Summary: The three membranes that cover the BRAIN and the SPINAL CORD. They are the dura mater, the arachnoid, and the pia mater.

Top Publications

  1. Lamers S, Gray R, Salemi M, Huysentruyt L, McGrath M. HIV-1 phylogenetic analysis shows HIV-1 transits through the meninges to brain and peripheral tissues. Infect Genet Evol. 2011;11:31-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, the major tissue harboring virus from both the brain and peripheral tissues was the meninges. These results show that (1) HIV-1 is clearly capable of migrating out of the brain, (2) the meninges are the ..
  2. Michaloudi H, Batzios C, Chiotelli M, Papadopoulos G. Developmental changes of mast cell populations in the cerebral meninges of the rat. J Anat. 2007;211:556-66 pubmed
    ..The present study shows that unevenly distributed mast cells in the cerebral meninges of the rat can be found in perivascular sites and vessel ramification points, but can also be unrelated to the ..
  3. Lovato L, Willis S, Rodig S, Caron T, Almendinger S, Howell O, et al. Related B cell clones populate the meninges and parenchyma of patients with multiple sclerosis. Brain. 2011;134:534-41 pubmed publisher
    In the central nervous system of patients with multiple sclerosis, B cell aggregates populate the meninges, raising the central question as to whether these structures relate to the B cell infiltrates found in parenchymal lesions or ..
  4. De Col R, Messlinger K, Carr R. Conduction velocity is regulated by sodium channel inactivation in unmyelinated axons innervating the rat cranial meninges. J Physiol. 2008;586:1089-103 pubmed
    ..conduction velocity changes during repetitive activation of single unmyelinated axons innervating the rat cranial meninges. In direct contradiction to the currently accepted postulate, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase blockade actually enhanced ..
  5. Rojas A, Alves J, Moreira E Lima R, Esther Alencar Marques M, Moreira de Barros G, Fukushima F, et al. The effects of subarachnoid administration of preservative-free S(+)-ketamine on spinal cord and meninges in dogs. Anesth Analg. 2012;114:450-5 pubmed publisher
    ..dose of preservative-free S(+)-ketamine, in doses usually used in clinical practice, in the spinal cord and meninges of dogs. Under anesthesia (IV etomidate (2 mg/kg) and fentanyl (0...
  6. Ludvig N, Sheffield L, Tang H, Baptiste S, Devinsky O, Kuzniecky R. Histological evidence for drug diffusion across the cerebral meninges into the underlying neocortex in rats. Brain Res. 2008;1188:228-32 pubmed
    ..the extent to which a marker compound, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), can diffuse into the neocortex through the meninges. Rats were implanted with bilateral parietal cortical epidural cups filled with 50 mM NMDA on the right side and ..
  7. Jia Y, Wang R. Label-free in vivo optical imaging of functional microcirculations within meninges and cortex in mice. J Neurosci Methods. 2010;194:108-15 pubmed publisher
    Abnormal microcirculation within meninges is common in many neurological diseases. There is a need for an imaging method that is capable of monitoring dynamic meningeal microcirculations, preferably decoupled from cortical blood flow...
  8. Popescu B, Gherghiceanu M, Kostin S, Ceafalan L, Popescu L. Telocytes in meninges and choroid plexus. Neurosci Lett. 2012;516:265-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here identification of TCs by electron microscopy and immunofluorescence in rat meninges and choroid plexus/subventricular zone, in the vicinity of putative stem cells...
  9. Mack J, Squier W, Eastman J. Anatomy and development of the meninges: implications for subdural collections and CSF circulation. Pediatr Radiol. 2009;39:200-10 pubmed publisher
    ..This review outlines the development and age-specific vascularity of the dura and offers an alternative perspective on the role of the dura in homeostasis of the central nervous system. ..

More Information


  1. Larson A, Thomas M, McElhose A, Kovács K. Spontaneous locomotor activity correlates with the degranulation of mast cells in the meninges rather than in the thalamus: disruptive effect of cocaine. Brain Res. 2011;1395:30-7 pubmed publisher
    ..of cocaine on circulating corticosterone, motor activity and degranulation of mast cells in both the thalamus and meninges of mice...
  2. Christy A, Walker M, Hessner M, Brown M. Mast cell activation and neutrophil recruitment promotes early and robust inflammation in the meninges in EAE. J Autoimmun. 2013;42:50-61 pubmed publisher
    The meninges are often considered inert tissues that house the CSF and provide protection for the brain and spinal cord. Yet emerging data demonstrates that they are also active sites of immune responses...
  3. Brandenburg L, Varoga D, Nicolaeva N, Leib S, Podschun R, Wruck C, et al. Expression and regulation of antimicrobial peptide rCRAMP after bacterial infection in primary rat meningeal cells. J Neuroimmunol. 2009;217:55-64 pubmed publisher
    Bacterial meningitis is characterized by an inflammation of the meninges and continues to be an important cause of mortality and morbidity...
  4. Thomas M, George N, Saini U, Patterson T, Hanig J, Bowyer J. Endoplasmic reticulum stress responses differ in meninges and associated vasculature, striatum, and parietal cortex after a neurotoxic amphetamine exposure. Synapse. 2010;64:579-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study evaluates the effect of AMPH on several ERSR elements in meninges and associated vasculature (MAV), parietal cortex, and striatum...
  5. Derecki N, Cardani A, Yang C, Quinnies K, Crihfield A, Lynch K, et al. Regulation of learning and memory by meningeal immunity: a key role for IL-4. J Exp Med. 2010;207:1067-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Performance of cognitive tasks led to accumulation of IL-4-producing T cells in the meninges. Depletion of T cells from meningeal spaces skewed meningeal myeloid cells toward a proinflammatory phenotype...
  6. Aquino R, Magliari M, Vital Filho J, Silva M, Lima C, Rocha A, et al. Lagochilascariasis leading to severe involvement of ocular globes, ears and meninges. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2008;50:355-8 pubmed
    ..woman from Paraíba State (North-Eastern Brazil) that presented severe involvement of ocular globes, ears and meninges. Diagnosis was established after enucleation of her left eye, when adult worms were seen in the midst of a ..
  7. Siegenthaler J, Ashique A, Zarbalis K, Patterson K, Hecht J, KANE M, et al. Retinoic acid from the meninges regulates cortical neuron generation. Cell. 2009;139:597-609 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we demonstrate that the dorsal forebrain meninges communicate with the adjacent radial glial endfeet and influence cortical development...
  8. Sjölinder H, Jonsson A. Olfactory nerve--a novel invasion route of Neisseria meningitidis to reach the meninges. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e14034 pubmed publisher
    ..epithelium, along olfactory nerves in the cribriform plate, at the olfactory bulb and subsequently at the meninges and subarachnoid space...
  9. Siegenthaler J, Pleasure S. We have got you 'covered': how the meninges control brain development. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2011;21:249-55 pubmed publisher
    The meninges have traditionally been viewed as specialized membranes surrounding and protecting the adult brain from injury. However, there is increasing evidence that the fetal meninges play important roles during brain development...
  10. Choe Y, Siegenthaler J, Pleasure S. A cascade of morphogenic signaling initiated by the meninges controls corpus callosum formation. Neuron. 2012;73:698-712 pubmed publisher
    ..By using mice either with meningeal overgrowth or selective loss of meninges, we have identified a cascade of morphogenic signals initiated by the meninges that regulates corpus callosum ..
  11. Royer P, Rogers A, Wooldridge K, Tighe P, Mahdavi J, Rittig M, et al. Deciphering the contribution of human meningothelial cells to the inflammatory and antimicrobial response at the meninges. Infect Immun. 2013;81:4299-310 pubmed publisher
    ..It also sheds light on the complexity of intracellular signaling after TLR triggering. ..
  12. Nakasone K, Nagahama Y, Okubo K. hebp3, a novel member of the heme-binding protein gene family, is expressed in the medaka meninges with higher abundance in females due to a direct stimulating action of ovarian estrogens. Endocrinology. 2013;154:920-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The medaka hebp3 is expressed in the meninges with higher abundance in females, whereas there is no expression within the brain parenchyma...
  13. Decimo I, Bifari F, Rodríguez F, Malpeli G, Dolci S, Lavarini V, et al. Nestin- and doublecortin-positive cells reside in adult spinal cord meninges and participate in injury-induced parenchymal reaction. Stem Cells. 2011;29:2062-76 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we describe a new population of cells resident in the adult rat spinal cord meninges that express the neural stem/precursor markers nestin and doublecortin...
  14. Radakovits R, Barros C, Belvindrah R, Patton B, Muller U. Regulation of radial glial survival by signals from the meninges. J Neurosci. 2009;29:7694-705 pubmed publisher
    ..Apoptosis is also induced by surgical removal of the meninges. Finally, mice lacking the BM components laminin alpha2 and alpha4 show defects in the attachment of RGC ..
  15. Bartholomäus I, Kawakami N, Odoardi F, Schläger C, Miljkovic D, Ellwart J, et al. Effector T cell interactions with meningeal vascular structures in nascent autoimmune CNS lesions. Nature. 2009;462:94-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These contacts stimulated the effector T cells to produce pro-inflammatory mediators, and provided a trigger to tissue invasion and the formation of inflammatory infiltrations...
  16. Kimura Kuroda J, Teng X, Komuta Y, Yoshioka N, Sango K, Kawamura K, et al. An in vitro model of the inhibition of axon growth in the lesion scar formed after central nervous system injury. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2010;43:177-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, this culture system can be available to analyze the inhibitory property in the lesion site of CNS. ..
  17. Parr A, Tator C. Intrathecal epidermal growth factor and fibroblast growth factor-2 exacerbate meningeal proliferative lesions associated with intrathecal catheters. Neurosurgery. 2007;60:926-33; discussion 926-33 pubmed
    ..Further study is required to determine the appropriate and safe dosage of mitogens for potential use in spinal cord repair. ..
  18. Hayashi H, Morizane A, Koyanagi M, Ono Y, Sasai Y, Hashimoto N, et al. Meningeal cells induce dopaminergic neurons from embryonic stem cells. Eur J Neurosci. 2008;27:261-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that meningeal cells can be used as feeders to induce DA neurons from ES cells, and that Wnt-5a plays an important role in DA neuron induction by SDIA. ..
  19. Tazi A, Disson O, Bellais S, Bouaboud A, Dmytruk N, Dramsi S, et al. The surface protein HvgA mediates group B streptococcus hypervirulence and meningeal tropism in neonates. J Exp Med. 2010;207:2313-22 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, HvgA is a critical virulence trait of GBS in the neonatal context and stands as a promising target for the development of novel diagnostic and antibacterial strategies. ..
  20. Howell O, Reeves C, Nicholas R, Carassiti D, Radotra B, Gentleman S, et al. Meningeal inflammation is widespread and linked to cortical pathology in multiple sclerosis. Brain. 2011;134:2755-71 pubmed publisher
  21. Chinnery H, Ruitenberg M, McMenamin P. Novel characterization of monocyte-derived cell populations in the meninges and choroid plexus and their rates of replenishment in bone marrow chimeric mice. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2010;69:896-909 pubmed publisher
    ..chimeric mice to characterize the phenotype, density and replenishment rate of monocyte-derived cells in the meninges and choroid plexus and to assess the role of the chemokine receptor CX3CR1 on their number and tissue ..
  22. Kivisakk P, Imitola J, Rasmussen S, Elyaman W, Zhu B, Ransohoff R, et al. Localizing central nervous system immune surveillance: meningeal antigen-presenting cells activate T cells during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Ann Neurol. 2009;65:457-69 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the concept that immune surveillance of the central nervous system involves the subarachnoid space and indicate that the leptomeninges play an important role in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis initiation. ..
  23. Yan J, Edelmayer R, Wei X, De Felice M, Porreca F, Dussor G. Dural afferents express acid-sensing ion channels: a role for decreased meningeal pH in migraine headache. Pain. 2011;152:106-13 pubmed publisher
    ..In trigeminal neurons retrogradely labeled from the cranial meninges, we have recorded pH-evoked currents using whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology...
  24. Zarbalis K, Siegenthaler J, Choe Y, May S, Peterson A, Pleasure S. Cortical dysplasia and skull defects in mice with a Foxc1 allele reveal the role of meningeal differentiation in regulating cortical development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:14002-7 pubmed
    ..mice contributes to the cortical and skull defects in mutant mice and that the prominent phenotypes appear as the meninges differentiate into pia, arachnoid, and dura...
  25. Kerever A, Schnack J, Vellinga D, Ichikawa N, Moon C, Arikawa Hirasawa E, et al. Novel extracellular matrix structures in the neural stem cell niche capture the neurogenic factor fibroblast growth factor 2 from the extracellular milieu. Stem Cells. 2007;25:2146-57 pubmed
    ..These results strongly suggest that fractones promote growth factor activity in the neural stem cell niche. ..
  26. Petricevic J, Forempoher G, Ostojic L, Mardesic Brakus S, Andjelinovic S, Vukojevic K, et al. Expression of nestin, mesothelin and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) in developing and adult human meninges and meningiomas. Acta Histochem. 2011;113:703-11 pubmed publisher
    ..and mesothelin proteins was immunohistochemically determined in the cells of normal developing and adult human meninges and meningiomas. Human meninges developed as two mesenchymal condensations in the head region...
  27. Zukor K, Kent D, Odelberg S. Meningeal cells and glia establish a permissive environment for axon regeneration after spinal cord injury in newts. Neural Dev. 2011;6:1 pubmed publisher
    ..Given that these cell types interact to form inhibitory barriers in mammals, identifying the mechanisms underlying their permissive behaviors in the newt will provide new insights for improving spinal cord regeneration in mammals. ..
  28. Thomas M, George N, Patterson T, Bowyer J. Amphetamine and environmentally induced hyperthermia differentially alter the expression of genes regulating vascular tone and angiogenesis in the meninges and associated vasculature. Synapse. 2009;63:881-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Rats were sacrificed either 3 h or 1 day after dosing, and total RNA and protein was isolated from the meninges, arachnoid and pia membranes, and associated vasculature (MAV) that surround the forebrain...
  29. Komuta Y, Teng X, Yanagisawa H, Sango K, Kawamura K, Kawano H. Expression of transforming growth factor-beta receptors in meningeal fibroblasts of the injured mouse brain. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2010;30:101-11 pubmed publisher
    ..After 5 days postinjury, many fibroblasts migrated from the meninges to the lesion site formed the fibrotic scar, and most of them expressed TGF-beta receptors...
  30. Magliozzi R, Howell O, Vora A, Serafini B, Nicholas R, Puopolo M, et al. Meningeal B-cell follicles in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis associate with early onset of disease and severe cortical pathology. Brain. 2007;130:1089-104 pubmed
    ..The presence of lymphoid follicle-like structures in the cerebral meninges of some multiple sclerosis patients indicates that B-cell maturation can be sustained locally within the CNS and ..
  31. Herrmann J, Shah R, Chan A, Zheng B. EphA4 deficient mice maintain astroglial-fibrotic scar formation after spinal cord injury. Exp Neurol. 2010;223:582-98 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to what has been proposed, these data do not support a major role for EphA4 in reactive astrogliosis following SCI. ..
  32. Anandasabapathy N, Victora G, Meredith M, Feder R, Dong B, Kluger C, et al. Flt3L controls the development of radiosensitive dendritic cells in the meninges and choroid plexus of the steady-state mouse brain. J Exp Med. 2011;208:1695-705 pubmed publisher
    ..receptor tyrosine kinase 3)-dependent development, we characterize the features of authentic DCs within the meninges and choroid plexus in healthy mouse brains...
  33. Tochitani S, Kondo S. Immunoreactivity for GABA, GAD65, GAD67 and Bestrophin-1 in the meninges and the choroid plexus: implications for non-neuronal sources for GABA in the developing mouse brain. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56901 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies revealed that the meninges and the cerebrospinal fluid have certain roles to regulate brain development...
  34. Papadopoulos D, Dukes S, Patel R, Nicholas R, Vora A, Reynolds R. Substantial archaeocortical atrophy and neuronal loss in multiple sclerosis. Brain Pathol. 2009;19:238-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study provides evidence of substantial archaeocortical pathology largely resembling patterns seen in the neocortex and suggests that hippocampal involvement could contribute to memory impairments often seen in MS. ..
  35. Geurts J, Barkhof F. Grey matter pathology in multiple sclerosis. Lancet Neurol. 2008;7:841-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These hypotheses remain to be validated over the coming years, and could substantially affect our current views on MS pathogenesis. ..
  36. Bifari F, Decimo I, Chiamulera C, Bersan E, Malpeli G, Johansson J, et al. Novel stem/progenitor cells with neuronal differentiation potential reside in the leptomeningeal niche. J Cell Mol Med. 2009;13:3195-208 pubmed publisher
    ..As leptomeninges cover the entire central nervous system, these findings could have relevant implications for studies on cortical development and for regenerative medicine applied to neurological disorders. ..
  37. Levy D. Migraine pain, meningeal inflammation, and mast cells. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2009;13:237-40 pubmed
    ..and the subsequent activation of trigeminal primary afferent nociceptive neurons that supply the intracranial meninges and their related large blood vessels...
  38. Tazi A, Bellais S, Tardieux I, Dramsi S, Trieu Cuot P, Poyart C. Group B Streptococcus surface proteins as major determinants for meningeal tropism. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2012;15:44-9 pubmed publisher
  39. Magliozzi R, Howell O, REEVES C, Roncaroli F, Nicholas R, Serafini B, et al. A Gradient of neuronal loss and meningeal inflammation in multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol. 2010;68:477-93 pubmed publisher
    Prominent inflammation with formation of ectopic B-cell follicle-like structures in the meninges in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) (SPMS) is associated with extensive cortical pathology and an exacerbated disease course...
  40. Roldan G, Scott J, George D, Parney I, Easaw J, Cairncross G, et al. Leptomeningeal disease from oligodendroglioma: clinical and molecular analysis. Can J Neurol Sci. 2008;35:204-9 pubmed
    ..Leptomeningeal disease in patients with oligodendrogliomas appears to be relatively indolent which may have implications for their treatment and be related to 1p/19q status. ..
  41. Inoue T, Ogawa M, Mikoshiba K, Aruga J. Zic deficiency in the cortical marginal zone and meninges results in cortical lamination defects resembling those in type II lissencephaly. J Neurosci. 2008;28:4712-25 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that the Zic genes play critical roles in cortical development through regulating the proliferation of meningeal cells and the pial BM assembly. ..
  42. McKinney A, Short J, Lucato L, SantaCruz K, McKinney Z, Kim Y. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the orbit with associated enhancement of the meninges and multiple cranial nerves. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2006;27:2217-20 pubmed
  43. Nozaki K, Moskowitz M, Boccalini P. CP-93,129, sumatriptan, dihydroergotamine block c-fos expression within rat trigeminal nucleus caudalis caused by chemical stimulation of the meninges. Br J Pharmacol. 1992;106:409-15 pubmed
    ..Bacterial, viral(including AIDS meningovascular inflammation) and other forms of chemical meningitis merit further investigation. ..
  44. Nonaka H, Akima M, Hatori T, Nagayama T, Zhang Z, Ihara F. The microvasculature of the human cerebellar meninges. Acta Neuropathol. 2002;104:608-14 pubmed
    The vascular architecture of the human cerebellar meninges was investigated. The surface meninges were poor in vasculature. In the sulci, the meninges were highly vascular but had few capillaries...
  45. Wieseler Frank J, Jekich B, Mahoney J, Bland S, Maier S, Watkins L. A novel immune-to-CNS communication pathway: cells of the meninges surrounding the spinal cord CSF space produce proinflammatory cytokines in response to an inflammatory stimulus. Brain Behav Immun. 2007;21:711-8 pubmed
    ..spinal cord glia are the sole source of CSF cytokines may be an underestimate, as the cellular composition of the meninges surrounding the spinal cord CSF space includes several cell types known to produce proinflammatory cytokines...
  46. Kakkis E, McEntee M, Vogler C, Le S, Levy B, Belichenko P, et al. Intrathecal enzyme replacement therapy reduces lysosomal storage in the brain and meninges of the canine model of MPS I. Mol Genet Metab. 2004;83:163-74 pubmed
    ..whether intrathecal (IT) recombinant human alpha-L-iduronidase (rhIDU) could penetrate and treat the brain and meninges. An initial dose-response study showed that doses of 0.46-4...
  47. Garabedian B, Lemaigre Dubreuil Y, Mariani J. Central origin of IL-1beta produced during peripheral inflammation: role of meninges. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2000;75:259-63 pubmed
    ..We measured IL-1beta mRNA in the cerebellum, hippocampus and cerebral cortex collected with meninges and in the same structures collected without meninges after a peripheral lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation (0...
  48. Weller R. Microscopic morphology and histology of the human meninges. Morphologie. 2005;89:22-34 pubmed
    The meninges comprise the dura mater and the leptomeninges (arachnoid and pia mater). Dura forms an outer endosteal layer related to the bones of the skull and spine and an inner layer closely applied to the arachnoid mater...
  49. Miura M, Kato S, Von Lüdinghausen M. Lymphatic drainage of the cerebrospinal fluid from monkey spinal meninges with special reference to the distribution of the epidural lymphatics. Arch Histol Cytol. 1998;61:277-86 pubmed
    ..structural organization of the epidural lymphatics and lymphatic drainage of the cerebrospinal fluid from spinal meninges was studied in Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) by an enzyme-histochemical method...
  50. Bergman P, Johansson L, Wan H, Jones A, Gallo R, Gudmundsson G, et al. Induction of the antimicrobial peptide CRAMP in the blood-brain barrier and meninges after meningococcal infection. Infect Immun. 2006;74:6982-91 pubmed
    ..rarely infected, which has mainly been ascribed to the protective functions of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and meninges. Since the bactericidal properties of the BBB and meninges are not known, we hypothesized that antimicrobial ..
  51. Bundesen L, Scheel T, Bregman B, Kromer L. Ephrin-B2 and EphB2 regulation of astrocyte-meningeal fibroblast interactions in response to spinal cord lesions in adult rats. J Neurosci. 2003;23:7789-800 pubmed reactive CNS astrocytes, and EphB2 is present on fibroblasts invading the lesion site from the adjacent meninges. During the first 3 d after injury, there is intermingling of ephrin-B2-expressing reactive astrocytes at the ..
  52. Conti F, Zuccarello L, Barbaresi P, Minelli A, Brecha N, Melone M. Neuronal, glial, and epithelial localization of gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter 2, a high-affinity gamma-aminobutyric acid plasma membrane transporter, in the cerebral cortex and neighboring structures. J Comp Neurol. 1999;409:482-94 pubmed
    ..The widespread cellular expression of GAT-2 suggests that it may have several functional roles in the overall regulation of GABA levels in the brain. ..
  53. Galassi W, Phuttharak W, Hesselink J, Healy J, Dietrich R, Imbesi S. Intracranial meningeal disease: comparison of contrast-enhanced MR imaging with fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and fat-suppressed T1-weighted sequences. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2005;26:553-9 pubmed
    ..Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MR imaging with FS is superior to contrast-enhanced FLAIR imaging in most cases for depicting intracranial meningeal diseases. ..
  54. Robinson K, Taraktsoglou M, Rowe K, Wooldridge K, Ala Aldeen D. Secreted proteins from Neisseria meningitidis mediate differential human gene expression and immune activation. Cell Microbiol. 2004;6:927-38 pubmed
    ..Secreted meningococcal virulence factors are therefore important in inducing host inflammatory responses and resistance to apoptosis, and they are worthy of extensive investigation. ..
  55. Tsuchiya K, Katase S, Yoshino A, Hachiya J. FLAIR MR imaging for diagnosing intracranial meningeal carcinomatosis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2001;176:1585-8 pubmed
    ..Contrast-enhanced FLAIR images can sometimes surpass contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images in their quality. ..
  56. McMenamin P. Distribution and phenotype of dendritic cells and resident tissue macrophages in the dura mater, leptomeninges, and choroid plexus of the rat brain as demonstrated in wholemount preparations. J Comp Neurol. 1999;405:553-62 pubmed
    ..Until now it has been assumed DC are largely absent from the brain, meninges, and the choroid plexus within the ventricles...
  57. Zhang J, Smith D, Yamamoto M, Ma L, McCaffery P. The meninges is a source of retinoic acid for the late-developing hindbrain. J Neurosci. 2003;23:7610-20 pubmed
    ..the hindbrain from the RA synthetic enzyme retinaldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (RALDH2) present in the surrounding meninges and mesenchyme by embryonic day 13...
  58. Wells D, Tighe P, Wooldridge K, Robinson K, Ala Aldeen D. Differential gene expression during meningeal-meningococcal interaction: evidence for self-defense and early release of cytokines and chemokines. Infect Immun. 2001;69:2718-22 pubmed
    ..Also, a trend in up-regulation of anti-apoptotic genes and down-regulation of pro-apoptotic genes was observed. This is the first evidence that meningothelial cells may mount cytoprotective responses to pathogenic bacteria. ..
  59. Shearer M, Niclou S, Brown D, Asher R, Holtmaat A, Levine J, et al. The astrocyte/meningeal cell interface is a barrier to neurite outgrowth which can be overcome by manipulation of inhibitory molecules or axonal signalling pathways. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2003;24:913-25 pubmed
    ..Increasing cAMP levels and inactivation of rho were both effective when the cultures were fixed in paraformaldehyde, demonstrating that their effect is on axons and not via effects on the glial cells. ..
  60. Smith D, Wagner E, Koul O, McCaffery P, Drager U. Retinoic acid synthesis for the developing telencephalon. Cereb Cortex. 2001;11:894-905 pubmed
    ..Because of its diffusible character, retinoic acid represents a unique tool for the coordination of growth processes over an intermediate distance range in the developing telencephalon. ..
  61. Christodoulides M, Makepeace B, Partridge K, Kaur D, Fowler M, Weller R, et al. Interaction of Neisseria meningitidis with human meningeal cells induces the secretion of a distinct group of chemotactic, proinflammatory, and growth-factor cytokines. Infect Immun. 2002;70:4035-44 pubmed
  62. Lakatos A, Smith P, Barnett S, Franklin R. Meningeal cells enhance limited CNS remyelination by transplanted olfactory ensheathing cells. Brain. 2003;126:598-609 pubmed
    ..These results highlight the important concept that the regenerative properties of OECs are profoundly influenced by the cells with which they are transplanted. ..
  63. McMenamin P, Wealthall R, Deverall M, Cooper S, Griffin B. Macrophages and dendritic cells in the rat meninges and choroid plexus: three-dimensional localisation by environmental scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy. Cell Tissue Res. 2003;313:259-69 pubmed
    ..provides novel information on the topographical distribution of macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) in normal meninges and choroid plexus of the rat central nervous system (CNS)...
  64. Serafini B, Rosicarelli B, Magliozzi R, Stigliano E, Aloisi F. Detection of ectopic B-cell follicles with germinal centers in the meninges of patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. Brain Pathol. 2004;14:164-74 pubmed
    ..and plasma cells, and a network of follicular dendritic cells producing CXCL13 were observed in the cerebral meninges of 2 out of 3 patients with secondary progressive MS, but not in relapsing remitting and primary progressive MS...
  65. Pache M, Meyer P. Morphological changes of the retrobulbar optic nerve and its meningeal sheaths in glaucoma. Ophthalmologica. 2006;220:393-6 pubmed
    ..Occurrence and amount of meningo- thelial cell nests in the subarachnoid space were however significantly increased in glaucoma (p < 0.02). Whether this observation is glaucoma specific deserves further investigation. ..
  66. Shearer M, Fawcett J. The astrocyte/meningeal cell interface--a barrier to successful nerve regeneration?. Cell Tissue Res. 2001;305:267-73 pubmed
    ..The distribution of cell surface and matrix molecules on these cultures is described, and the effect of various pharmacological interventions which can affect axon growth between the two cell types is summarised in this review. ..
  67. Fowler M, Yin K, Humphries H, Heckels J, Christodoulides M. Comparison of the inflammatory responses of human meningeal cells following challenge with Neisseria lactamica and with Neisseria meningitidis. Infect Immun. 2006;74:6467-78 pubmed
    ..for the present study was to determine how different species of bacteria interact with cells of the human meninges in order to gain information that would have broad relevance to understanding aspects of the innate immune ..
  68. Kim J, Dustin M. Innate response to focal necrotic injury inside the blood-brain barrier. J Immunol. 2006;177:5269-77 pubmed
    ..Necrotic injury in the meninges, but not the brain parenchyma, recruited GFP+ cells within minutes that fully surrounded the necrotic site within ..
  69. Borrell V, Marin O. Meninges control tangential migration of hem-derived Cajal-Retzius cells via CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling. Nat Neurosci. 2006;9:1284-93 pubmed
    ..we demonstrate that the tangential migration of cortical hem-derived Cajal-Retzius cells is controlled by the meninges. We show that the meningeal membranes are a necessary and sufficient substrate for the tangential migration of ..
  70. Gonçalves P, Martins H, Costelha S, Maia L, Saraiva M. Efficiency of silencing RNA for removal of transthyretin V30M in a TTR leptomeningeal animal model. Amyloid. 2016;23:249-253 pubmed
    ..We show that systemically administered TTR siRNA promoted TTR clearance in the extracellular matrix of meninges and brain blood vessels...
  71. van Amerongen R, Fuerer C, Mizutani M, Nusse R. Wnt5a can both activate and repress Wnt/?-catenin signaling during mouse embryonic development. Dev Biol. 2012;369:101-14 pubmed publisher
  72. Nakagawa K, Sheikh S, Snuderl M, Frosch M, Greenberg S. A new Thr49Pro transthyretin gene mutation associated with leptomeningeal amyloidosis. J Neurol Sci. 2008;272:186-90 pubmed publisher
    ..DNA sequencing showed a proline-for-threonine substitution at codon 49 of the TTR gene in one allele. A novel Thr49Pro TTR gene mutation is associated with leptomeningeal amyloidosis resulting in recurrent CNS symptoms. ..