globus pallidus


Summary: The representation of the phylogenetically oldest part of the corpus striatum called the paleostriatum. It forms the smaller, more medial part of the lentiform nucleus.

Top Publications

  1. Wang H, Chen X, Chen W, Xue Y, Wei L, Chen L. Anticataleptic effects of 5-HT(1B) receptors in the globus pallidus. Neurosci Res. 2013;77:162-9 pubmed publisher
    The globus pallidus occupies an important position in the indirect pathway of the basal ganglia...
  2. Erez Y, Tischler H, Belelovsky K, Bar Gad I. Dispersed activity during passive movement in the globus pallidus of the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated primate. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16293 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we used multi-electrode recordings to directly explore the activity of neurons from the globus pallidus of parkinsonian primates during passive limb movements and to determine the extent to which they interact and ..
  3. Zeng B, Iravani M, Jackson M, Rose S, Parent A, Jenner P. Morphological changes in serotoninergic neurites in the striatum and globus pallidus in levodopa primed MPTP treated common marmosets with dyskinesia. Neurobiol Dis. 2010;40:599-607 pubmed publisher
    ..axon varicosities was noted in the dorsal caudate and putamen of MPTP-intoxicated monkeys but not the globus pallidus. In MPTP-intoxicated marmosets that had received chronic levodopa treatment to induce dyskinesia, a further ..
  4. Singh A, Kammermeier S, Plate A, Mehrkens J, Ilmberger J, Bötzel K. Pattern of local field potential activity in the globus pallidus internum of dystonic patients during walking on a treadmill. Exp Neurol. 2011;232:162-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Nowadays, the globus pallidus internum (GPi) represents the target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in dystonia...
  5. Odekerken V, van Laar T, Staal M, Mosch A, Hoffmann C, Nijssen P, et al. Subthalamic nucleus versus globus pallidus bilateral deep brain stimulation for advanced Parkinson's disease (NSTAPS study): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Neurol. 2013;12:37-44 pubmed publisher
    ..We assessed whether globus pallidus pars interna (GPi) deep brain stimulation (DBS) gives greater functional improvement than does subthalamic ..
  6. Mabrouk O, Li Q, Song P, Kennedy R. Microdialysis and mass spectrometric monitoring of dopamine and enkephalins in the globus pallidus reveal reciprocal interactions that regulate movement. J Neurochem. 2011;118:24-33 pubmed publisher
    ..and a behavioral assay, we explored the interaction between these three neurotransmitters in the rat globus pallidus. Amphetamine (3 mg/kg i.p.) evoked an increase in dopamine, GABA and methionine/leucine enkephalin...
  7. Edgerton J, Jaeger D. Dendritic sodium channels promote active decorrelation and reduce phase locking to parkinsonian input oscillations in model globus pallidus neurons. J Neurosci. 2011;31:10919-36 pubmed publisher
    ..In the globus pallidus (GP in rodents, homolog of the primate GPe), pairs of neurons generally have uncorrelated firing in normal ..
  8. Arimura N, Nakayama Y, Yamagata T, Tanji J, Hoshi E. Involvement of the globus pallidus in behavioral goal determination and action specification. J Neurosci. 2013;33:13639-53 pubmed publisher
    ..specific functions played by each component of the loops, we compared response properties of neurons in the globus pallidus (GP) with those in the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) and the ventrolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (..
  9. Shin H, Ki C, Cho A, Lee J, Ahn J, Lee J, et al. Globus pallidus interna deep brain stimulation improves chorea and functional status in a patient with chorea-acanthocytosis. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2012;90:273-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We decided to perform globus pallidus interna deep brain stimulation (GPi-DBS) for symptom control...

More Information


  1. Ligot N, Krystkowiak P, Simonin C, Goldman S, Peigneux P, Van Naemen J, et al. External globus pallidus stimulation modulates brain connectivity in Huntington's disease. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2011;31:41-6 pubmed publisher
    ..with O-15-labeled water was used to study at rest the neurophysiological effects of bilateral external globus pallidus (GPe) deep brain stimulation in patients with Huntington's disease (HD)...
  2. Li P, Huang R, Song W, Ji J, Burgunder J, Wang X, et al. Deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus internal improves symptoms of chorea-acanthocytosis. Neurol Sci. 2012;33:269-74 pubmed publisher
    ..However, selection criteria for the most promising candidates must be defined, and the long-term benefits evaluated in clinical studies. ..
  3. Cannon E, Silburn P, Coyne T, O Maley K, Crawford J, Sachdev P. Deep brain stimulation of anteromedial globus pallidus interna for severe Tourette's syndrome. Am J Psychiatry. 2012;169:860-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In this open study, the authors evaluated the effectiveness of DBS of the anteromedial globus pallidus interna on tic severity and common comorbidities...
  4. Martínez Fernández R, Zrinzo L, Aviles Olmos I, Hariz M, Martinez Torres I, Joyce E, et al. Deep brain stimulation for Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: a case series targeting subregions of the globus pallidus internus. Mov Disord. 2011;26:1922-30 pubmed publisher
    ..describes our experience with patients with severe refractory Gilles de la Tourette syndrome treated with globus pallidus internus deep brain stimulation...
  5. Cleary D, Raslan A, Rubin J, Bahgat D, Viswanathan A, Heinricher M, et al. Deep brain stimulation entrains local neuronal firing in human globus pallidus internus. J Neurophysiol. 2013;109:978-87 pubmed publisher
    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi) relieves the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease, yet the mechanism of action remains uncertain...
  6. Saga Y, Hashimoto M, Tremblay L, Tanji J, Hoshi E. Representation of spatial- and object-specific behavioral goals in the dorsal globus pallidus of monkeys during reaching movement. J Neurosci. 2013;33:16360-71 pubmed publisher
    The dorsal aspect of the globus pallidus (GP) communicates with the prefrontal cortex and higher-order motor areas, indicating that it plays a role in goal-directed behavior...
  7. Bocková M, Chladek J, Jurak P, Halamek J, Balaz M, Rektor I. Involvement of the subthalamic nucleus and globus pallidus internus in attention. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2011;118:1235-45 pubmed publisher
    ..potentials (ERPs) and event-related de/synchronizations (ERD/S) in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus internus (GPi). We particularly focused on the rare non-target (distractor) stimuli processing...
  8. Miguelez C, Morin S, Martinez A, Goillandeau M, Bezard E, Bioulac B, et al. Altered pallido-pallidal synaptic transmission leads to aberrant firing of globus pallidus neurons in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. J Physiol. 2012;590:5861-75 pubmed publisher
    The pattern of activity of globus pallidus (GP) neurons is tightly regulated by GABAergic inhibition...
  9. Liu L, Prescott I, Dostrovsky J, Hodaie M, Lozano A, Hutchison W. Frequency-dependent effects of electrical stimulation in the globus pallidus of dystonia patients. J Neurophysiol. 2012;108:5-17 pubmed publisher
    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the globus pallidus internus (GPi) has been shown to improve dystonia, a movement disorder of repetitive twisting movements and postures...
  10. Zhang J, Wang Z, Baker K, Vitek J. Effect of globus pallidus internus stimulation on neuronal activity in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus in the primate model of Parkinson's disease. Exp Neurol. 2012;233:575-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi) DBS is effective at treating the motor signs associated with PD, however its impact on MRGPA is limited ..
  11. Galvan A, Hu X, Smith Y, Wichmann T. Localization and pharmacological modulation of GABA-B receptors in the globus pallidus of parkinsonian monkeys. Exp Neurol. 2011;229:429-39 pubmed publisher
    Changes in GABAergic transmission in the external and internal segments of the globus pallidus (GPe and GPi) contribute to the pathophysiology of the basal ganglia network in Parkinson's disease...
  12. Kanda T, Ishii K, Kawaguchi H, Kitajima K, Takenaka D. High signal intensity in the dentate nucleus and globus pallidus on unenhanced T1-weighted MR images: relationship with increasing cumulative dose of a gadolinium-based contrast material. Radiology. 2014;270:834-41 pubmed publisher
    ..gadolinium-based contrast material administrations and high signal intensity (SI) in the dentate nucleus and globus pallidus on unenhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images...
  13. Jahfari S, Waldorp L, van den Wildenberg W, Scholte H, Ridderinkhof K, Forstmann B. Effective connectivity reveals important roles for both the hyperdirect (fronto-subthalamic) and the indirect (fronto-striatal-pallidal) fronto-basal ganglia pathways during response inhibition. J Neurosci. 2011;31:6891-9 pubmed publisher
  14. Sztainberg Y, Kuperman Y, Justice N, Chen A. An anxiolytic role for CRF receptor type 1 in the globus pallidus. J Neurosci. 2011;31:17416-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The globus pallidus external (GPe), a main relay center within the basal ganglia that is primarily associated with motor and ..
  15. Weinberger M, Hutchison W, Alavi M, Hodaie M, Lozano A, Moro E, et al. Oscillatory activity in the globus pallidus internus: comparison between Parkinson's disease and dystonia. Clin Neurophysiol. 2012;123:358-68 pubmed publisher
    Deep brain stimulation in the globus pallidus internus (GPi) is used to alleviate the motor symptoms of both Parkinson's disease (PD) and dystonia...
  16. Mills K, Scherzer R, Starr P, Ostrem J. Weight change after globus pallidus internus or subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease and dystonia. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2012;90:386-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Weight gain has been described in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients after subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS)...
  17. Goldberg J, Bergman H. Computational physiology of the neural networks of the primate globus pallidus: function and dysfunction. Neuroscience. 2011;198:171-92 pubmed publisher
    The dorsal pallidal complex is made up of the external and internal segments of the globus pallidus (GPe and GPi respectively)...
  18. Adler A, Katabi S, Finkes I, Israel Z, Prut Y, Bergman H. Temporal convergence of dynamic cell assemblies in the striato-pallidal network. J Neurosci. 2012;32:2473-84 pubmed publisher
    ..of projection neurons [striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs), and neurons in the external segment of the globus pallidus (GPe)], and one neuromodulator group [striatal tonically active neurons (TANs)] from behaving monkeys...
  19. Ge S, Yang C, Li M, Li J, Chang X, Fu J, et al. Dopamine depletion increases the power and coherence of high-voltage spindles in the globus pallidus and motor cortex of freely moving rats. Brain Res. 2012;1465:66-79 pubmed publisher
    ..As the globus pallidus (GP) is in a central position to propagate and synchronize oscillations in the cortical-BG circuits, we ..
  20. Pavlides A, Hogan S, Bogacz R. Improved conditions for the generation of beta oscillations in the subthalamic nucleus--globus pallidus network. Eur J Neurosci. 2012;36:2229-39 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the network model composed of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus (GP) developed by A. Nevado Holgado et al...
  21. Mallet N, Micklem B, Henny P, Brown M, Williams C, Bolam J, et al. Dichotomous organization of the external globus pallidus. Neuron. 2012;74:1075-86 pubmed publisher
    ..We have defined an analogous division of labor in the external globus pallidus (GPe) of Parkinsonian rats, showing that the distinct temporal activities of two populations of GPe neuron in..
  22. Fridley J, Adams G, Sun P, York M, Atassi F, Lai E, et al. Effect of subthalamic nucleus or globus pallidus interna stimulation on oculomotor function in patients with Parkinson's disease. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2013;91:113-21 pubmed publisher
    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of either the globus pallidus interna (GPi) or subthalamic nucleus (STN) is similarly effective for treating somatomotor manifestations of Parkinson's disease (PD), but differences in how stimulation of each ..
  23. Atherton J, Menard A, Urbain N, Bevan M. Short-term depression of external globus pallidus-subthalamic nucleus synaptic transmission and implications for patterning subthalamic activity. J Neurosci. 2013;33:7130-44 pubmed publisher
    The frequency and pattern of activity in the reciprocally connected GABAergic external globus pallidus (GPe) and glutamatergic subthalamic nucleus (STN) are closely related to motor function...
  24. Bugaysen J, Bronfeld M, Tischler H, Bar Gad I, Korngreen A. Electrophysiological characteristics of globus pallidus neurons. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12001 pubmed publisher
    Extracellular recordings in primates have identified two types of neurons in the external segment of the globus pallidus (GPE): high frequency pausers (HFP) and low frequency bursters (LFB)...
  25. Jin X, Pare J, Smith Y. Differential localization and function of GABA transporters, GAT-1 and GAT-3, in the rat globus pallidus. Eur J Neurosci. 2011;33:1504-18 pubmed publisher
    ..the respective roles of these transporters in regulating evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (eIPSCs) in globus pallidus (GP) neurons after striatal stimulation...
  26. Fan K, Baufreton J, Surmeier D, Chan C, Bevan M. Proliferation of external globus pallidus-subthalamic nucleus synapses following degeneration of midbrain dopamine neurons. J Neurosci. 2012;32:13718-28 pubmed publisher
    ..related to changes in the frequency and pattern of activity in the reciprocally connected GABAergic external globus pallidus (GPe) and glutamatergic subthalamic nucleus (STN)...
  27. Adam R, Leff A, Sinha N, Turner C, Bays P, Draganski B, et al. Dopamine reverses reward insensitivity in apathy following globus pallidus lesions. Cortex. 2013;49:1292-303 pubmed publisher
    ..present a very rare case with profound apathy following bilateral, focal lesions of the basal ganglia, with globus pallidus regions that connect with orbitofrontal (OFC) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) particularly ..
  28. Follett K, Torres Russotto D. Deep brain stimulation of globus pallidus interna, subthalamic nucleus, and pedunculopontine nucleus for Parkinson's disease: which target?. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2012;18 Suppl 1:S165-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Standard DBS targets are globus pallidus interna (GPi) and subthalamic nucleus (STN)...
  29. Tachibana Y, Iwamuro H, Kita H, Takada M, Nambu A. Subthalamo-pallidal interactions underlying parkinsonian neuronal oscillations in the primate basal ganglia. Eur J Neurosci. 2011;34:1470-84 pubmed publisher
    ..dopamine precursor) decreased abnormal neuronal oscillations (8-15?Hz) in the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi) and the subthalamic nucleus (STN) during the ON state when Parkinsonian signs were alleviated and ..
  30. Cruz A, Mallet N, Magill P, Brown P, Averbeck B. Effects of dopamine depletion on information flow between the subthalamic nucleus and external globus pallidus. J Neurophysiol. 2011;106:2012-23 pubmed publisher
    ..dopamine depletion on directed information flow within and between the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and external globus pallidus (GPe)...
  31. Dejean C, ARBUTHNOTT G, Wickens J, Le Moine C, Boraud T, Hyland B. Power fluctuations in beta and gamma frequencies in rat globus pallidus: association with specific phases of slow oscillations and differential modulation by dopamine D1 and D2 receptors. J Neurosci. 2011;31:6098-107 pubmed publisher
    ..interaction is a feature of normal basal ganglia, we recorded local field potential (LFP) from electrodes in globus pallidus (GP) of intact rats...
  32. Jaeger D, Kita H. Functional connectivity and integrative properties of globus pallidus neurons. Neuroscience. 2011;198:44-53 pubmed publisher
    The globus pallidus consists of the external (GPe) and the internal (GPi) segments. The GPe and GPi have different functional roles. The GPe is located centrally within multiple basal ganglia feedforward and feedback connections...
  33. Connelly W, Schulz J, Lees G, Reynolds J. Differential short-term plasticity at convergent inhibitory synapses to the substantia nigra pars reticulata. J Neurosci. 2010;30:14854-61 pubmed publisher
    Inhibitory projections from the striatum and globus pallidus converge onto GABAergic projection neurons of the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr)...
  34. Fernández Suárez D, Celorrio M, Lanciego J, Franco R, Aymerich M. Loss of parvalbumin-positive neurons from the globus pallidus in animal models of Parkinson disease. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2012;71:973-82 pubmed publisher
    The external segment of the globus pallidus (GPe) in humans and the equivalent structure in rodents, the globus pallidus (GP), influence signal processing in the basal ganglia under normal and pathological conditions...
  35. Osorio Espinoza A, Alatorre A, Ramos Jimenez J, Garduño Torres B, Garcia Ramirez M, Querejeta E, et al. Pre-synaptic histamine H? receptors modulate glutamatergic transmission in rat globus pallidus. Neuroscience. 2011;176:20-31 pubmed publisher
    The globus pallidus, a neuronal nucleus involved in the control of motor behavior, expresses high levels of histamine H(3) receptors (H(3)Rs) most likely located on the synaptic afferents to the nucleus...
  36. Delaville C, Navailles S, Benazzouz A. Effects of noradrenaline and serotonin depletions on the neuronal activity of globus pallidus and substantia nigra pars reticulata in experimental parkinsonism. Neuroscience. 2012;202:424-33 pubmed publisher
    ..DSP-4)) and serotonin (5-HT) (with 4-chloro-l-phenylalanine (pCPA)) on the neuronal activity of globus pallidus (GP) and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) neurons in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat model of PD and ..
  37. Edgerton J, Hanson J, Gunay C, Jaeger D. Dendritic sodium channels regulate network integration in globus pallidus neurons: a modeling study. J Neurosci. 2010;30:15146-59 pubmed publisher
    The globus pallidus (GP) predominantly contains GABAergic projection neurons that occupy a central position in the indirect pathway of the basal ganglia...
  38. Chan C, Glajch K, Gertler T, Guzman J, Mercer J, Lewis A, et al. HCN channelopathy in external globus pallidus neurons in models of Parkinson's disease. Nat Neurosci. 2011;14:85-92 pubmed publisher
    ..that is traceable to the emergence of synchronous, rhythmic spiking in neurons of the external segment of the globus pallidus (GPe). The origins of this pathophysiology are poorly defined for the generation of pacemaking...
  39. Locke M, Wu S, Foote K, Sassi M, Jacobson C, Rodriguez R, et al. Weight changes in subthalamic nucleus vs globus pallidus internus deep brain stimulation: results from the COMPARE Parkinson disease deep brain stimulation cohort. Neurosurgery. 2011;68:1233-7; discussion 1237-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine potential differences in weight gain when comparing the subthalamic nucleus and the globus pallidus internus target...
  40. Sarnat H, Auer R, Flores Sarnat L. Synaptogenesis in the fetal corpus striatum, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra: correlations with striosomes of Graybiel and dyskinesias in premature infants. J Child Neurol. 2013;28:60-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Reactivity was prospectively studied postmortem in sections of the striatum, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra in 172 normal human fetuses and neonates of 6 to 41 weeks' gestation...
  41. Jech R, Mueller K, Urgosik D, Sieger T, Holiga S, Ruzicka F, et al. The subthalamic microlesion story in Parkinson's disease: electrode insertion-related motor improvement with relative cortico-subcortical hypoactivation in fMRI. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e49056 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the rigidity and axial symptoms score correlated inversely with activation of the putamen and globus pallidus (p<0.0001). One month later, the OFF/UPDRS-III score had returned to the preoperative level (35.8±7...
  42. Deniau J, Degos B, Bosch C, Maurice N. Deep brain stimulation mechanisms: beyond the concept of local functional inhibition. Eur J Neurosci. 2010;32:1080-91 pubmed publisher
  43. Holgado A, Terry J, Bogacz R. Conditions for the generation of beta oscillations in the subthalamic nucleus-globus pallidus network. J Neurosci. 2010;30:12340-52 pubmed publisher
    ..observed in the basal ganglia arise due to interactions of two nuclei: the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the globus pallidus pars externa (GPe)...
  44. Song X, Su W, Chen L, Ji J. Functional expression of large-conductance Ca2+-activated potassium channels in lateral globus pallidus neurons. Neuroscience. 2010;169:1548-56 pubmed publisher
    ..are considered to play an important role in the excitability of neurons, in the highly-excitable lateral globus pallidus (LGP) neurons has yet to be confirmed...
  45. Renard D, Brunel H, Gaillard N. Bilateral haemorrhagic infarction of the globus pallidus after cocaine and alcohol intoxication. Acta Neurol Belg. 2009;109:159-61 pubmed
    ..We present the case of a 31-year-old man with bilateral ischemia of the globus pallidus after excessive alcohol and intranasal cocaine use...
  46. McCairn K, Turner R. Deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus internus in the parkinsonian primate: local entrainment and suppression of low-frequency oscillations. J Neurophysiol. 2009;101:1941-60 pubmed publisher to account for the therapeutic effects of high-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the internal globus pallidus (GPi) for medically intractable Parkinson's disease...
  47. Simola N, Fenu S, Baraldi P, Tabrizi M, Morelli M. Blockade of globus pallidus adenosine A(2A) receptors displays antiparkinsonian activity in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats treated with D(1) or D(2) dopamine receptor agonists. Synapse. 2008;62:345-51 pubmed publisher
    We have recently demonstrated how antagonism of adenosine A(2A) receptors within the globus pallidus (GP) ipsilateral to dopaminergic denervation potentiates contralateral rotational behavior induced by the dopamine precursor L-DOPA in 6-..
  48. Johnson M, McIntyre C. Quantifying the neural elements activated and inhibited by globus pallidus deep brain stimulation. J Neurophysiol. 2008;100:2549-63 pubmed publisher
    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus pars interna (GPi) is an effective therapy option for controlling the motor symptoms of medication-refractory Parkinson's disease and dystonia...
  49. Sako W, Goto S, Shimazu H, Murase N, Matsuzaki K, Tamura T, et al. Bilateral deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus internus in tardive dystonia. Mov Disord. 2008;23:1929-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We followed 6 patients with medically refractory tardive dystonia treated by bilateral globus pallidus internus (GPi) deep brain stimulation (DBS) for 21 +/- 18 months...
  50. Vidailhet M, Yelnik J, Lagrange C, Fraix V, Grabli D, Thobois S, et al. Bilateral pallidal deep brain stimulation for the treatment of patients with dystonia-choreoathetosis cerebral palsy: a prospective pilot study. Lancet Neurol. 2009;8:709-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Bilateral pallidal deep brain stimulation (BP-DBS) of the globus pallidus internus (GPi) is an effective treatment for primary dystonia, but the effect of this reversible surgical ..
  51. Chang M, Hung W, Liao Y, Lee Y, Hsieh P. Eye of the tiger-like MRI in parkinsonian variant of multiple system atrophy. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2009;116:861-6 pubmed publisher
    ..There have been no reports describing clinical manifestations of MSA-P with imaging abnormalities over globus pallidus. Here, we describe three patients with typical presentations of MSA-P with autonomic dysfunction and ..
  52. Yoshida A, Tanaka M. Enhanced modulation of neuronal activity during antisaccades in the primate globus pallidus. Cereb Cortex. 2009;19:206-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent imaging studies suggest that the globus pallidus (GP) is involved in the generation of antisaccades...
  53. Sadek A, Magill P, Bolam J. A single-cell analysis of intrinsic connectivity in the rat globus pallidus. J Neurosci. 2007;27:6352-62 pubmed
    GABAergic neurons of the globus pallidus (GP) play critical roles in basal ganglia function by virtue of their widespread axonal projections to all parts of the basal ganglia. They also possess local axon collaterals...
  54. Zold C, Larramendy C, Riquelme L, Murer M. Distinct changes in evoked and resting globus pallidus activity in early and late Parkinson's disease experimental models. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;26:1267-79 pubmed
    ..Here we report a marked increase in the responsiveness of globus pallidus neurons to electrical motor cortex stimulation, in the absence of noticeable changes in resting activity, in ..
  55. Baker K, Lee J, Mavinkurve G, Russo G, Walter B, Delong M, et al. Somatotopic organization in the internal segment of the globus pallidus in Parkinson's disease. Exp Neurol. 2010;222:219-25 pubmed publisher
    Ablation or deep brain stimulation in the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi) is an effective therapy for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD)...
  56. Chang E, Turner R, Ostrem J, Davis V, Starr P. Neuronal responses to passive movement in the globus pallidus internus in primary dystonia. J Neurophysiol. 2007;98:3696-707 pubmed
    Abnormal sensory processing has been implicated in the pathophysiology of primary dystonia. In the globus pallidus internus (GPi), the primary output structure of the basal ganglia, many neurons respond to sensory (proprioceptive) ..
  57. Qu Y, Saint Marie R, Breier M, Ko D, Stouffer D, Parsons L, et al. Neural basis for a heritable phenotype: differences in the effects of apomorphine on startle gating and ventral pallidal GABA efflux in male Sprague-Dawley and Long-Evans rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2009;207:271-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Heritable strain differences in PPI APO sensitivity in SD vs LE rats parallel, and may be mediated by, strain differences in the VP GABA efflux. ..
  58. Horstink M, Dekker M, Montagna P, Bonifati V, van de Warrenburg B. Pallidopyramidal disease: a misnomer?. Mov Disord. 2010;25:1109-15 pubmed publisher
    ..In cases reported as Davison's PPD/S, the description "pallidopyramidal" seems to be a misnomer. ..
  59. Durieux P, Bearzatto B, Guiducci S, Buch T, Waisman A, Zoli M, et al. D2R striatopallidal neurons inhibit both locomotor and drug reward processes. Nat Neurosci. 2009;12:393-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus D(2)R striatopallidal neurons limit both locomotion and, unexpectedly, drug reinforcement. ..
  60. Rovira A, Alonso J, Cordoba J. MR imaging findings in hepatic encephalopathy. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2008;29:1612-21 pubmed publisher
    ..It is likely that MR imaging will be increasingly used to evaluate the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of HE and to assess the effects of therapeutic measures focused on correcting brain edema in these patients. ..
  61. Shin S, Sommer M. Activity of neurons in monkey globus pallidus during oculomotor behavior compared with that in substantia nigra pars reticulata. J Neurophysiol. 2010;103:1874-87 pubmed publisher
    ..of the nuclei have high firing rates and inhibitory influences: the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), globus pallidus interna (GPi), and globus pallidus externa (GPe)...
  62. Shields D, Sharma N, Gale J, Eskandar E. Pallidal stimulation for dystonia in pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration. Pediatr Neurol. 2007;37:442-5 pubmed
    ..Pallidal deep-brain stimulation appears to create a functional correction that may alter globus pallidus internus inhibitory output to the motor thalamus...
  63. Macinnes N, Duty S. Group III metabotropic glutamate receptors act as hetero-receptors modulating evoked GABA release in the globus pallidus in vivo. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008;580:95-9 pubmed
    ..III metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors function as hetero-receptors to modulate GABA release within the globus pallidus. In the present study we examined this hypothesis in vivo, using microdialysis to assess the ability of ..
  64. Mercer J, Chan C, Tkatch T, Held J, Surmeier D. Nav1.6 sodium channels are critical to pacemaking and fast spiking in globus pallidus neurons. J Neurosci. 2007;27:13552-66 pubmed
    Neurons in the external segment of the globus pallidus (GPe) are autonomous pacemakers that are capable of sustained fast spiking...
  65. Kliem M, Pare J, Khan Z, Wichmann T, Smith Y. Ultrastructural localization and function of dopamine D1-like receptors in the substantia nigra pars reticulata and the internal segment of the globus pallidus of parkinsonian monkeys. Eur J Neurosci. 2010;31:836-51 pubmed publisher striatal dopamine loss, but reduced dopamine innervation of basal ganglia output nuclei, the internal globus pallidus (GPi) and the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) may also contribute to symptoms and signs of PD...
  66. Derrey S, Lefaucheur R, Chastan N, Gerardin E, Hannequin D, Desbordes M, et al. Alleviation of off-period dystonia in Parkinson disease by a microlesion following subthalamic implantation. J Neurosurg. 2010;112:1263-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The author postulated that off-period dystonia alleviation may reflect both a microsubthalamotomy and micropallidotomy effect. They hypothesize, moreover, that the microlesion could play a role in the 6-month postoperative outcome. ..
  67. Nazzaro J, Lyons K, Wetzel L, Pahwa R. Use of brain MRI after deep brain stimulation hardware implantation. Int J Neurosci. 2010;120:176-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Rather, our data may contribute to further defining safe MRI scanning parameters that might ultimately be adopted in future product labeling as more centers report in detail their experiences. ..
  68. Hashimoto R, Mori T, Nemoto K, Moriguchi Y, Noguchi H, Nakabayashi T, et al. Abnormal microstructures of the basal ganglia in schizophrenia revealed by diffusion tensor imaging. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2009;10:65-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Schizophrenics had significantly lower FA values in the bilateral globus pallidus and left thalamus compared to controls, suggesting that schizophrenics might have microstructural ..
  69. Baufreton J, Kirkham E, Atherton J, Menard A, Magill P, Bolam J, et al. Sparse but selective and potent synaptic transmission from the globus pallidus to the subthalamic nucleus. J Neurophysiol. 2009;102:532-45 pubmed publisher
    The reciprocally connected GABAergic globus pallidus (GP)-glutamatergic subthalamic nucleus (STN) network is critical for voluntary movement and an important site of dysfunction in movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease...
  70. Bronfeld M, Belelovsky K, Erez Y, Bugaysen J, Korngreen A, Bar Gad I. Bicuculline-induced chorea manifests in focal rather than globalized abnormalities in the activation of the external and internal globus pallidus. J Neurophysiol. 2010;104:3261-75 pubmed publisher
    ..may be induced in behaving primates by local microinjections of the GABA(A) antagonist bicuculline to the globus pallidus externus (GPe)...
  71. Gunay C, Edgerton J, Jaeger D. Channel density distributions explain spiking variability in the globus pallidus: a combined physiology and computer simulation database approach. J Neurosci. 2008;28:7476-91 pubmed publisher
    b>Globus pallidus (GP) neurons recorded in brain slices show significant variability in intrinsic electrophysiological properties...
  72. Farrar A, Font L, Pereira M, Mingote S, Bunce J, Chrobak J, et al. Forebrain circuitry involved in effort-related choice: Injections of the GABAA agonist muscimol into ventral pallidum alter response allocation in food-seeking behavior. Neuroscience. 2008;152:321-30 pubmed publisher
    ..This research may have implications for understanding the brain mechanisms involved in energy-related psychiatric dysfunctions such as psychomotor retardation in depression, anergia, and apathy. ..
  73. Mann J, Foote K, Garvan C, Fernandez H, Jacobson C, Rodriguez R, et al. Brain penetration effects of microelectrodes and DBS leads in STN or GPi. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2009;80:794-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Secondarily, to evaluate whether the longevity of the MER and lead placement effects were influenced by target location (subthalamic nucleus (STN) or globus pallidus interna (GPi)).
  74. Matamales M, Bertran Gonzalez J, Salomon L, Degos B, Deniau J, Valjent E, et al. Striatal medium-sized spiny neurons: identification by nuclear staining and study of neuronal subpopulations in BAC transgenic mice. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4770 pubmed publisher
    ..whereas those expressing dopamine D(2)- receptors (D2Rs) project preferentially to the lateral part of the globus pallidus (LGP)...
  75. Galati S, Stanzione P, D Angelo V, Fedele E, Marzetti F, Sancesario G, et al. The pharmacological blockade of medial forebrain bundle induces an acute pathological synchronization of the cortico-subthalamic nucleus-globus pallidus pathway. J Physiol. 2009;587:4405-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Yet, in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned animals, the firing discharge of the globus pallidus (GP) and the substantia nigra reticulata are in phase with urethane-induced slow wave cortical activity...
  76. Pirini M, Rocchi L, Sensi M, Chiari L. A computational modelling approach to investigate different targets in deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease. J Comput Neurosci. 2009;26:91-107 pubmed publisher
    ..DBS) for Parkinson's disease (PD) in different target sites in the subthalamic nucleus (STN), the globus pallidus pars interna (GPi), and the globus pallidus pars externa (GPe)...
  77. Qu Y, Swerdlow N, Weber M, Stouffer D, Parsons L. Quinelorane, a dopamine D3/D2 receptor agonist, reduces prepulse inhibition of startle and ventral pallidal GABA efflux: time course studies. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2008;90:686-90 pubmed publisher
    ..003 (p < 0.05) and 0.01 mg/kg doses (p < 0.015). Differences in time course and dose sensitivity of quinelorane effects on VP GABA efflux and PPI are discussed. ..
  78. Isaias I, Alterman R, Tagliati M. Outcome predictors of pallidal stimulation in patients with primary dystonia: the role of disease duration. Brain. 2008;131:1895-902 pubmed publisher
    ..No particular predictive value should be assigned to age at onset, age at surgery, severity of disease, DYT1 status and the presence of phasic or tonic involuntary movements. ..
  79. Mueller J, Skogseid I, Benecke R, Kupsch A, Trottenberg T, Poewe W, et al. Pallidal deep brain stimulation improves quality of life in segmental and generalized dystonia: results from a prospective, randomized sham-controlled trial. Mov Disord. 2008;23:131-4 pubmed
    ..The open-label extension phase resulted in a significant improvement in all SF-36 domains following 6 months of neurostimulation. These results demonstrate a favorable impact of DBS on HRQoL in primary dystonia. ..
  80. Joshua M, Adler A, Rosin B, Vaadia E, Bergman H. Encoding of probabilistic rewarding and aversive events by pallidal and nigral neurons. J Neurophysiol. 2009;101:758-72 pubmed publisher
    ..We studied the activity of HFD neurons of the globus pallidus external segment (GPe, n=310), internal segment (GPi, n=149), and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr, n=..
  81. Nóbrega Pereira S, Gelman D, Bartolini G, Pla R, Pierani A, Marin O. Origin and molecular specification of globus pallidus neurons. J Neurosci. 2010;30:2824-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Using the globus pallidus as a model to study the formation of forebrain nuclei, we found that the development of this basal ganglia ..
  82. Boyes J, Bolam J, Shigemoto R, Stanford I. Functional presynaptic HCN channels in the rat globus pallidus. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;25:2081-92 pubmed
    ..cyclic nucleotide-gated cation (HCN) channels are expressed postsynaptically in the rodent globus pallidus (GP), where they play several important roles in controlling GP neuronal activity...
  83. Kelai S, Maussion G, Noble F, Boni C, Ramoz N, Moalic J, et al. Nrxn3 upregulation in the globus pallidus of mice developing cocaine addiction. Neuroreport. 2008;19:751-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated levels of mRNA for three neurexins (Nrxn) and three neuroligins (Nlgn) in the globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, and substantia nigra, in control conditions and after short-term exposure to cocaine...
  84. Bateup H, Svenningsson P, Kuroiwa M, Gong S, Nishi A, Heintz N, et al. Cell type-specific regulation of DARPP-32 phosphorylation by psychostimulant and antipsychotic drugs. Nat Neurosci. 2008;11:932-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we found that a variety of drugs that target the striatum have cell type-specific effects that previous methods were not able to discern. ..
  85. Gasca Martinez D, Hernandez A, Sierra A, Valdiosera R, Anaya Martinez V, Floran B, et al. Dopamine inhibits GABA transmission from the globus pallidus to the thalamic reticular nucleus via presynaptic D4 receptors. Neuroscience. 2010;169:1672-81 pubmed publisher
    The globus pallidus sends a significant GABAergic projection to the thalamic reticular nucleus...
  86. Chiken S, Shashidharan P, Nambu A. Cortically evoked long-lasting inhibition of pallidal neurons in a transgenic mouse model of dystonia. J Neurosci. 2008;28:13967-77 pubmed publisher
    ..reduced spontaneous activity with bursts and pauses in both the external and internal segments of the globus pallidus. Motor cortical stimulation evoked responses composed of excitation and subsequent long-lasting inhibition in ..
  87. Weaver F, Follett K, Stern M, Hur K, Harris C, Marks W, et al. Bilateral deep brain stimulation vs best medical therapy for patients with advanced Parkinson disease: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2009;301:63-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Bilateral deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (n = 60) or globus pallidus (n = 61)...