caudate nucleus


Summary: Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.

Top Publications

  1. Kemp J, Berthel M, Dufour A, Despres O, Henry A, Namer I, et al. Caudate nucleus and social cognition: neuropsychological and SPECT evidence from a patient with focal caudate lesion. Cortex. 2013;49:559-71 pubmed publisher
    ..of such lesions on social cognition, we tested a selected patient, MVG, a 44-year-old man with a focal caudate nucleus (CN) lesion following stroke...
  2. Yanike M, Ferrera V. Representation of outcome risk and action in the anterior caudate nucleus. J Neurosci. 2014;34:3279-90 pubmed publisher
    The anterior caudate nucleus is essential for goal-directed behavior because it links outcome information to actions. It is well known that caudate neurons provide a variety of reward-related and action signals...
  3. Nagy A, Berenyi A, Gulya K, Norita M, Benedek G, Nagy A. Direct projection from the visual associative cortex to the caudate nucleus in the feline brain. Neurosci Lett. 2011;503:52-7 pubmed publisher the assumption that the extrageniculate ascending tectofugal pathways send visual projection to the caudate nucleus (CN) in amniotes...
  4. Dumurgier J, Crivello F, Mazoyer B, Ahmed I, Tavernier B, Grabli D, et al. MRI atrophy of the caudate nucleus and slower walking speed in the elderly. Neuroimage. 2012;60:871-8 pubmed publisher
    ..054, standard error [SE]=0.028, p=0.05). In more detailed analyses, the volume of the caudate nucleus had a preponderant role on this association (?=0.049, SE=0.019, p=0...
  5. Madsen S, Ho A, Hua X, Saharan P, Toga A, Jack C, et al. 3D maps localize caudate nucleus atrophy in 400 Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment, and healthy elderly subjects. Neurobiol Aging. 2010;31:1312-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Normal caudate asymmetry (with the right 3.9% larger than left) was lost in AD, suggesting preferential right caudate atrophy. Automated caudate maps may complement other MRI-derived measures of disease burden in AD. ..
  6. Yang J, Pan Y, Zhao Y, Qiu P, Lu L, Li P, et al. Oxytocin in the rat caudate nucleus influences pain modulation. Peptides. 2011;32:2104-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Many studies have found that caudate nucleus (CdN) enriches OXT and OXT receptors by the methods of historadioautograph and gene expression...
  7. Flores L, Disterhoft J. Caudate nucleus is critically involved in trace eyeblink conditioning. J Neurosci. 2009;29:14511-20 pubmed publisher
    ..cortical and thalamic input into the basal ganglia network is the striatum, which includes a differentiated caudate nucleus (CN) and the putamen in rabbits...
  8. Bohbot V, Del Balso D, Conrad K, Konishi K, Leyton M. Caudate nucleus-dependent navigational strategies are associated with increased use of addictive drugs. Hippocampus. 2013;23:973-84 pubmed publisher
    ..a task previously shown to dissociate between hippocampal-dependent spatial navigational strategies and caudate nucleus-dependent stimulus-response navigational strategies...
  9. Bohbot V, Gupta M, Banner H, Dahmani L. Caudate nucleus-dependent response strategies in a virtual navigation task are associated with lower basal cortisol and impaired episodic memory. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2011;96:173-80 pubmed publisher
    ..either use a hippocampal-dependent spatial strategy by building relationships between landmarks, or a caudate nucleus-dependent stimulus-response strategy by automatizing a pattern of open and closed arms to learn the location ..

More Information


  1. Bluhm R, Williamson P, Lanius R, Théberge J, Densmore M, Bartha R, et al. Resting state default-mode network connectivity in early depression using a seed region-of-interest analysis: decreased connectivity with caudate nucleus. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2009;63:754-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Deficits in DMN connectivity with the caudate may be an early manifestation of major depressive disorder. ..
  2. Brovelli A, Nazarian B, Meunier M, Boussaoud D. Differential roles of caudate nucleus and putamen during instrumental learning. Neuroimage. 2011;57:1580-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The anterior caudate nucleus integrates information about performance and cognitive control demands, whereas the putamen tracks how likely ..
  3. Almeida Montes L, Ricardo Garcell J, Barajas De La Torre L, Prado Alcántara H, Martínez García R, Fernández Bouzas A, et al. Clinical correlations of grey matter reductions in the caudate nucleus of adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2010;35:238-46 pubmed
    ..The study design was cross-sectional. The region of the right caudate with low grey matter volume was smaller in adults with ADHD in both sexes and was correlated with ADHD severity. ..
  4. Luchetti S, Bossers K, Frajese G, Swaab D. Neurosteroid biosynthetic pathway changes in substantia nigra and caudate nucleus in Parkinson's disease. Brain Pathol. 2010;20:945-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We have carried out an extensive study of the neurosteroid biosynthetic pathways in substantia nigra (SN), caudate nucleus (CN) and putamen (PU) of 7 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and 7 matched controls...
  5. Asaad W, Eskandar E. Encoding of both positive and negative reward prediction errors by neurons of the primate lateral prefrontal cortex and caudate nucleus. J Neurosci. 2011;31:17772-87 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the activity of neurons in the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) and caudate nucleus of monkeys as they performed a trial-and-error learning task...
  6. Mandelli M, Savoiardo M, Minati L, Mariotti C, Aquino D, Erbetta A, et al. Decreased diffusivity in the caudate nucleus of presymptomatic huntington disease gene carriers: which explanation?. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2010;31:706-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Volumetric MR imaging and DWIs were acquired, and statistical analyses were performed on the volumes of the caudate nucleus and putamen and on the corresponding MD measurements...
  7. Provost J, Petrides M, Monchi O. Dissociating the role of the caudate nucleus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in the monitoring of events within human working memory. Eur J Neurosci. 2010;32:873-80 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the functional contribution of the caudate nucleus in the monitoring of events has not yet been studied...
  8. Watanabe M, Munoz D. Saccade suppression by electrical microstimulation in monkey caudate nucleus. J Neurosci. 2010;30:2700-9 pubmed publisher
    It has been suggested that the caudate nucleus, the input stage of the basal ganglia, facilitates and suppresses saccade initiation based on its anatomical characteristics...
  9. Khundakar A, Morris C, Oakley A, Thomas A. Morphometric analysis of neuronal and glial cell pathology in the caudate nucleus in late-life depression. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2011;19:132-41 pubmed publisher
    To assess glial and neuronal density and neuronal volume in two areas of the caudate nucleus in late-life major depression...
  10. Choi K, Le T, McGuire J, Coyner J, Higgs B, Diglisic S, et al. Expression profiles of mitochondrial genes in the frontal cortex and the caudate nucleus of developing humans and mice selectively bred for high and low fear. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e49183 pubmed publisher
    ..genes and the functional categories associated with chronological age in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the caudate nucleus (CN) of psychiatrically normal humans ranging in age from birth to 50 years...
  11. Wan X, Takano D, Asamizuya T, Suzuki C, Ueno K, Cheng K, et al. Developing intuition: neural correlates of cognitive-skill learning in caudate nucleus. J Neurosci. 2012;32:17492-501 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the activation in the head of caudate nucleus developed over the course of training, in parallel to the development of the capability to quickly generate ..
  12. Liem M, Lesnik Oberstein S, Versluis M, Maat Schieman M, Haan J, Webb A, et al. 7 T MRI reveals diffuse iron deposition in putamen and caudate nucleus in CADASIL. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2012;83:1180-5 pubmed publisher
    ..0002) and caudate nucleus (p=0.006). Ex vivo MRI showed decreased signal intensity in the putamen and caudate nucleus in all specimens...
  13. Hannan K, Wood S, Yung A, Velakoulis D, Phillips L, Soulsby B, et al. Caudate nucleus volume in individuals at ultra-high risk of psychosis: a cross-sectional magnetic resonance imaging study. Psychiatry Res. 2010;182:223-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Future research should examine changes longitudinally together with analysis of shape to assess subregions of the caudate that connect with prefrontal cortex. ..
  14. Villablanca J. Why do we have a caudate nucleus?. Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2010;70:95-105 pubmed
    In order to understand the physiological role of the caudate nucleus, we combine here our laboratory data on cats with reports of patients with selective damage to this nucleus...
  15. Macfarlane M, Looi J, Walterfang M, Spulber G, Velakoulis D, Crisby M, et al. Executive dysfunction correlates with caudate nucleus atrophy in patients with white matter changes on MRI: a subset of LADIS. Psychiatry Res. 2013;214:16-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in patients with WMC, a surrogate of small vessel disease, caudate atrophy relates to the dysexecutive syndrome, supporting the role of caudate as an important part of the frontostriatal circuit. ..
  16. Green E, Jacobson A, Haase L, Murphy C. Reduced nucleus accumbens and caudate nucleus activation to a pleasant taste is associated with obesity in older adults. Brain Res. 2011;1386:109-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Significant associations between a hypofunctioning reward response and obesity suggest the hypothesis that decreased dopamine functioning may be a plausible mechanism for weight gain in older adults. ..
  17. Davidson C, Coomber B, Gibson C, Young A. Effect of pre-ischaemic conditioning on hypoxic depolarization of dopamine efflux in the rat caudate brain slice measured in real-time with fast cyclic voltammetry. Neurochem Int. 2011;59:714-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that 10 min OGD pre-ischaemic conditioning can evoke tolerance to a second OGD event and that voltammetric recording of OGD-evoked dopamine efflux is a useful model of pre-ischaemic conditioning in neuronal tissue. ..
  18. Fortea J, Sala Llonch R, Bartrés Faz D, Bosch B, Lladó A, Bargallo N, et al. Increased cortical thickness and caudate volume precede atrophy in PSEN1 mutation carriers. J Alzheimers Dis. 2010;22:909-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Reactive neuronal hypertrophy or/and inflammation may account for increased CTh and decreased MD in asymptomatic MC. ..
  19. Banner H, Bhat V, Etchamendy N, Joober R, Bohbot V. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism is associated with reduced functional magnetic resonance imaging activity in the hippocampus and increased use of caudate nucleus-dependent strategies in a human virtual navigation task. Eur J Neurosci. 2011;33:968-77 pubmed publisher
    ..response' learning, which requires the memorization of a series of actions and is mediated by the caudate nucleus. Studies have demonstrated that people spontaneously use one of these two alternative navigational strategies ..
  20. Haacke E, Miao Y, Liu M, Habib C, Katkuri Y, Liu T, et al. Correlation of putative iron content as represented by changes in R2* and phase with age in deep gray matter of healthy adults. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2010;32:561-76 pubmed publisher
    ..analyzed as proxy variables for iron content in the substantia nigra, red nucleus, globus pallidus, putamen, caudate nucleus, thalamus, and pulvinar thalamus...
  21. Schwabe L, Bohbot V, Wolf O. Prenatal stress changes learning strategies in adulthood. Hippocampus. 2012;22:2136-43 pubmed publisher
    ..stress exposure may influence the engagement of hippocampus-dependent spatial learning strategies and caudate nucleus-dependent response learning strategies in later life...
  22. Passarotti A, Sweeney J, Pavuluri M. Emotion processing influences working memory circuits in pediatric bipolar disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2010;49:1064-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Commonalities across PBD and ADHD patients, relative to the HC individuals, entailed cortico-subcortical activity that was reduced under negative emotional challenge and increased under positive emotional challenge. ..
  23. Badgaiyan R. Dopamine is released in the striatum during human emotional processing. Neuroreport. 2010;21:1172-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of the data indicated that the task performance is associated with dopamine release in the head of caudate and in the dorsal putamen bilaterally. ..
  24. Santos G, Nagasaka Y, Fujii N, Nakahara H. Encoding of social state information by neuronal activities in the macaque caudate nucleus. Soc Neurosci. 2012;7:42-58 pubmed publisher
    ..The neural mechanisms underlying this evaluation remain elusive. The caudate nucleus (CN) plays a pivotal role in representing reward expectation and translating it into action selection...
  25. Carretie L, Rios M, de la Gándara B, Tapia M, Albert J, Lopez Martin S, et al. The striatum beyond reward: caudate responds intensely to unpleasant pictures. Neuroscience. 2009;164:1615-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Analyses of variance showed that caudate nucleus was sensitive to the emotional content of stimulation, negative pictures eliciting greater caudate responses ..
  26. Ito H, Takano H, Takahashi H, Arakawa R, Miyoshi M, Kodaka F, et al. Effects of the antipsychotic risperidone on dopamine synthesis in human brain measured by positron emission tomography with L-[beta-11C]DOPA: a stabilizing effect for dopaminergic neurotransmission?. J Neurosci. 2009;29:13730-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The therapeutic effects of risperidone in schizophrenia might be related to such stabilizing effects on dopaminergic neurotransmission responsivity...
  27. Clarke H, Hill G, Robbins T, Roberts A. Dopamine, but not serotonin, regulates reversal learning in the marmoset caudate nucleus. J Neurosci. 2011;31:4290-7 pubmed publisher the OFC and extends subcortically to other structures implicated in reversal learning, such as the medial caudate nucleus. Therefore, because the roles of the serotonin and dopamine within the caudate nucleus are poorly understood, ..
  28. Payabvash S, Souza L, Wang Y, Schaefer P, Furie K, Halpern E, et al. Regional ischemic vulnerability of the brain to hypoperfusion: the need for location specific computed tomography perfusion thresholds in acute stroke patients. Stroke. 2011;42:1255-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Location-specific, rather than whole-brain, rCBF thresholds may provide a more accurate metric for estimating infarct core using CT perfusion maps. ..
  29. van Rikxoort E, Isgum I, Arzhaeva Y, Staring M, Klein S, Viergever M, et al. Adaptive local multi-atlas segmentation: application to the heart and the caudate nucleus. Med Image Anal. 2010;14:39-49 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, AMAS was applied to an online segmentation challenge for delineation of the caudate nucleus in brain MRI scans where it achieved the best score of all results submitted to date.
  30. Riley J, Moore S, Cramer S, Lin J. Caudate atrophy and impaired frontostriatal connections are linked to executive dysfunction in temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav. 2011;21:80-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that atrophy in the dorsal head of the caudate might disrupt frontostriatal networks that are critical for executive functioning in TLE. ..
  31. Kataoka Y, Kalanithi P, Grantz H, Schwartz M, Saper C, Leckman J, et al. Decreased number of parvalbumin and cholinergic interneurons in the striatum of individuals with Tourette syndrome. J Comp Neurol. 2010;518:277-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The selective deficit of PV+ and cholinergic striatal interneurons in TS subjects may result in an impaired cortico/thalamic control of striatal neuron firing in TS. ..
  32. Soliva J, Fauquet J, Bielsa A, Rovira M, Carmona S, Ramos Quiroga J, et al. Quantitative MR analysis of caudate abnormalities in pediatric ADHD: proposal for a diagnostic test. Psychiatry Res. 2010;182:238-43 pubmed publisher
    ..attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with appropriate sample sizes reveal a decreased right caudate nucleus volume...
  33. Hendrikse J, Petersen E, Chng S, Venketasubramanian N, Golay X. Distribution of cerebral blood flow in the nucleus caudatus, nucleus lentiformis, and thalamus: a study of territorial arterial spin-labeling MR imaging. Radiology. 2010;254:867-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The perfusion territory contributions to deep-brain structures vary widely. These differences can be partly explained by variations in the anatomic features of the circle of Willis. (c) RSNA, 2010. ..
  34. Levitt J, Styner M, Niethammer M, Bouix S, Koo M, Voglmaier M, et al. Shape abnormalities of caudate nucleus in schizotypal personality disorder. Schizophr Res. 2009;110:127-39 pubmed publisher
    Previously, we reported abnormal volume and global shape in the caudate nucleus in schizotypal personality disorder (SPD)...
  35. Nagy A, Paróczy Z, Márkus Z, Berenyi A, Wypych M, Waleszczyk W, et al. Drifting grating stimulation reveals particular activation properties of visual neurons in the caudate nucleus. Eur J Neurosci. 2008;27:1801-8 pubmed publisher
    The role of the caudate nucleus (CN) in motor control has been widely studied...
  36. Vernaleken I, Weibrich C, Siessmeier T, Buchholz H, Rösch F, Heinz A, et al. Asymmetry in dopamine D(2/3) receptors of caudate nucleus is lost with age. Neuroimage. 2007;34:870-8 pubmed
    ..we measured dopamine D2/3 receptor availability with [18F]desmethoxyfallypride-PET (DMFP) in putamen and caudate nucleus (NC) of 21 healthy, right-handed males (24-60 years; 35+/-10)...
  37. Narberhaus A, Lawrence E, Allin M, Walshe M, McGuire P, Rifkin L, et al. Neural substrates of visual paired associates in young adults with a history of very preterm birth: alterations in fronto-parieto-occipital networks and caudate nucleus. Neuroimage. 2009;47:1884-93 pubmed publisher
    ..during encoding, VPT-born individuals showed increased BOLD signal response compared to controls in left caudate nucleus, right cuneus (BA 18) and left superior parietal lobule (BA 7), and decreased signal in right inferior ..
  38. Lau B, Glimcher P. Action and outcome encoding in the primate caudate nucleus. J Neurosci. 2007;27:14502-14 pubmed
    ..We recorded from phasically active neurons in the caudate nucleus while monkeys performed a probabilistically rewarded delayed saccade task...
  39. Márkus Z, Eördegh G, Paróczy Z, Benedek G, Nagy A. Modality distribution of sensory neurons in the feline caudate nucleus and the substantia nigra. Acta Biol Hung. 2008;59:269-79 pubmed publisher
    ..for the execution of their behavioral action, little is known concerning the sensory functions of the caudate nucleus (CN) and the substantia nigra (SN)...
  40. Okugawa G, Nobuhara K, Takase K, Saito Y, Yoshimura M, Kinoshita T. Olanzapine increases grey and white matter volumes in the caudate nucleus of patients with schizophrenia. Neuropsychobiology. 2007;55:43-6 pubmed
    There are inconsistent reports regarding the caudate nucleus volume in patients with schizophrenia compared with healthy subjects...
  41. Butters M, Aizenstein H, Hayashi K, Meltzer C, Seaman J, Reynolds C, et al. Three-dimensional surface mapping of the caudate nucleus in late-life depression. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2009;17:4-12 pubmed publisher
    To compare the volumes of the caudate nucleus, using traditional volumetry and a three-dimensional brain mapping technique, in a group of individuals with late-life depression and a group of age- and education-equated nondepressed ..
  42. Ford K, Everling S. Neural activity in primate caudate nucleus associated with pro- and antisaccades. J Neurophysiol. 2009;102:2334-41 pubmed publisher
    ..stimulus must be inhibited in favor of a saccade to the opposite location, to investigate the role of the caudate nucleus, a major input structure of the BG, in flexible behavior...
  43. Forbes E, Hariri A, Martin S, Silk J, Moyles D, Fisher P, et al. Altered striatal activation predicting real-world positive affect in adolescent major depressive disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2009;166:64-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, these results suggest that reward-processing paradigms capture brain function relevant to real-world positive affect. ..
  44. Volkow N, Wang G, Newcorn J, Telang F, Solanto M, Fowler J, et al. Depressed dopamine activity in caudate and preliminary evidence of limbic involvement in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007;64:932-40 pubmed
    ..There is considerable evidence that brain dopamine is involved in ADHD, but it is unclear whether dopamine activity is enhanced or depressed...
  45. Bohbot V, Lerch J, Thorndycraft B, Iaria G, Zijdenbos A. Gray matter differences correlate with spontaneous strategies in a human virtual navigation task. J Neurosci. 2007;27:10078-83 pubmed
    ..increased activity in the hippocampus, whereas response strategies were associated with activity in the caudate nucleus. Here, voxel based morphometry was used to identify brain regions covarying with the navigational strategies ..
  46. White N. Some highlights of research on the effects of caudate nucleus lesions over the past 200 years. Behav Brain Res. 2009;199:3-23 pubmed publisher
    This review describes experiments on the effects of caudate nucleus lesions on behavior in monkeys, cats and rats...
  47. Pizzagalli D, Holmes A, Dillon D, Goetz E, Birk J, Bogdan R, et al. Reduced caudate and nucleus accumbens response to rewards in unmedicated individuals with major depressive disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2009;166:702-10 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that basal ganglia dysfunction in major depression may affect the consummatory phase of reward processing. Additionally, morphometric results suggest that anhedonia in major depression is related to caudate volume. ..
  48. Di Martino A, Scheres A, Margulies D, Kelly A, Uddin L, Shehzad Z, et al. Functional connectivity of human striatum: a resting state FMRI study. Cereb Cortex. 2008;18:2735-47 pubmed publisher
    ..This approach holds promise for studying basal ganglia dysfunction in clinical disorders. ..
  49. Williams D, Holton J, Strand C, Pittman A, de Silva R, Lees A, et al. Pathological tau burden and distribution distinguishes progressive supranuclear palsy-parkinsonism from Richardson's syndrome. Brain. 2007;130:1566-76 pubmed
    ..The grading system we have developed provides an easy-to-use and sensitive tool for the morphological assessment of PSP-tau pathology and allows for consideration of the clinical diversity that is known to occur in PSP. ..
  50. Leh S, Ptito A, Chakravarty M, Strafella A. Fronto-striatal connections in the human brain: a probabilistic diffusion tractography study. Neurosci Lett. 2007;419:113-8 pubmed
    ..Tensor Imaging (DTI) tractography to reconstruct neural connections between the frontal cortex and the caudate nucleus and putamen in vivo...
  51. Hamilton J, Gotlib I. Neural substrates of increased memory sensitivity for negative stimuli in major depression. Biol Psychiatry. 2008;63:1155-62 pubmed publisher
  52. Gracia E, Cortés A, Meana J, García Sevilla J, Herhsfield M, Canela E, et al. Human adenosine deaminase as an allosteric modulator of human A(1) adenosine receptor: abolishment of negative cooperativity for [H](R)-pia binding to the caudate nucleus. J Neurochem. 2008;107:161-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The physiological role of the interaction is to make receptors more sensitive to adenosine. This powerful regulation has important implications for the physiology and pharmacology of neuronal A(1)Rs. ..
  53. Zhang Y, Yang C, Xu X, Jiao R, Jin H, Lv Y, et al. Morphine dependence changes the role of droperidol on pain-related electric activities in caudate nucleus. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;372:179-85 pubmed publisher
    ..on the pain-evoked response of pain-excitation neurons (PENs) and pain-inhibition neurons (PINs) in the caudate nucleus (Cd) of rats. The trains of electric impulses applied to the sciatic nerve were used as noxious stimulation...
  54. Looi J, Lindberg O, Liberg B, Tatham V, Kumar R, Maller J, et al. Volumetrics of the caudate nucleus: reliability and validity of a new manual tracing protocol. Psychiatry Res. 2008;163:279-88 pubmed publisher
    Our aim was to develop a reliable and valid manual segmentation protocol for tracing the caudate nucleus in MRI for volumetric and, potentially, shape analysis of the caudate...
  55. Schwabe L, Dalm S, Schachinger H, Oitzl M. Chronic stress modulates the use of spatial and stimulus-response learning strategies in mice and man. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2008;90:495-503 pubmed publisher
    Acute stress modulates multiple memory systems in favor of caudate nucleus-dependent stimulus-response and at the expense of hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory...
  56. Looi J, Lindberg O, Zandbelt B, Ostberg P, Andersen C, Botes L, et al. Caudate nucleus volumes in frontotemporal lobar degeneration: differential atrophy in subtypes. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2008;29:1537-43 pubmed publisher
    Frontostriatal circuits involving the caudate nucleus have been implicated in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD)...
  57. Grahn J, Parkinson J, Owen A. The role of the basal ganglia in learning and memory: neuropsychological studies. Behav Brain Res. 2009;199:53-60 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we consider this broad literature in an attempt to define a specific role for the caudate nucleus in learning and memory, and in particular, how this role may differ from that of the putamen...
  58. Tremols V, Bielsa A, Soliva J, Raheb C, Carmona S, Tomas J, et al. Differential abnormalities of the head and body of the caudate nucleus in attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2008;163:270-8 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the study is to present a new method for the segmentation of the caudate nucleus and use it to compare the caudate heads and bodies of an attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) group with those of a control group...
  59. Moeller F, Siebner H, Wolff S, Muhle H, Boor R, Granert O, et al. Changes in activity of striato-thalamo-cortical network precede generalized spike wave discharges. Neuroimage. 2008;39:1839-49 pubmed
    ..All patients showed a decrease in BOLD signal in the head of the caudate nucleus with a variable onset...
  60. Ketteler D, Kastrau F, Vohn R, Huber W. The subcortical role of language processing. High level linguistic features such as ambiguity-resolution and the human brain; an fMRI study. Neuroimage. 2008;39:2002-9 pubmed
    ..distractor) we found significant activation especially in the thalamus and some parts of the basal ganglia (caudate nucleus, putamen)...
  61. Badgaiyan R, Fischman A, Alpert N. Striatal dopamine release in sequential learning. Neuroimage. 2007;38:549-56 pubmed
    ..Thus, the results suggest that sequential learning involves two striatal dopaminergic mechanisms, one for the detection of a change in context, and the other for selection and execution of the response. ..
  62. Oldham M, Konopka G, Iwamoto K, Langfelder P, Kato T, Horvath S, et al. Functional organization of the transcriptome in human brain. Nat Neurosci. 2008;11:1271-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide a new foundation for neurogenetic inquiries by revealing a robust and previously unrecognized organization to the human brain transcriptome. ..
  63. Ko J, Monchi O, Ptito A, Bloomfield P, Houle S, Strafella A. Theta burst stimulation-induced inhibition of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex reveals hemispheric asymmetry in striatal dopamine release during a set-shifting task: a TMS-[(11)C]raclopride PET study. Eur J Neurosci. 2008;28:2147-55 pubmed publisher
    ..impaired MCST performance and dopamine release in the ipsilateral caudate-anterior putamen and contralateral caudate nucleus, as compared to cTBS of the vertex (control)...
  64. Hasan K, Halphen C, Kamali A, Nelson F, Wolinsky J, Narayana P. Caudate nuclei volume, diffusion tensor metrics, and T(2) relaxation in healthy adults and relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients: implications for understanding gray matter degeneration. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2009;29:70-7 pubmed publisher
    ..48; P = 0.005) and whole-brain CSF fraction (r = -0.46; P = 0.01) were also noted. These preliminary findings indicate that caudate DTI-derived metrics can serve as potential quantitative radiological markers of MS pathology. ..
  65. Xia Y, Bettinger K, Shen L, Reiss A. Automatic segmentation of the caudate nucleus from human brain MR images. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2007;26:509-17 pubmed
    We describe a knowledge-driven algorithm to automatically delineate the caudate nucleus (CN) region of the human brain from a magnetic resonance (MR) image...
  66. Schwabe L, Schachinger H, de Kloet E, Oitzl M. Corticosteroids operate as a switch between memory systems. J Cogn Neurosci. 2010;22:1362-72 pubmed publisher
  67. Langen M, Durston S, Staal W, Palmen S, van Engeland H. Caudate nucleus is enlarged in high-functioning medication-naive subjects with autism. Biol Psychiatry. 2007;62:262-6 pubmed
    ..b>Caudate nucleus was enlarged in both samples. This result remained significant after correction for total brain volume...
  68. Mamo D, Graff A, Mizrahi R, Shammi C, Romeyer F, Kapur S. Differential effects of aripiprazole on D(2), 5-HT(2), and 5-HT(1A) receptor occupancy in patients with schizophrenia: a triple tracer PET study. Am J Psychiatry. 2007;164:1411-7 pubmed
    ..The authors conducted a positron emission tomography (PET) study to characterize the simultaneous effects of aripiprazole at the D(2), 5-HT(2), and 5-HT(1A) receptors in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder...
  69. Castelo J, Courtney M, Melrose R, Stern C. Putamen hypertrophy in nondemented patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection and cognitive compromise. Arch Neurol. 2007;64:1275-80 pubmed
    ..These findings may represent a structural imaging parallel to functional imaging studies demonstrating basal ganglia hypermetabolism in HIV+ patients with mild cognitive compromise and early HIV-associated brain disease. ..
  70. Torres Platas S, Nagy C, Wakid M, Turecki G, Mechawar N. Glial fibrillary acidic protein is differentially expressed across cortical and subcortical regions in healthy brains and downregulated in the thalamus and caudate nucleus of depressed suicides. Mol Psychiatry. 2016;21:509-15 pubmed publisher BA4 (primary motor cortex), BA17 (primary visual cortex), cerebellar cortex, mediodorsal thalamus and caudate nucleus. We found downregulation of GFAP mRNA and protein in the mediodorsal thalamus and caudate nucleus of ..
  71. Pellizzaro Venti M, Paciaroni M, Caso V. Caudate infarcts and hemorrhages. Front Neurol Neurosci. 2012;30:137-40 pubmed publisher
    The caudate nucleus (CN) is composed of a head, body and tail. The head of the CN contributes to forming the floor of the lateral ventricle frontal horn...
  72. Guyer A, Choate V, Detloff A, Benson B, Nelson E, Perez Edgar K, et al. Striatal functional alteration during incentive anticipation in pediatric anxiety disorders. Am J Psychiatry. 2012;169:205-12 pubmed
  73. Carrey N, Bernier D, Emms M, Gunde E, Sparkes S, MacMaster F, et al. Smaller volumes of caudate nuclei in prepubertal children with ADHD: impact of age. J Psychiatr Res. 2012;46:1066-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Three-dimensional manual tracings of the head and body of the caudate nucleus and of the cerebrum were acquired from 26 medication-naïve boys with a diagnosis of ADHD (ages 5.9-10...
  74. Xu J, Hassanzadeh B, Chu W, Tu Z, Jones L, Luedtke R, et al. [3H]4-(dimethylamino)-N-(4-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl) butyl)benzamide: a selective radioligand for dopamine D(3) receptors. II. Quantitative analysis of dopamine D(3) and D(2) receptor density ratio in the caudate-putamen. Synapse. 2010;64:449-59 pubmed publisher
    ..A mathematical model for calculating the absolute densities of dopamine D(2) and D(3) receptors based on the in vitro receptor binding data of [3H]WC-10 and [3H]raclopride was developed. ..
  75. Iversen S. Peter H. Kelly, Paul W. Seviour and Susan D. Iversen (1975) "Amphetamine and apomorphine responses in the rat following 6-OHDA lesions of the nucleus accumbens septi and corpus striatum" [Brain Res. 94 (3) 507-522]. Brain Res. 2016;1645:36-7 pubmed publisher
    Eight ?g of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) injected bilaterally into the nucleus accumbens septi (NAS) or the caudate nucleus of the rat resulted in 79% and 50% depletion of endogenous dopamine (DA) at these respective sites...
  76. Baillie J, Barnett M, Upton K, Gerhardt D, Richmond T, De Sapio F, et al. Somatic retrotransposition alters the genetic landscape of the human brain. Nature. 2011;479:534-7 pubmed publisher
    ..L1, Alu and SVA germline mutations, as well as 7,743 putative somatic L1 insertions, in the hippocampus and caudate nucleus of three individuals. Surprisingly, we also found 13,692 somatic Alu insertions and 1,350 SVA insertions...
  77. Tobón K, Kuzhikandathil E. Preadolescent drd1-EGFP mice exhibit cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization. Neurosci Lett. 2014;558:20-5 pubmed publisher
    ..basal locomotor activity in a novel environment and had higher D1 and D2 dopamine receptor mRNA levels in the caudate nucleus compared to the C57BL/6 mice...
  78. Sun W, Zhou L, Quinones Jenab V, Jenab S. Cocaine effects on dopamine and NMDA receptors interactions in the striatum of Fischer rats. Brain Res Bull. 2009;80:377-81 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that D1R-NR1 physical interaction rather than total protein levels may regulate the intracellular signaling after acute cocaine administration. ..
  79. Ramamoorthy S, Samuvel D, Balasubramaniam A, See R, Jayanthi L. Altered dopamine transporter function and phosphorylation following chronic cocaine self-administration and extinction in rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;391:1517-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Such changes may be related to habitual patterns of cocaine-seeking observed during relapse. ..
  80. Stehouwer J, Daniel L, Chen P, Voll R, Williams L, Plott S, et al. Synthesis, fluorine-18 radiolabeling, and biological evaluation of N-((E)-4-fluorobut-2-en-1-yl)-2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4'-halophenyl)nortropanes: candidate radioligands for in vivo imaging of the brain dopamine transporter with positron emission . J Med Chem. 2010;53:5549-57 pubmed publisher
    ..During the time period 40-80 min postinjection of [(18)F]9, the ratio of uptake in the putamen and caudate vs cerebellum uptake was > or = 4. ..
  81. Hartkamp N, Bokkers R, van der Worp H, van Osch M, Kappelle L, Hendrikse J. Distribution of cerebral blood flow in the caudate nucleus, lentiform nucleus and thalamus in patients with carotid artery stenosis. Eur Radiol. 2011;21:875-81 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the influence of internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis on the distribution of blood flow to the caudate nucleus, lentiform nucleus, and thalamus...
  82. Lundblad M, Decressac M, Mattsson B, Bjorklund A. Impaired neurotransmission caused by overexpression of ?-synuclein in nigral dopamine neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:3213-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Synaptic dysfunction and axonopathy would thus be the hallmark of presymptomatic and early-stage Parkinson disease, followed by neuronal degeneration and cell loss, characteristic of more advanced stages of the disease...
  83. Kobayashi K, Aoyama N, Sasaki J, Oshima H, Fukaya C, Yamamoto T, et al. MRI appearance of a cerebral cavernous malformation in the caudate nucleus before and after chorea onset. J Clin Neurosci. 2011;18:719-21 pubmed publisher
    ..CM) are seldom reported, and chorea, in particular, is rarely associated with a CM located in the caudate nucleus. Here we report a 78-year-old female patient with chorea, who presented with choreiform movements due to a CM ..
  84. Hazlett H, Poe M, Lightbody A, Styner M, MacFall J, Reiss A, et al. Trajectories of early brain volume development in fragile X syndrome and autism. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2012;51:921-33 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine patterns of early brain growth in young children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) compared with a comparison group (controls) and a group with idiopathic autism...
  85. Kim H, Hikosaka O. Distinct basal ganglia circuits controlling behaviors guided by flexible and stable values. Neuron. 2013;79:1001-10 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that distinct circuits of the primate caudate nucleus control behavior selectively in the flexible and stable value conditions...
  86. Becker J, Sanders J, Madsen S, Ragin A, Kingsley L, Maruca V, et al. Subcortical brain atrophy persists even in HAART-regulated HIV disease. Brain Imaging Behav. 2011;5:77-85 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to determine the pattern and extent of caudate nucleus and putamen atrophy in HIV-infected men with well-controlled immune status and viral replication...
  87. Gao Q, Zou K, He Z, Sun X, Chen H. Causal connectivity alterations of cortical-subcortical circuit anchored on reduced hemodynamic response brain regions in first-episode drug-naïve major depressive disorder. Sci Rep. 2016;6:21861 pubmed publisher
    ..decreased magnitude of spontaneous hemodynamic response of the orbital frontal cortex (OFC) and the caudate nucleus (CAU) in MDD comparing to healthy controls, suggesting MDD patients likely had alterations in neurovascular ..