putamen

Summary

Summary: The largest and most lateral of the BASAL GANGLIA lying between the lateral medullary lamina of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and the EXTERNAL CAPSULE. It is part of the neostriatum and forms part of the LENTIFORM NUCLEUS along with the GLOBUS PALLIDUS.

Top Publications

  1. Yu R, Liu B, Wang L, Chen J, Liu X. Enhanced functional connectivity between putamen and supplementary motor area in Parkinson's disease patients. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e59717 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the putamen, but not the caudate, exhibited enhanced connectivity with supplementary motor area (SMA), using either the ..
  2. Michel T, Camara S, Tatschner T, Frangou S, Sheldrick A, Riederer P, et al. Increased xanthine oxidase in the thalamus and putamen in depression. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2010;11:314-20 pubmed publisher
    ..We measured the XO activity in following brain areas: hippocampus, regio entorhinalis, thalamus, putamen and caudate nucleus...
  3. Montgomery E, Huang H, Walker H, Guthrie B, Watts R. High-frequency deep brain stimulation of the putamen improves bradykinesia in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2011;26:2232-8 pubmed publisher
    ..With respect to Parkinson's disease, the existence of multiple effective targets suggests that putamen stimulation also may be effective and raises questions as to the mechanisms of action...
  4. Goble D, Coxon J, Van Impe A, Geurts M, Van Hecke W, Sunaert S, et al. The neural basis of central proprioceptive processing in older versus younger adults: an important sensory role for right putamen. Hum Brain Mapp. 2012;33:895-908 pubmed publisher
    ..A significant decrease in neural activity was also found in a cluster of right putamen voxels for the older age group when compared with the younger age group...
  5. Connor J, Wang X, Allen R, Beard J, Wiesinger J, Felt B, et al. Altered dopaminergic profile in the putamen and substantia nigra in restless leg syndrome. Brain. 2009;132:2403-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, the substantia nigra and putamen were obtained at autopsy from individuals with primary RLS and a neurologically normal control group...
  6. Li M, Chen Z, Deng W, He Z, Wang Q, Jiang L, et al. Volume increases in putamen associated with positive symptom reduction in previously drug-naive schizophrenia after 6 weeks antipsychotic treatment. Psychol Med. 2012;42:1475-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared with healthy controls, there was a significant increase in grey-matter volume of the right putamen in patients after 6 weeks treatment...
  7. Brück A, Aalto S, Rauhala E, Bergman J, Marttila R, Rinne J. A follow-up study on 6-[18F]fluoro-L-dopa uptake in early Parkinson's disease shows nonlinear progression in the putamen. Mov Disord. 2009;24:1009-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Throughout the study, the smallest Fdopa uptake values were found in the dorso-caudal part of the putamen contralateral to the side with dominant motor symptoms...
  8. Stephens M, Pomerleau F, Huettl P, Gerhardt G, Zhang Z. Real-time glutamate measurements in the putamen of awake rhesus monkeys using an enzyme-based human microelectrode array prototype. J Neurosci Methods. 2010;185:264-72 pubmed publisher
    ..array prototype (Spencer-Gerhardt-2 (SG-2)) to measure tonic and phasic glutamate neurotransmission in the putamen of unanesthetized non-human primates. We also showed that the SG-2 remains functional following sterilization...
  9. Nye J, Purselle D, Plisson C, Voll R, Stehouwer J, Votaw J, et al. Decreased brainstem and putamen SERT binding potential in depressed suicide attempters using [11C]-zient PET imaging. Depress Anxiety. 2013;30:902-7 pubmed publisher
    ..SERT binding potential was significantly decreased in the midbrain/pons (P = .029) and putamen (P = .04) of depressed patients with a past suicide attempt relative to comparison subjects...

More Information

Publications93

  1. Perez X, O Leary K, Parameswaran N, McIntosh J, Quik M. Prominent role of alpha3/alpha6beta2* nAChRs in regulating evoked dopamine release in primate putamen: effect of long-term nicotine treatment. Mol Pharmacol. 2009;75:938-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we used voltammetry to assess the role of nAChRs on evoked dopamine release from monkey putamen slices...
  2. Yu Y, FitzGerald T, Friston K. Working memory and anticipatory set modulate midbrain and putamen activity. J Neurosci. 2013;33:14040-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study addresses for the first time an important and hitherto understudied aspect of working memory. ..
  3. Kumar R, Nguyen H, Ogren J, Macey P, Thompson P, Fonarow G, et al. Global and regional putamen volume loss in patients with heart failure. Eur J Heart Fail. 2011;13:651-5 pubmed publisher
    ..A basal ganglia structure, the putamen, serves many functions that are affected in HF, but its global or localized structural integrity is unknown...
  4. Roessner V, Overlack S, Schmidt Samoa C, Baudewig J, Dechent P, Rothenberger A, et al. Increased putamen and callosal motor subregion in treatment-naïve boys with Tourette syndrome indicates changes in the bihemispheric motor network. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2011;52:306-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The left and right putamen and subregion 3 of the corpus callosum were larger in boys with Tourette syndrome than in healthy controls...
  5. Gimenez F, Krauze M, Valles F, Hadaczek P, Bringas J, Sharma N, et al. Image-guided convection-enhanced delivery of GDNF protein into monkey putamen. Neuroimage. 2011;54 Suppl 1:S189-95 pubmed publisher
    ..GDL) and free Gadoteridol (Gd) can be used for MRI-monitored infusions into the non-human primate (NHP) putamen to predict the distribution of GDNF protein after convection-enhanced delivery (CED)...
  6. Michel T, Gsell W, Käsbauer L, Tatschner T, Sheldrick A, Neuner I, et al. Increased activity of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in the putamen of individuals with Alzheimer's disease: a human postmortem study. J Alzheimers Dis. 2010;19:1295-301 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the mitochondrial ALDH activity was significantly increased only in the putamen of patients suffering from AD compared to controls...
  7. Marchand W, Lee J, Healy L, Thatcher J, Rashkin E, Starr J, et al. An fMRI motor activation paradigm demonstrates abnormalities of putamen activation in females with panic disorder. J Affect Disord. 2009;116:121-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to determine if functional abnormalities of the putamen occur in panic disorder...
  8. Ritz M, Fluri F, Engelter S, Schaeren Wiemers N, Lyrer P. Cortical and putamen age-related changes in the microvessel density and astrocyte deficiency in spontaneously hypertensive and stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. Curr Neurovasc Res. 2009;6:279-87 pubmed
    ..SP-SHR) as a models for SVD, we analysed the effect of hypertension on the microvasculature in the cortex and putamen, and on its relationship with astrocytes in animals aged 2 to 9 months...
  9. Starr C, Sawaki L, Wittenberg G, Burdette J, Oshiro Y, Quevedo A, et al. The contribution of the putamen to sensory aspects of pain: insights from structural connectivity and brain lesions. Brain. 2011;134:1987-2004 pubmed publisher
    ..These interactions occur via cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops. The putamen is one of the major sites of cortical input into basal ganglia loops and is frequently activated during pain...
  10. Coull J, Hwang H, Leyton M, Dagher A. Dopamine precursor depletion impairs timing in healthy volunteers by attenuating activity in putamen and supplementary motor area. J Neurosci. 2012;32:16704-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Neurally, APTD attenuated timing-specific activity in the putamen and SMA...
  11. Seghier M, Price C. Reading aloud boosts connectivity through the putamen. Cereb Cortex. 2010;20:570-82 pubmed publisher
    Functional neuroimaging and lesion studies have frequently reported thalamic and putamen activation during reading and speech production...
  12. Brady M, Raghavan R, Alexander A, Kubota K, Sillay K, Emborg M. Pathways of infusate loss during convection-enhanced delivery into the putamen nucleus. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2013;91:69-78 pubmed publisher
    ..factors via protein infusion or gene transfer, depend upon localized intracerebral infusion, mainly into the putamen nucleus...
  13. Zhou B, Chen Q, Zhang Q, Chen L, Gong Q, Shang H, et al. Hyperactive putamen in patients with paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Mov Disord. 2010;25:1226-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The whole brain analysis indicated that the patient group had significantly increased ALFF in the bilateral putamen (P < 0.005) than normal control. fMRI could be useful to evaluate PKC with negative conventional imaging...
  14. Ko J, Monchi O, Ptito A, Bloomfield P, Houle S, Strafella A. Theta burst stimulation-induced inhibition of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex reveals hemispheric asymmetry in striatal dopamine release during a set-shifting task: a TMS-[(11)C]raclopride PET study. Eur J Neurosci. 2008;28:2147-55 pubmed publisher
    ..cTBS of the left DLPFC impaired MCST performance and dopamine release in the ipsilateral caudate-anterior putamen and contralateral caudate nucleus, as compared to cTBS of the vertex (control)...
  15. Kataoka Y, Kalanithi P, Grantz H, Schwartz M, Saper C, Leckman J, et al. Decreased number of parvalbumin and cholinergic interneurons in the striatum of individuals with Tourette syndrome. J Comp Neurol. 2010;518:277-91 pubmed publisher
    ..of both parvalbumin (PV)+ and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)+ cholinergic interneurons in the Cd and the putamen (Pt)...
  16. Yin D, Valles F, Fiandaca M, Bringas J, Gimenez F, Berger M, et al. Optimal region of the putamen for image-guided convection-enhanced delivery of therapeutics in human and non-human primates. Neuroimage. 2011;54 Suppl 1:S196-203 pubmed publisher
    ..we retrospectively analyzed MRI of 25 convection-enhanced delivery (CED) infusions with MRI contrast into the putamen of non-human primates (NHP)...
  17. Lee J, Yun J, Shin C, Kim H, Jeon B. Putaminal abnormality on 3-T magnetic resonance imaging in early parkinsonism-predominant multiple system atrophy. J Neurol. 2010;257:2065-70 pubmed publisher
    ..as presence of atrophy, signal hypointensity, and abnormal disruption of the hyperintense lateral rim of the putamen. The sum scores for putaminal abnormality were calculated from the presence of each item...
  18. Deffains M, Legallet E, Apicella P. Modulation of neuronal activity in the monkey putamen associated with changes in the habitual order of sequential movements. J Neurophysiol. 2010;104:1355-69 pubmed publisher
    ..We recorded single neurons in the posterior putamen of two monkeys performing an overlearned sequence of arm reaching movements to examine whether task-related ..
  19. Watanabe H, Ito M, Fukatsu H, Senda J, Atsuta N, Kaga T, et al. Putaminal magnetic resonance imaging features at various magnetic field strengths in multiple system atrophy. Mov Disord. 2010;25:1916-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Putaminal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in MSA were altered considerably by magnetic field strength. The severity and distribution of signal changes are important for assessing putaminal MRI findings in MSA...
  20. Shi J, Wang Y, Ceschin R, An X, Lao Y, Vanderbilt D, et al. A multivariate surface-based analysis of the putamen in premature newborns: regional differences within the ventral striatum. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e66736 pubmed publisher
    ..We performed regional group comparisons of the surface anatomy of the striatum (putamen and globus pallidus) between 17 preterm and 19 term-born neonates at term-equivalent age...
  21. Santaniello S, Gale J, Montgomery E, Sarma S. Reinforcement mechanisms in putamen during high frequency STN DBS: A point process study. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2012;2012:1214-7 pubmed publisher
    Despite a pivotal role in the motor loop, dorsolateral striatum (putamen) has been poorly studied thus far under Parkinsonian conditions and Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS)...
  22. Gago B, Suárez Boomgaard D, Fuxe K, Brene S, Reina Sánchez M, Rodríguez Pérez L, et al. Effect of acute and continuous morphine treatment on transcription factor expression in subregions of the rat caudate putamen. Marked modulation by D4 receptor activation. Brain Res. 2011;1407:47-61 pubmed publisher
    ..induces a down-regulation of the ? opioid receptor (MOR) in the striosomal compartment of the rat caudate putamen (CPu), suggesting a striosomal D(4)R/MOR receptor interaction in line with their high co-distribution in this ..
  23. Chen G, Buck K. Rostroventral caudate putamen involvement in ethanol withdrawal is influenced by a chromosome 4 locus. Genes Brain Behav. 2010;9:768-76 pubmed publisher
    ..mice show significantly less neuronal activity associated with alcohol withdrawal in the rostroventral caudate putamen (rvCP), but not other parts of the striatum, compared with background strain mice...
  24. Gago B, Fuxe K, Brene S, Diaz Cabiale Z, Reina Sánchez M, Suárez Boomgaard D, et al. Early modulation by the dopamine D4 receptor of morphine-induced changes in the opioid peptide systems in the rat caudate putamen. J Neurosci Res. 2013;91:1533-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Their expression in the caudate putamen (CPu) is regulated by dopamine and opioid receptors...
  25. Hori Y, Minamimoto T, Kimura M. Neuronal encoding of reward value and direction of actions in the primate putamen. J Neurophysiol. 2009;102:3530-43 pubmed publisher
    ..To address this issue, we investigated the activities of presumed projection neurons in the putamen of macaque monkeys performing a visually instructed GO-NOGO button-press task for large and small rewards...
  26. Mitelman S, Canfield E, Chu K, Brickman A, Shihabuddin L, Hazlett E, et al. Poor outcome in chronic schizophrenia is associated with progressive loss of volume of the putamen. Schizophr Res. 2009;113:241-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Schizophrenia patients with different outcomes entered the study with similar volumes of the caudate nucleus and putamen. The rate of decline in volumes of the putamen was greater in patients with poor outcome than in the good-outcome ..
  27. Guyer A, Choate V, Detloff A, Benson B, Nelson E, Perez Edgar K, et al. Striatal functional alteration during incentive anticipation in pediatric anxiety disorders. Am J Psychiatry. 2012;169:205-12 pubmed
    ..incentives of increasing magnitude, adolescents with social phobia showed increasingly heightened caudate and putamen activation at a level greater than that seen in the healthy comparison and generalized anxiety disorder groups...
  28. Aichert D, Williams S, Moller H, Kumari V, Ettinger U. Functional neural correlates of psychometric schizotypy: an fMRI study of antisaccades. Psychophysiology. 2012;49:345-56 pubmed publisher
    ..reduced blood oxygenation level dependent signal and higher schizotypy were found during antisaccades in the putamen, thalamus, cerebellum, and visual cortex and during prosaccades in the visual cortex, supplementary eye field, ..
  29. Cuzon Carlson V, Seabold G, Helms C, Garg N, Odagiri M, Rau A, et al. Synaptic and morphological neuroadaptations in the putamen associated with long-term, relapsing alcohol drinking in primates. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2011;36:2513-28 pubmed publisher
    ..protocol, we found a selective increase in dendritic spine density and enhanced glutamatergic transmission in the putamen, but not in the caudate nucleus...
  30. Xu J, Hassanzadeh B, Chu W, Tu Z, Jones L, Luedtke R, et al. [3H]4-(dimethylamino)-N-(4-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl) butyl)benzamide: a selective radioligand for dopamine D(3) receptors. II. Quantitative analysis of dopamine D(3) and D(2) receptor density ratio in the caudate-putamen. Synapse. 2010;64:449-59 pubmed publisher
    ..A mathematical model for calculating the absolute densities of dopamine D(2) and D(3) receptors based on the in vitro receptor binding data of [3H]WC-10 and [3H]raclopride was developed. ..
  31. Sobel L, Bansal R, Maia T, Sanchez J, Mazzone L, Durkin K, et al. Basal ganglia surface morphology and the effects of stimulant medications in youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2010;167:977-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors examined the morphologic features of the basal ganglia nuclei (caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus) in children with ADHD...
  32. Brovelli A, Nazarian B, Meunier M, Boussaoud D. Differential roles of caudate nucleus and putamen during instrumental learning. Neuroimage. 2011;57:1580-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The anterior caudate nucleus integrates information about performance and cognitive control demands, whereas the putamen tracks how likely the conditioning stimuli lead to correct response...
  33. Ito H, Takano H, Takahashi H, Arakawa R, Miyoshi M, Kodaka F, et al. Effects of the antipsychotic risperidone on dopamine synthesis in human brain measured by positron emission tomography with L-[beta-11C]DOPA: a stabilizing effect for dopaminergic neurotransmission?. J Neurosci. 2009;29:13730-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The therapeutic effects of risperidone in schizophrenia might be related to such stabilizing effects on dopaminergic neurotransmission responsivity...
  34. Badgaiyan R. Dopamine is released in the striatum during human emotional processing. Neuroreport. 2010;21:1172-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of the data indicated that the task performance is associated with dopamine release in the head of caudate and in the dorsal putamen bilaterally.
  35. San Sebastián W, Richardson R, Kells A, Lamarre C, Bringas J, Pivirotto P, et al. Safety and tolerability of magnetic resonance imaging-guided convection-enhanced delivery of AAV2-hAADC with a novel delivery platform in nonhuman primate striatum. Hum Gene Ther. 2012;23:210-7 pubmed publisher
    ..mainstay drug, l-DOPA, one promising approach has been to use gene therapy to restore AADC activity in the human putamen and thereby restore normal l-DOPA response in patients with PD...
  36. Hattingen E, Magerkurth J, Pilatus U, Mozer A, Seifried C, Steinmetz H, et al. Phosphorus and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy demonstrates mitochondrial dysfunction in early and advanced Parkinson's disease. Brain. 2009;132:3285-97 pubmed publisher
    ..In the putamen and midbrain of both Parkinson's disease groups, we found a bilateral reduction of high-energy phosphates such as ..
  37. Ellmore T, Hood A, Castriotta R, Stimming E, Bick R, Schiess M. Reduced volume of the putamen in REM sleep behavior disorder patients. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2010;16:645-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The RBD group had smaller bilateral putamen volumes (both raw and normalized by brain tissue volume), in addition to some clinical impairment on the UPDRS ..
  38. Naydenov A, Vassoler F, Luksik A, Kaczmarska J, Konradi C. Mitochondrial abnormalities in the putamen in Parkinson's disease dyskinesia. Acta Neuropathol. 2010;120:623-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that bioenergetic function in the putamen might play a crucial role in the development of dyskinesias...
  39. Mura E, Preda S, Govoni S, Lanni C, Trabace L, Grilli M, et al. Specific neuromodulatory actions of amyloid-beta on dopamine release in rat nucleus accumbens and caudate putamen. J Alzheimers Dis. 2010;19:1041-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Abeta (1-40) on DA transmission to different release stimuli and to another dopaminergic brain area, the caudate putamen (CPu), in order to clarify whether the effect of the peptide is stimulus- or brain area-selective...
  40. Nandhagopal R, Kuramoto L, Schulzer M, Mak E, Cragg J, Lee C, et al. Longitudinal progression of sporadic Parkinson's disease: a multi-tracer positron emission tomography study. Brain. 2009;132:2970-9 pubmed publisher
  41. Richardson R, Kells A, Rosenbluth K, Salegio E, Fiandaca M, Larson P, et al. Interventional MRI-guided putaminal delivery of AAV2-GDNF for a planned clinical trial in Parkinson's disease. Mol Ther. 2011;19:1048-57 pubmed publisher
    ..direct infusion of neurotrophic therapies for Parkinson's disease (PD) have suffered from poor coverage of the putamen. The planned use of a novel interventional-magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) targeting system for achieving ..
  42. Muranishi M, Inokawa H, Yamada H, Ueda Y, Matsumoto N, Nakagawa M, et al. Inactivation of the putamen selectively impairs reward history-based action selection. Exp Brain Res. 2011;209:235-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study examined the effect of inactivation of the putamen via local injection of the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol in monkeys engaged in a manual reward-based multi-..
  43. Wymbs N, Bassett D, Mucha P, Porter M, Grafton S. Differential recruitment of the sensorimotor putamen and frontoparietal cortex during motor chunking in humans. Neuron. 2012;74:936-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Activity in the bilateral sensorimotor putamen positively correlated with chunk concatenation, whereas a left-hemisphere frontoparietal network was correlated ..
  44. Liem M, Lesnik Oberstein S, Versluis M, Maat Schieman M, Haan J, Webb A, et al. 7 T MRI reveals diffuse iron deposition in putamen and caudate nucleus in CADASIL. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2012;83:1180-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared with healthy controls, mutation carriers had significantly higher phase shift in the putamen (p=0.0002) and caudate nucleus (p=0.006)...
  45. Gonzales K, Pare J, Wichmann T, Smith Y. GABAergic inputs from direct and indirect striatal projection neurons onto cholinergic interneurons in the primate putamen. J Comp Neurol. 2013;521:2502-22 pubmed publisher
    ..ultrastructural analysis of the GABAergic and glutamatergic innervation of ChIs in the postcommissural putamen of rhesus monkeys...
  46. Booth J, Wood L, Lu D, Houk J, Bitan T. The role of the basal ganglia and cerebellum in language processing. Brain Res. 2007;1133:136-44 pubmed
    ..has reciprocal connections with both left inferior frontal gyrus and left lateral temporal cortex, whereas the putamen has unidirectional connections into these two brain regions...
  47. Samuvel D, Jayanthi L, Manohar S, Kaliyaperumal K, See R, Ramamoorthy S. Dysregulation of dopamine transporter trafficking and function after abstinence from cocaine self-administration in rats: evidence for differential regulation in caudate putamen and nucleus accumbens. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008;325:293-301 pubmed publisher
    ..Using ex vivo caudate putamen (CPu) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc) synaptosomal preparations, we found that DA uptake was significantly higher in ..
  48. Badgaiyan R, Fischman A, Alpert N. Striatal dopamine release in sequential learning. Neuroimage. 2007;38:549-56 pubmed
    ..that the task induces release of endogenous dopamine in the posterior two-third of dorsomedial aspect of left putamen and the anterior part of the body of caudate bilaterally...
  49. Samejima K, Ueda Y, Doya K, Kimura M. Representation of action-specific reward values in the striatum. Science. 2005;310:1337-40 pubmed
    ..Fewer neurons were tuned to relative values or action choice. These results suggest representation of action values in the striatum, which can guide action selection in the basal ganglia circuit. ..
  50. Scherk H, Backens M, Schneider Axmann T, Kraft S, Kemmer C, Usher J, et al. Dopamine transporter genotype influences N-acetyl-aspartate in the left putamen. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2009;10:524-30 pubmed
    ..NAA/Cho, NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr and Ins/Cr in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and putamen in healthy subjects and psychiatric patients irrespective of clinical diagnosis...
  51. Kumakura Y, Gjedde A, Danielsen E, Christensen S, Cumming P. Dopamine storage capacity in caudate and putamen of patients with early Parkinson's disease: correlation with asymmetry of motor symptoms. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2006;26:358-70 pubmed
    ..The estimates of k(loss) and EDV(2) were more sensitive for the discrimination of biochemical abnormality in the putamen of patients with early PD relative to healthy aged subjects, than was the conventional net influx estimate...
  52. Ketteler D, Kastrau F, Vohn R, Huber W. The subcortical role of language processing. High level linguistic features such as ambiguity-resolution and the human brain; an fMRI study. Neuroimage. 2008;39:2002-9 pubmed
    ..we found significant activation especially in the thalamus and some parts of the basal ganglia (caudate nucleus, putamen)...
  53. Nunnemann S, Wohlschläger A, Ilg R, Gaser C, Etgen T, Conrad B, et al. Accelerated aging of the putamen in men but not in women. Neurobiol Aging. 2009;30:147-51 pubmed
    ..Compared to women, men showed accelerated age-related gray matter (GM) loss in the posterior putamen. Our data may constitute the structural substrate for age-related differences in motor function between men and ..
  54. Vogt I, Lees A, Evert B, Klockgether T, Bonin M, Wullner U. Transcriptional changes in multiple system atrophy and Parkinson's disease putamen. Exp Neurol. 2006;199:465-78 pubmed
    ..in MSA, we chose CNS regions differentially affected in MSA and PD for comparative gene expression profiling: putamen, cerebellum and occipital cortex...
  55. Kakinuma H, Itoh M, Takahashi H. A novel mutation in the monocarboxylate transporter 8 gene in a boy with putamen lesions and low free T4 levels in cerebrospinal fluid. J Pediatr. 2005;147:552-4 pubmed
    ..Imaging showed a high T2 lesion in the left putamen at age 3 and a right putamen lesion at age 6...
  56. Kish S, Tong J, Hornykiewicz O, Rajput A, Chang L, Guttman M, et al. Preferential loss of serotonin markers in caudate versus putamen in Parkinson's disease. Brain. 2008;131:120-31 pubmed
    ..has focussed recently on the possibility that the remaining serotonin neurons innervating striatum (caudate and putamen) might release dopamine as a 'false transmitter'--an action that could have both beneficial and harmful (e.g...
  57. Wallius E, Tohka J, Hirvonen J, Hietala J, Ruotsalainen U. Evaluation of the automatic three-dimensional delineation of caudate and putamen for PET receptor occupancy studies. Nucl Med Commun. 2008;29:53-65 pubmed
    ..feasibility of two automatic, paired, three-dimensional delineation methods of striatal structures (caudate and putamen) for the purposes of PET receptor occupancy studies...
  58. John C, Jones S. Voltammetric characterization of the effect of monoamine uptake inhibitors and releasers on dopamine and serotonin uptake in mouse caudate-putamen and substantia nigra slices. Neuropharmacology. 2007;52:1596-605 pubmed
    ..and fenfluramine on dopamine and serotonin uptake following electrically stimulated release in mouse caudate-putamen and substantia nigra pars reticulata slices...
  59. Fujii S, Matsusue E, Kinoshita T, Sugihara S, Ohama E, Ogawa T. Hyperintense putaminal rim at 3T reflects fewer ferritin deposits in the lateral marginal area of the putamen. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2007;28:777-81 pubmed
    ..imaging-pathologic correlations revealed that ferritin deposits were slight in the lateral marginal area of the putamen in the 63-year-old subject showing present HPR, but in the 83-year-old subject with no HPR, ferritin deposits ..
  60. von Lewinski F, Werner C, Jörn T, Mohr A, Sixel Döring F, Trenkwalder C. T2*-weighted MRI in diagnosis of multiple system atrophy. A practical approach for clinicians. J Neurol. 2007;254:1184-8 pubmed
    ..The typical finding in T2* GE sequences of MSA patients was a signal loss of the dorsolateral putamen, which showed a high specificity (>0.91), but was present in only a subpopulation of patients (sensitivity 0...
  61. Seppi K, Schocke M, Mair K, Esterhammer R, Scherfler C, Geser F, et al. Progression of putaminal degeneration in multiple system atrophy: a serial diffusion MR study. Neuroimage. 2006;31:240-5 pubmed
    By using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), we have recently shown abnormal diffusivity in the putamen of patients with the Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy (MSA-P) which also correlated with disease severity, indicating the ..
  62. Brück A, Aalto S, Nurmi E, Vahlberg T, Bergman J, Rinne J. Striatal subregional 6-[18F]fluoro-L-dopa uptake in early Parkinson's disease: a two-year follow-up study. Mov Disord. 2006;21:958-63 pubmed
    ..shows that the F-dopa uptake in unmedicated early PD is most severely decreased in the dorsal part of caudal putamen but significant decrease can be seen throughout the striatum compared with controls...
  63. Yoo H, Kim M, Kim S, Sung Y, Sim M, Lee Y, et al. Putaminal gray matter volume decrease in panic disorder: an optimized voxel-based morphometry study. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;22:2089-94 pubmed
    ..Gray matter volumes of bilateral putamen were decreased in panic subjects relative to healthy comparison subjects (corrected P < 0.05)...
  64. Haruno M, Kawato M. Different neural correlates of reward expectation and reward expectation error in the putamen and caudate nucleus during stimulus-action-reward association learning. J Neurophysiol. 2006;95:948-59 pubmed
    ..However, the putamen and caudate nucleus are embedded in distinct cortico-striatal loop circuits, predominantly connected to motor-..
  65. Mamo D, Graff A, Mizrahi R, Shammi C, Romeyer F, Kapur S. Differential effects of aripiprazole on D(2), 5-HT(2), and 5-HT(1A) receptor occupancy in patients with schizophrenia: a triple tracer PET study. Am J Psychiatry. 2007;164:1411-7 pubmed
    ..The authors conducted a positron emission tomography (PET) study to characterize the simultaneous effects of aripiprazole at the D(2), 5-HT(2), and 5-HT(1A) receptors in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder...
  66. Romero M, Bermudez M, Vicente A, Perez R, Gonzalez F. Activity of neurons in the caudate and putamen during a visuomotor task. Neuroreport. 2008;19:1141-5 pubmed publisher
    Evidence supporting a role of the caudate and putamen nuclei in associative learning is present...
  67. Di Martino A, Scheres A, Margulies D, Kelly A, Uddin L, Shehzad Z, et al. Functional connectivity of human striatum: a resting state FMRI study. Cereb Cortex. 2008;18:2735-47 pubmed publisher
    ..This approach holds promise for studying basal ganglia dysfunction in clinical disorders. ..
  68. Castelo J, Courtney M, Melrose R, Stern C. Putamen hypertrophy in nondemented patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection and cognitive compromise. Arch Neurol. 2007;64:1275-80 pubmed
    ..Nondemented HIV+ patients demonstrated relative and isolated putamen hypertrophy compared with control participants...
  69. Ito M, Watanabe H, Kawai Y, Atsuta N, Tanaka F, Naganawa S, et al. Usefulness of combined fractional anisotropy and apparent diffusion coefficient values for detection of involvement in multiple system atrophy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2007;78:722-8 pubmed
    ..We compared ADC and FA values in the pons, cerebellum and putamen of 61 subjects (20 probable MSA patients, 21 age matched PD patients and 20 age matched healthy controls) using a ..
  70. Ahn M, Breeze J, Makris N, Kennedy D, Hodge S, Herbert M, et al. Anatomic brain magnetic resonance imaging of the basal ganglia in pediatric bipolar disorder. J Affect Disord. 2007;104:147-54 pubmed
    ..The BG (caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, nucleus accumbens) is interconnected with limbic and prefrontal cortical structures and ..
  71. Leh S, Ptito A, Chakravarty M, Strafella A. Fronto-striatal connections in the human brain: a probabilistic diffusion tractography study. Neurosci Lett. 2007;419:113-8 pubmed
    ..DTI) tractography to reconstruct neural connections between the frontal cortex and the caudate nucleus and putamen in vivo...
  72. Bäckman C, Shan L, Zhang Y, Hoffer B, Leonard S, Troncoso J, et al. Gene expression patterns for GDNF and its receptors in the human putamen affected by Parkinson's disease: a real-time PCR study. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2006;252:160-6 pubmed
    ..we have investigated if mRNA expression levels for GDNF and/or its receptors are altered during PD in the human putamen, a target area for dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra compacta...
  73. Hadaczek P, Kohutnicka M, Krauze M, Bringas J, Pivirotto P, Cunningham J, et al. Convection-enhanced delivery of adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) into the striatum and transport of AAV2 within monkey brain. Hum Gene Ther. 2006;17:291-302 pubmed
    ..The TK group consisted of three monkeys that received bilateral CED infusion of AAV2-TK into the putamen; one side in all three monkeys was coinfused with heparin...
  74. Morrison P, Lonser R, Oldfield E. Convective delivery of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in the human putamen. J Neurosurg. 2007;107:74-83 pubmed
    ..somewhat smaller distribution volume relative to those in the other trials, was positioned more anteriorly in the putamen, and was somewhat elongated axially; the bolus component extended this putaminal distribution to a larger ..
  75. Etgen T, Mühlau M, Gaser C, Sander D. Bilateral grey-matter increase in the putamen in primary blepharospasm. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2006;77:1017-20 pubmed
    ..Primary blepharospasm is a focal dystonia characterised by excessive involuntary closure of the eyelids. The pathophysiology of primary blepharospasm is unresolved...
  76. Sun W, Zhou L, Hazim R, Quinones Jenab V, Jenab S. Effects of acute cocaine on ERK and DARPP-32 phosphorylation pathways in the caudate-putamen of Fischer rats. Brain Res. 2007;1178:12-9 pubmed
    ..element-binding protein (CREB) kinase, pp90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK), and c-Fos protein levels in the caudate/putamen of Fischer rats...
  77. Lang A, Gill S, Patel N, Lozano A, Nutt J, Penn R, et al. Randomized controlled trial of intraputamenal glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor infusion in Parkinson disease. Ann Neurol. 2006;59:459-66 pubmed
    ..PD patients were randomized 1 to 1 to receive bilateral continuous Ipu infusion of liatermin 15 microg/putamen/day or placebo...
  78. Huot P, Levesque M, Parent A. The fate of striatal dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease and Huntington's chorea. Brain. 2007;130:222-32 pubmed
    ..striatum, but they abounded preferentially in the ventral portion of the structure and were more numerous in the putamen than in the caudate nucleus...
  79. Marchand W, Lee J, Thatcher J, Hsu E, Rashkin E, Suchy Y, et al. Putamen coactivation during motor task execution. Neuroreport. 2008;19:957-60 pubmed publisher
    ..During the completion of a unilateral motor task with either hand, each putamen nucleus demonstrated strong coactivation with structures in both hemispheres...
  80. Lee W, Lee C, Shyu W, Chong P, Lin S. Hyperintense putaminal rim sign is not a hallmark of multiple system atrophy at 3T. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2005;26:2238-42 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that the HPR at 3T scans is a nonspecific, normal finding. FLAIR may be helpful in discriminating between normal subjects and patients with MSA in case of isolated HPR at 3T. ..
  81. Seppi K, Schocke M, Prennschuetz Schuetzenau K, Mair K, Esterhammer R, Kremser C, et al. Topography of putaminal degeneration in multiple system atrophy: a diffusion magnetic resonance study. Mov Disord. 2006;21:847-52 pubmed
    ..neuropathologic evidence that, in early stages of the Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy (MSA-P), the putamen shows a distinct topographical pathology affecting predominantly the dorsolateral and caudal regions while ..
  82. Haller S, Winkler D, Gobbi C, Lyrer P, Wetzel S, Steck A. Prominent activation of the putamen during essential palatal tremor: a functional MR imaging case study. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2006;27:1272-4 pubmed
    ..Functional MR imaging (fMRI) revealed prominent bilateral neuronal activation in the putamen associated with essential palatal tremor (EPT) in a 41-year-old man...
  83. Eberling J, Jagust W, Christine C, Starr P, Larson P, Bankiewicz K, et al. Results from a phase I safety trial of hAADC gene therapy for Parkinson disease. Neurology. 2008;70:1980-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients with moderate to advanced PD received bilateral infusion of a low dose of the AAV-hAADC vector into the putamen. PET scans using the AADC tracer, 6-[18F]fluoro-l-m-tyrosine (FMT), were performed at baseline and at 1 and 6 ..
  84. Zhang Y, Xu H, He J, Yan B, Jiang W, Li X, et al. Quetiapine reverses altered locomotor activity and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in rat caudate putamen following long-term haloperidol treatment. Neurosci Lett. 2007;420:66-71 pubmed
    ..of HAL caused significant increase in locomotor activity and lower levels of TH immunoreactivity in the caudate putamen of the striatum...