substantial fraction of granulocytes undergoes apoptosis...
  34. Litz R, Vicent O, Wiessner D, Heller A. Misplacement of a psoas compartment catheter in the subarachnoid space. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2004;29:60-4 pubmed
    This case report describes an unusual cause of misplacement of an indwelling catheter in the subarachnoid space after primary psoas compartment block in a patient undergoing total knee arthroplasty...
  35. Kim Y, Jeon Y, Jin G, Lim J, Baek W. Immunoisolated chromaffin cells implanted into the subarachnoid space of rats reduce cold allodynia in a model of neuropathic pain: a novel application of microencapsulation technology. Artif Organs. 2004;28:1059-66 pubmed
    ..We found that microencapsulated chromaffin cells that were implanted into the subarachnoid space of rats relieved cold allodynia in a model of neuropathic pain...
  36. Stockman H. Effect of anatomical fine structure on the flow of cerebrospinal fluid in the spinal subarachnoid space. J Biomech Eng. 2006;128:106-14 pubmed
    The lattice Boltzmann method is used to model oscillatory flow in the spinal subarachnoid space. The effect of obstacles such as trabeculae, nerve bundles, and ligaments on fluid velocity profiles appears to be small, when the flow is ..
  37. Takiguchi T, Yamaguchi S, Tezuka M, Furukawa N, Kitajima T. Compression of the subarachnoid space by the engorged epidural venous plexus in pregnant women. Anesthesiology. 2006;105:848-51 pubmed
  38. Downs J, Yang H, Girkin C, Sakata L, Bellezza A, Thompson H, et al. Three-dimensional histomorphometry of the normal and early glaucomatous monkey optic nerve head: neural canal and subarachnoid space architecture. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:3195-208 pubmed
    ..laminar insertion (PLI), and posterior scleral canal opening (PSCO)-and the anterior-most aspect of the subarachnoid space (ASAS), within digital three-dimensional (3-D) reconstructions of the monkey optic nerve head (ONH)...
  39. Størkson R, Kjørsvik A, Tjølsen A, Hole K. Lumbar catheterization of the spinal subarachnoid space in the rat. J Neurosci Methods. 1996;65:167-72 pubmed
    The method commonly used for catheterization of the lumbar subarachnoid space in the rat implies inserting the catheter through the atlanto-occipital (A-O) membrane and moving the catheter caudally along the spinal cord...
  40. Muhle C, Wiskirchen J, Weinert D, Falliner A, Wesner F, Brinkmann G, et al. Biomechanical aspects of the subarachnoid space and cervical cord in healthy individuals examined with kinematic magnetic resonance imaging. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1998;23:556-67 pubmed
    ..To determine the functional changes of the cervical cord and the subarachnoid space that occur during flexion and extension of the cervical spine in healthy individuals...
  41. Brodbelt A, Stoodley M, Watling A, Tu J, Burke S, Jones N. Altered subarachnoid space compliance and fluid flow in an animal model of posttraumatic syringomyelia. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2003;28:E413-9 pubmed
    ..To determine the effects of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion from the subarachnoid space on perivascular flow (PVS) and syrinx formation in posttraumatic syringomyelia...
  42. Recinos P, Pradilla G, Thai Q, Perez M, Hdeib A, Tamargo R. Controlled release of lipopolysaccharide in the subarachnoid space of rabbits induces chronic vasospasm in the absence of blood. Surg Neurol. 2006;66:463-9; discussion 469 pubmed
    ..Significant narrowing of the basilar artery was observed by insertion of 20% LPS/EVAc polymers into the subarachnoid space at a polymeric dose of 1.4 mg/kg (actual dose, 66 microg kg(-1) d(-1)) (75.4% +/- 4.2%; P < ...
  43. Rennels M, Gregory T, Blaumanis O, Fujimoto K, Grady P. Evidence for a 'paravascular' fluid circulation in the mammalian central nervous system, provided by the rapid distribution of tracer protein throughout the brain from the subarachnoid space. Brain Res. 1985;326:47-63 pubmed
    The protein tracer, horseradish peroxidase (HRP), was infused into the lateral cerebral ventricles or subarachnoid space of anesthetized cats and dogs after insertion of a cisternal cannula to permit drainage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) ..
  44. Milligan E, Hinde J, Mehmert K, Maier S, Watkins L. A method for increasing the viability of the external portion of lumbar catheters placed in the spinal subarachnoid space of rats. J Neurosci Methods. 1999;90:81-6 pubmed
    A method for direct catheterization of the lumbar subarachnoid space has recently been developed by Storkson et al...
  45. Suara R, Trouth A, Collins M. Benign subarachnoid space enlargement of infancy. J Natl Med Assoc. 2001;93:70-3 pubmed
    b>Subarachnoid space enlargement is a benign clinical entity characterized by rapid head enlargement in an infant with normal neurodevelopment...
  46. Vega J, Jonakait G. The cervical lymph nodes drain antigens administered into the spinal subarachnoid space of the rat. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2004;30:416-8 pubmed
  47. Gongora Rivera F, Soto Hernandez J, González Esquivel D, Cook H, Márquez Caraveo C, Hernández Dávila R, et al. Albendazole trial at 15 or 30 mg/kg/day for subarachnoid and intraventricular cysticercosis. Neurology. 2006;66:436-8 pubmed
    ..An albendazole course at 30 mg/kg/day combined with corticosteroids is safe and more effective than the usual dose. A single treatment was insufficient in intraventricular and giant cysts. ..
  48. Guenot M, Lee J, NasiriNezhad F, Sagen J. Deafferentation pain resulting from cervical posterior rhizotomy is alleviated by chromaffin cell transplants into the rat spinal subarachnoid space. Neurosurgery. 2007;60:919-25; discussion 919-25 pubmed
    ..Previous work has demonstrated that adrenal medullary transplants into the lumbar spinal subarachnoid space can alleviate neuropathic pain behavior resulting from peripheral nerve or spinal cord injury...
  49. Leib S, Tauber M. Pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1999;13:527-48, v-vi pubmed
    ..This article reviews current concepts of the pathophysiology of bacterial meningitis and emphasizes possible therapeutic strategies to prevent its harmful consequences. ..
  50. Pluciński J, Frydrychowski A, Kaczmarek J, Juzwa W. Theoretical foundations for noninvasive measurement of variations in the width of the subarachnoid space. J Biomed Opt. 2000;5:291-9 pubmed
    ..and importance is the propagation of radiation within the layer of cerebrospinal fluid contained in the subarachnoid space (SAS), which is the only low absorption/high transmittance medium whose width can vary rapidly...
  51. Lam W, Ai V, Wong V, Leong L. Ultrasonographic measurement of subarachnoid space in normal infants and children. Pediatr Neurol. 2001;25:380-4 pubmed
    ..Correlation of measurement with age must be considered to decide whether an increase in subarachnoid space is pathologic or not.
  52. Armstrong D, Bagnall C, Harding J, Teele R. Measurement of the subarachnoid space by ultrasound in preterm infants. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2002;86:F124-6 pubmed
    Measurements of the subarachnoid space during routine cranial sonography may provide an indirect method of monitoring brain growth in preterm infants...
  53. Killer H, Laeng H, Flammer J, Groscurth P. Architecture of arachnoid trabeculae, pillars, and septa in the subarachnoid space of the human optic nerve: anatomy and clinical considerations. Br J Ophthalmol. 2003;87:777-81 pubmed
    To describe the anatomy and the arrangement of the arachnoid trabeculae, pillars, and septa in the subarachnoid space of the human optic nerve and to consider their possible clinical relevance for cerebrospinal fluid dynamics and fluid ..
  54. Fleury A, Dessein A, Preux P, Dumas M, Tapia G, Larralde C, et al. Symptomatic human neurocysticercosis--age, sex and exposure factors relating with disease heterogeneity. J Neurol. 2004;251:830-7 pubmed
    ..The data also show that with increasing age and exposure there is no increment in severity, a suggestion that there might be ways of regulating pathogenicity. ..
  55. Del Brutto O, Roos K, Coffey C, Garcia H. Meta-analysis: Cysticidal drugs for neurocysticercosis: albendazole and praziquantel. Ann Intern Med. 2006;145:43-51 pubmed
    ..Parasites were located in the brain parenchyma or subarachnoid space at the convexity of the cerebral hemispheres...
  56. Frydrychowski A, Gumiński W, Rojewski M, Kaczmarek J, Juzwa W. Technical foundations for noninvasive assessment of changes in the width of the subarachnoid space with near-infrared transillumination-backscattering sounding (NIR-TBSS). IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2002;49:887-904 pubmed
    ..sounding, which is designed to enable noninvasive detection and monitoring of changes in the width of the subarachnoid space (SAS) and magnitude of cerebrovascular pulsation in humans...
  57. Koedel U, Angele B, Rupprecht T, Wagner H, Roggenkamp A, Pfister H, et al. Toll-like receptor 2 participates in mediation of immune response in experimental pneumococcal meningitis. J Immunol. 2003;170:438-44 pubmed
    ..Thus, while TLR2 plays a significant role in vivo, yet undefined pattern recognition receptors contribute to the recognition of and initiation of the host immune defense toward Streptococcus pneumoniae infection. ..
  58. Koh L, Zakharov A, Nagra G, Armstrong D, Friendship R, Johnston M. Development of cerebrospinal fluid absorption sites in the pig and rat: connections between the subarachnoid space and lymphatic vessels in the olfactory turbinates. Anat Embryol (Berl). 2006;211:335-44 pubmed
  59. Lee G, Kim C, Chung R, Han J, Kim D. Spread of subarachnoid sensory block with hyperbaric bupivacaine in second trimester of pregnancy. J Clin Anesth. 2009;21:482-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Pregnant women in the second trimester exhibit enhanced spread of spinal analgesia with hyperbaric bupivacaine more so than non-pregnant women. ..
  60. Soetaert A, Lowe L, Formen C. Pediatric cranial Doppler sonography in children: non-sickle cell applications. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. 2009;38:218-27 pubmed publisher
    ..and normal findings and illustrates various pediatric disorders including benign enlargement of the subarachnoid space versus subdural hematomas, vasospasm, vasculitis, venous sinus thrombosis, vein of Galen varix, ..
  61. Kral J, Ludvig N. Subarachnoid pharmacodialysis for central nervous system disorders. Med Hypotheses. 2013;80:105-11 pubmed publisher
  62. Yamamoto D, Kazui H, Wada T, Nomura K, Sugiyama H, Shimizu Y, et al. Association between milder brain deformation before a shunt operation and improvement in cognition and gait in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2013;35:197-207 pubmed publisher
    ..impairment and measured the cerebrospinal fluid volume in the ventricles/sylvian fissure (vVS) and the subarachnoid space at high convexity/midline areas (vHCM) using MR images with voxel-based morphometry before and 3 months ..
  63. Teufert K, Slattery W. Cerebrospinal fluid leak of the fallopian canal. Ear Nose Throat J. 2013;92:E20-3 pubmed
    ..Intraoperative inspection detected the presence of a fistula secondary to a lateral extension of the subarachnoid space through the labyrinthine segments of the fallopian canal...
  64. Takeuchi S, Nawashiro H, Wada K, Osada H, Otani N, Nagatani K, et al. Cerebrospinal fluid congestion in the perioptic space. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2013;118:215-8 pubmed publisher
    Recent attention has been paid to the -cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics between the intracranial subarachnoid space (SAS) and the SAS around the optic nerve (ON-SAS)...
  65. Cavanaugh R, Aiken S, Schatzberg S. Intraventricular tension pneumocephalus and cervical subarachnoid pneumorrhachis in a bull mastiff dog after craniotomy. J Small Anim Pract. 2008;49:244-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Intraventricular and cervical subarachnoid space air accumulation (pneumorrhachis) was identified through magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography...
  66. Hans G, Senard M, Ledoux D, Grayet B, Scholtes F, Creemers E, et al. Cerebral subarachnoid blood migration consecutive to a lumbar haematoma after spinal anaesthesia. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2008;52:1021-3 pubmed publisher
    ..During the following days, blood migrated from the spinal haematoma towards the cerebral subarachnoid spaces. The patient presented with stupor, nausea and vomiting that resolved within 2 weeks with conservative treatment. ..
  67. Di Rocco F, Grevent D, Drake J, Boddaert N, Puget S, Roujeau T, et al. Changes in intracranial CSF distribution after ETV. Childs Nerv Syst. 2012;28:997-1002 pubmed publisher
    ..Volume variations of the ventricles and the subarachnoid spaces are a good indicator of the efficacy of the ETV. ..
  68. Batzdorf U, McArthur D, Bentson J. Surgical treatment of Chiari malformation with and without syringomyelia: experience with 177 adult patients. J Neurosurg. 2013;118:232-42 pubmed publisher
    ..An incidental observation of the study is that obesity increases the likelihood of headache in patients with CM. ..
  69. Yıldız A, Atlı E, Oguz K. Gadolinium leakage into subarachnoid space and cystic metastases. Diagn Interv Radiol. 2013;19:187-90 pubmed
    b>Subarachnoid space (SAS) and cystic metastatic lesions of brain parenchyma appear hypointense on fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) unless there is a hemorrhage or elevated protein ..
  70. Boy D, Montali M, Miller N, Pircher A, Gruber P, Killer H, et al. Flow dynamics of cerebrospinal fluid between the intracranial cavity and the subarachnoid space of the optic nerve measured with a diffusion magnetic resonance imaging sequence in patients with normal tension glaucoma. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..This study offers a new approach for the quantification of CSF-dynamics...
  71. Hasan K, Sankar A, Halphen C, Kramer L, Brandt M, Juranek J, et al. Development and organization of the human brain tissue compartments across the lifespan using diffusion tensor imaging. Neuroreport. 2007;18:1735-9 pubmed
    ..In contrast, cerebrospinal fluid volume increases linearly with age. ..
  72. Singh I, Haris M, Husain M, Husain N, Rastogi M, Gupta R. Role of endoscopic third ventriculostomy in patients with communicating hydrocephalus: an evaluation by MR ventriculography. Neurosurg Rev. 2008;31:319-25 pubmed publisher
    ..MRV is a relatively safe technique to ascertain the patency of subarachnoid space as well as ETV stoma.
  73. Nuki Y, Tsou T, Kurihara C, Kanematsu M, Kanematsu Y, Hashimoto T. Elastase-induced intracranial aneurysms in hypertensive mice. Hypertension. 2009;54:1337-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The intracranial aneurysm formation in this model appeared to depend on MMP activation. ..
  74. Cárdenas G, Carrillo Mezo R, Jung H, Sciutto E, Hernandez J, Fleury A. Subarachnoidal Neurocysticercosis non-responsive to cysticidal drugs: a case series. BMC Neurol. 2010;10:16 pubmed publisher
    ..The possible factors involved in the cysticidal non-response are discussed and hints are provided of potentially useful changes to therapeutic protocols. ..
  75. Caeiro L, Santos C, Ferro J, Figueira M. Neuropsychiatric disturbances in acute subarachnoid haemorrhage. Eur J Neurol. 2011;18:857-64 pubmed publisher
    ..03). In the first 4 days of SAH, depression, apathy, catastrophic reaction and denial were rather frequent. SAH haematic densities were associated with denial and apathy, but not with depression, mania or catastrophic reaction. ..
  76. Liao C, Wu K, Liu Y, Wu R, Wong K. Sudden transient paraplegia shortly after preoperative thoracic epidural catheterization--a case report. Acta Anaesthesiol Taiwan. 2010;48:182-4 pubmed publisher
  77. Tsai P, Zehnaly A, Chen B, Kwan W. Lower extremity radicular pain after prophylactic intrathecal saline injection through a subarachnoid catheter following accidental dural puncture. Int J Obstet Anesth. 2011;20:262-5 pubmed publisher
    ..9% saline into the subarachnoid space through a catheter that had been left for 20 h following inadvertent dural puncture in an obstetric patient...
  78. Kupersmith M, Sibony P, Mandel G, Durbin M, Kardon R. Optical coherence tomography of the swollen optic nerve head: deformation of the peripapillary retinal pigment epithelium layer in papilledema. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:6558-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors postulate that elevated intracranial pressure induces forces in the retrolaminar subarachnoid space that can deform ONH structures, particularly the peripapillary Bruch's membrane (BM) and RPE layers. METHODS...
  79. Ba M, Thiam A, Ndoye N, Wahab I, Thioub M, Sakho Y, et al. [Schistosoma haematobium, a rare aetiology of spinal cord compression]. Neurochirurgie. 2012;58:272-4 pubmed publisher
    ..MRI shows tumor like intra dural lesion. Schistosomal granuloma was found after lesion removal by posterior approach. Treatment was completed by praziquantel. Controversies of the treatment are presented. ..
  80. Balgera R, Rigamonti A, Sozzi G, Agostoni E. An atypical case of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. Neurol Sci. 2009;30:71-3 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a case of SIH presenting with thunderclap headache and CT scan evocative of subarachnoid hemorrhage. We discuss the unusual presentation of this patient and the differential diagnosis of this case. ..
  81. Park S, Kwon O, Kim S, Oh C, Han M. Pre-mesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage: rupture of tiny aneurysms of the basilar artery perforator. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2009;151:1639-46 pubmed publisher
  82. Kim J, Lee J, Cho C, Kim H, Bahk J. The influence of spinal flexion in the lateral decubitus position on the unilaterality of spinal anesthesia. Anesth Analg. 2013;117:1017-21 pubmed publisher
    ..full flexion of the spine, the sunken cauda equina becomes tightened and is suspended in the middle of the subarachnoid space. We performed this study to assess whether spinal flexion facilitates unilateral spinal anesthesia...
  83. Pizzo M, Wolak D, Kumar N, Brunette E, Brunnquell C, Hannocks M, et al. Intrathecal antibody distribution in the rat brain: surface diffusion, perivascular transport, and osmotic enhancement of delivery. J Physiol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Electron microscopy was used to show stomata on leptomeningeal coverings of blood vessels in the subarachnoid space as potential access points for substances in the CSF to enter the perivascular space...
  84. Kivisakk P, Imitola J, Rasmussen S, Elyaman W, Zhu B, Ransohoff R, et al. Localizing central nervous system immune surveillance: meningeal antigen-presenting cells activate T cells during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Ann Neurol. 2009;65:457-69 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that activated CD4(+) T cells gain direct access to the subarachnoid space and become reactivated on encounter with cognate antigen in this compartment...
  85. Aoyama T, Hida K, Yano S, Kawabori M, Iwasaki M, Iwasaki Y. Malpositioned spinal instrument as a possible cause of superficial siderosis. Spinal Cord. 2009;47:826-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Chronic hemorrhage in the subarachnoid space precipitates hemosiderin around the cerebellum and brainstem resulting in neurological symptoms...
  86. Hentschel S, Mardal K, Løvgren A, Linge S, Haughton V. Characterization of cyclic CSF flow in the foramen magnum and upper cervical spinal canal with MR flow imaging and computational fluid dynamics. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2010;31:997-1002 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional simulations of CSF flow supplemented by PC MR will lead to better measures for distinguishing pathologic flow abnormalities that cause syringomyelia, headaches, and other clinical manifestations in Chiari I malformations...
  87. Bassiakou E, Valsamidis D, Loukeri A, Karathanos A. The distance from the skin to the epidural and subarachnoid spaces in parturients scheduled for caesarean section. Minerva Anestesiol. 2011;77:154-9 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to measure the skin to epidural space distance (SED), the skin to subarachnoid space distance (SSD) and the epidural to subarachnoid space distance (ESD) at the L3-4 interspace in parturients scheduled for ..
  88. Shin S, Hwang B, Lee S, Lee S. Primary extensive spinal subarachnoid cysticercosis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2012;37:E1221-4 pubmed publisher
  89. Avanali R, Bhadran B, Panchal S, Kumar P, Vijayan A, Aneeze M, et al. Formulation of a Three-Tier Cisternal Grade as a Predictor of In-Hospital Outcome from a Prospective Study of Patients with Traumatic Intracranial Hematoma. World Neurosurg. 2017;104:848-855 pubmed publisher
    ..Because the score obtained seems to have low interobserver variation, we believe that it can be a useful tool not only in recording data in case files and interphysician communication but also in research into traumatic brain injury. ..
  90. Long B, Koyfman A, Runyon M. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Updates in Diagnosis and Management. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2017;35:803-824 pubmed publisher
    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a neurologic emergency due to bleeding into the subarachnoid space. Mortality can reach 50%...
  91. Takizawa K, Matsumae M, Hayashi N, Hirayama A, Sano F, Yatsushiro S, et al. The Choroid Plexus of the Lateral Ventricle As the Origin of CSF Pulsation Is Questionable. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..investigate whether this phenomenon actually occurs, CSF motion was observed in the ventricular system and subarachnoid space using MRI. Eleven healthy volunteers, ranging in age from 23 to 58 years, participated in this study...
  92. Kato Y, Kumar A, Chen S. Surgical nuances of clipping after coiling: looking beyond the international subarachnoid aneurysm trial. J Clin Neurosci. 2012;19:638-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we analyzed the recent literature dealing with the nuances of clipping after coiling and reviewed the current management principles involved in treating these difficult aneurysms. ..