ventral thalamic nuclei


Summary: A large group of nuclei lying between the internal medullary lamina and the INTERNAL CAPSULE. It includes the ventral anterior, ventral lateral, and ventral posterior nuclei.

Top Publications

  1. Yamada K, Akazawa K, Yuen S, Goto M, Matsushima S, Takahata A, et al. MR imaging of ventral thalamic nuclei. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2010;31:732-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our aim was to clarify the anatomic locations of the ventral thalamic nuclei, including the Vim and VPL, on MR imaging. Ten healthy adult volunteers underwent MR imaging by using a 1...
  2. Ghazanfar A, Krupa D, Nicolelis M. Role of cortical feedback in the receptive field structure and nonlinear response properties of somatosensory thalamic neurons. Exp Brain Res. 2001;141:88-100 pubmed
    ..These results argue that the integration and transmission of tactile information through VPM are strongly influenced by the state of SI cortex. ..
  3. Browne S, Kang J, Akk G, Chiang L, Schulman H, Huguenard J, et al. Kinetic and pharmacological properties of GABA(A) receptors in single thalamic neurons and GABA(A) subunit expression. J Neurophysiol. 2001;86:2312-22 pubmed
    ..As the gamma2 and delta subunits previously implicated in Zn(2+) sensitivity are both expressed in each cell type, the observed differential Zn(2+) actions at VB versus nRt GABA(A) receptors may involve other subunit differences. ..
  4. Castro Alamancos M. Properties of primary sensory (lemniscal) synapses in the ventrobasal thalamus and the relay of high-frequency sensory inputs. J Neurophysiol. 2002;87:946-53 pubmed
  5. Goettl V, Huang Y, Hackshaw K, Stephens R. Reduced basal release of serotonin from the ventrobasal thalamus of the rat in a model of neuropathic pain. Pain. 2002;99:359-66 pubmed
  6. Timofeeva E, Mérette C, Emond C, Lavallée P, Deschenes M. A map of angular tuning preference in thalamic barreloids. J Neurosci. 2003;23:10717-23 pubmed
  7. Hains B, Saab C, Waxman S. Changes in electrophysiological properties and sodium channel Nav1.3 expression in thalamic neurons after spinal cord injury. Brain. 2005;128:2359-71 pubmed
  8. Jia F, Pignataro L, Schofield C, Yue M, Harrison N, Goldstein P. An extrasynaptic GABAA receptor mediates tonic inhibition in thalamic VB neurons. J Neurophysiol. 2005;94:4491-501 pubmed
    ..In view of the critical role of thalamic neurons in the generation of oscillatory activity associated with sleep, these receptors may represent a principal site of action for the novel hypnotic agent gaboxadol. ..
  9. Foffani G, Morales Botello M, Aguilar J. Spike timing, spike count, and temporal information for the discrimination of tactile stimuli in the rat ventrobasal complex. J Neurosci. 2009;29:5964-73 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that temporal information conveyed by spike timing can be higher than spike count information for the discrimination of somatosensory stimuli in the rat ventrobasal complex. ..

More Information

Publications146 found, 100 shown here

  1. Sosnik R, Haidarliu S, Ahissar E. Temporal frequency of whisker movement. I. Representations in brain stem and thalamus. J Neurophysiol. 2001;86:339-53 pubmed
    ..We used short-duration air puffs, much shorter than whisker movements during natural whisking. The activity in this situation was consistent with the prediction we made on the basis of the PLL hypothesis. ..
  2. Hains B, Saab C, Waxman S. Alterations in burst firing of thalamic VPL neurons and reversal by Na(v)1.3 antisense after spinal cord injury. J Neurophysiol. 2006;95:3343-52 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate several newly characterized changes in spontaneous burst firing properties of VPL neurons after SCI and suggest that abnormal expression of Na(v)1.3 contributes to these phenomena. ..
  3. Zhao P, Waxman S, Hains B. Sodium channel expression in the ventral posterolateral nucleus of the thalamus after peripheral nerve injury. Mol Pain. 2006;2:27 pubmed
    ..3 sodium channel increases the excitability of VPL neurons injury, contributing to neuropathic pain. ..
  4. Lubke J, Feldmeyer D. Excitatory signal flow and connectivity in a cortical column: focus on barrel cortex. Brain Struct Funct. 2007;212:3-17 pubmed
    ..This review attempts to summarize recent advances in the study of individual microcircuits and their functional relevance within the framework of a cortical column, with emphasis on excitatory signal flow. ..
  5. Bordi F, Quartaroli M. Modulation of nociceptive transmission by NMDA/glycine site receptor in the ventroposterolateral nucleus of the thalamus. Pain. 2000;84:213-24 pubmed
    ..GV196771A and glycine antagonists in general may represent innovative and safe agents for the treatment of neuropathic pain. ..
  6. Ito S, Shirai W, Hattori T. Evaluating posterolateral linearization of the putaminal margin with magnetic resonance imaging to diagnose the Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy. Mov Disord. 2007;22:578-81 pubmed
    ..91) measure for differentiating MSA-P. Our results suggest that evaluating posterolateral putaminal linearization is useful for assessing putaminal atrophy and for differentiating MSA-P from MSA-C, PD, and healthy subjects. ..
  7. Al Hussain Bani Hani S, El Dwairi Q, Bataineh Z, Al Haidari M, Al Alami J. Golgi-type I and Golgi-type II neurons in the ventral anterior thalamic nucleus of the adult human: morphological features and quantitative analysis. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2008;28:411-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These quantitative data may form the basis for further quantitative studies involving aging or some degenerative diseases that may affect cell bodies and/or dendritic trees of the Golgi-type I and/or Golgi-type II thalamic neurons. ..
  8. Hedera P, Phibbs F, Dolhun R, Charles P, Konrad P, Neimat J, et al. Surgical targets for dystonic tremor: considerations between the globus pallidus and ventral intermediate thalamic nucleus. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2013;19:684-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the patients with DT with a mild dystonia should be considered for Vim DBS procedure and the coexistence of severe DT and dystonia may be successfully controlled by combined GPi and Vim DBS surgeries. ..
  9. Pérez Suárez J, Torres Diaz C, López Manzanares L, Navas García M, Pastor J, Barrio Fernández P, et al. Radiofrequency Lesions through Deep Brain Stimulation Electrodes in Movement Disorders: Case Report and Review of the Literature. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2017;95:137-141 pubmed publisher
    ..Its effectiveness and low-risk profile, in addition to its low cost, make this procedure suitable and a possible alternative in the therapeutic repertoire for the surgical treatment of movement disorders. ..
  10. Ghasemi H, Tamaddonfard E, Soltanalinejad F. Role of thalamic ventral posterolateral nucleus histamine H2 and opiate receptors in modulation of formalin-induced muscle pain in rats. Pharmacol Rep. 2017;69:1393-1401 pubmed publisher
    ..Locomotor activity was not changed with these chemicals. Our results showed an interaction between histamine H2 and opiate receptors at the thalamic ventral posterolateral nucleus in modulation of muscle pain. ..
  11. Esaki T, Suzuki H, Cook M, Shimoji K, Cheng S, Sokoloff L, et al. Functional activation of cerebral metabolism in mice with mutated thyroid hormone nuclear receptors. Endocrinology. 2003;144:4117-22 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that in the TR alpha 1(PV/+) mutants there it is a reduction in synaptic density that is responsible for the decrease in CMR(glc), but functionality of existing synapses is retained. ..
  12. Volkmann J. Deep brain stimulation for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2004;21:6-17 pubmed
  13. Greenspan J, Ohara S, Sarlani E, Lenz F. Allodynia in patients with post-stroke central pain (CPSP) studied by statistical quantitative sensory testing within individuals. Pain. 2004;109:357-66 pubmed
    ..Overall, these results in CPSP suggest that tactile allodynia occurs in disturbances of thermal/pain pathways that spare the tactile-signaling pathways, and that cold hypoesthesia is neither necessary nor sufficient for cold allodynia. ..
  14. Werk C, Harbour V, Chapman C. Induction of long-term potentiation leads to increased reliability of evoked neocortical spindles in vivo. Neuroscience. 2005;131:793-800 pubmed
  15. Huda K, Salunga T, Matsunami K. Dopaminergic inhibition of excitatory inputs onto pyramidal tract neurons in cat motor cortex. Neurosci Lett. 2001;307:175-8 pubmed
    ..Such DAergic suppression could play pivotal role to improve motor and sensorimotor signal integration. ..
  16. Kronenberg A, Blei F, Ceisler E, Steele M, Furlan L, Kodsi S. Ocular and systemic manifestations of PHACES (Posterior fossa malformations, Hemangiomas, Arterial anomalies, Cardiac defects and coarctation of the Aorta, Eye abnormalities, and Sternal abnormalities or ventral developmental defects) syndrome. J AAPOS. 2005;9:169-73 pubmed
    ..They often require steroid therapy of the hemangioma to prevent and/or treat ocular complications. These patients require careful monitoring by a pediatric ophthalmologist in addition to other subspecialists. ..
  17. Craig A. Topographically organized projection to posterior insular cortex from the posterior portion of the ventral medial nucleus in the long-tailed macaque monkey. J Comp Neurol. 2014;522:36-63 pubmed publisher
    ..These results also identify the VMpo terminal area as the posterior half of interoceptive cortex; the anterior half receives input from the vagal-responsive and gustatory neurons in the basal part of the ventral medial nucleus. ..
  18. McFarland N, Haber S. Thalamic relay nuclei of the basal ganglia form both reciprocal and nonreciprocal cortical connections, linking multiple frontal cortical areas. J Neurosci. 2002;22:8117-32 pubmed
    ..Together, these experiments indicate a dual role for VA-VL and MD nuclei: (1) to relay basal ganglia output within specific cortical circuits and (2) to mediate information flow between cortical circuits. ..
  19. Nandi D, Aziz T. Deep brain stimulation in the management of neuropathic pain and multiple sclerosis tremor. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2004;21:31-9 pubmed
    ..The results demonstrate that with careful patient selection, DBS can offer significant functional benefit in both of these difficult clinical conditions. ..
  20. Gaudiello F, Garaci F, Marziali S, Ludovici A, Brusa L, Stanzione P, et al. Evaluation of basal ganglia haemodynamic changes with perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in patients with Parkinson's disease. Radiol Med. 2006;111:284-90 pubmed
    ..Controls showed no interhemispheric asymmetry. Our study suggests that PW-MRI is a valuable tool for assessing haemodynamic changes in PD patients. Haemodynamic change pattern may be useful in the early diagnosis of PD. ..
  21. Inan M, Crair M. Development of cortical maps: perspectives from the barrel cortex. Neuroscientist. 2007;13:49-61 pubmed
    ..The rest of the review will be devoted to summarizing their understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying thalamocortical synapse maturation and its role in barrel map formation. ..
  22. Wasserman A, Ferreira M, Sahibzada N, Hernandez Y, Gillis R. GABA-mediated neurotransmission in the ventrolateral NTS plays a role in respiratory regulation in the rat. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2002;283:R1423-41 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that GABA activity in the vlNTS is important for respiratory function. ..
  23. Freund H, Barnikol U, Nolte D, Treuer H, Auburger G, Tass P, et al. Subthalamic-thalamic DBS in a case with spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 and severe tremor-A unusual clinical benefit. Mov Disord. 2007;22:732-5 pubmed
    ..In addition to the efficacy of DBS on cerebellar tremor, the results illustrate a remarkable improvement of the patient's general condition and independence. ..
  24. Liu H, Zhang J, Gao D. [Effects of unilateral lesion of the nigrostriatal pathway by 6-OHDA on the neuronal activities of the pedunculopontine nucleus and the ventrolateral thalamic nucleus]. Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi. 2009;25:212-6 pubmed
  25. Badalian S. [Plastic reorganisation in the cerebellothalamic system after partial deafferentation of the thalamic ventrolateral nucleus]. Morfologiia. 2003;124:26-9 pubmed
  26. Blankenburg F, Ruff C, Bestmann S, Bjoertomt O, Eshel N, Josephs O, et al. Interhemispheric effect of parietal TMS on somatosensory response confirmed directly with concurrent TMS-fMRI. J Neurosci. 2008;28:13202-8 pubmed publisher
  27. Oh S, Jung S, Kwon O, Kim Y, Kim M, Kim S, et al. Hypothermia-induced changes of afferent sensory transmission to the VPM thalamus of rats and hamsters. Brain Res. 2004;1003:122-9 pubmed
  28. Maxwell W, Pennington K, MacKinnon M, Smith D, McIntosh T, Wilson J, et al. Differential responses in three thalamic nuclei in moderately disabled, severely disabled and vegetative patients after blunt head injury. Brain. 2004;127:2470-8 pubmed
    ..In severely disabled and vegetative patients, loss of neurons from the ventral posterior thalamic nucleus may also reflect loss of response to afferent stimuli. ..
  29. Kuncel A, Birdno M, Swan B, Grill W. Tremor reduction and modeled neural activity during cycling thalamic deep brain stimulation. Clin Neurophysiol. 2012;123:1044-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Cycling stimulation may reduce power consumption during clinical DBS, and thereby increase the battery life of the implanted pulse generator. ..
  30. Bot M, van den Munckhof P, Bakay R, Stebbins G, Verhagen Metman L. Accuracy of Intraoperative Computed Tomography during Deep Brain Stimulation Procedures: Comparison with Postoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2017;95:183-188 pubmed publisher
    ..Intraoperative localization of both microelectrode and DBS lead in stereotactic space enables direct adjustments. Verification of lead placement with postoperative MRI, considered to be the gold standard, is unnecessary. ..
  31. Turner J, Salt T. Group II and III metabotropic glutamate receptors and the control of the nucleus reticularis thalami input to rat thalamocortical neurones in vitro. Neuroscience. 2003;122:459-69 pubmed
    ..In addition, as NAAG is located in the axons and terminals arising from the TRN, there is the possibility that this dipeptide is also released by these terminals to control the release of GABA during periods of high activity in the TRN. ..
  32. Zhao P, Waxman S, Hains B. Modulation of thalamic nociceptive processing after spinal cord injury through remote activation of thalamic microglia by cysteine cysteine chemokine ligand 21. J Neurosci. 2007;27:8893-902 pubmed
    ..These data identify a novel pathway by which SCI triggers upregulation of the neuroimmune modulator CCL21 in the thalamus, which induces microglial activation in association with pain phenomena. ..
  33. Donovan S, McCasland J. GAP-43 is critical for normal targeting of thalamocortical and corticothalamic, but not trigeminothalamic axons in the whisker barrel system. Somatosens Mot Res. 2008;25:33-47 pubmed publisher
    ..However, at P7 KO CF fibers remained bundled as they entered the IC, and exhibited few terminal branches in VB. Thus, the establishment of axonal projections between thalamus and cortex are disrupted in GAP-43 KO mice. ..
  34. Kim J, Chang W, Cho S, Chang J. The effect of bilateral globus pallidus internus deep brain stimulation plus ventralis oralis thalamotomy on patients with cerebral palsy. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2012;90:292-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, movements of the contralateral upper extremities improved and health-related quality of life in group II showed satisfactory results. ..
  35. Takado Y, Shimohata T, Terajima K, Suwazono S, Kameyama S, Tanaka K, et al. [Posttraumatic hyperkinésie volitionnelle was markedly improved by Vim thalamic deep brain stimulation]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 2006;46:638-43 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrated that traumatic brain injury can cause the tremor type of HV even when the cerebellar efferent pathways are intact, and that Vim DBS is an alternative treatment for HV that is unresponsive to drugs. ..
  36. Scaglione A, Moxon K, Aguilar J, Foffani G. Trial-to-trial variability in the responses of neurons carries information about stimulus location in the rat whisker thalamus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:14956-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our data suggest that the trial-to-trial response variability plays a critical role in establishing the trade-off between total information and redundancy between neurons in population codes. ..
  37. Racette B, Rich K, Randle J, Mink J. Ipsilateral thalamic stimulation after thalamotomy for essential tremor. A case report. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2000;75:155-9 pubmed
    ..Vim thalamic stimulation is an effective treatment option for recurrent tremor in patients who have undergone ipsilateral thalamotomy. ..
  38. Zhang J, Zhang S, Zhang H. Effect of electroacupuncture on thalamic neuronal response to visceral nociception. Eur J Pain. 2009;13:366-72 pubmed publisher
  39. Jiang R, Miyamoto A, Martz A, Specht A, Ishibashi H, Kueny Stotz M, et al. Retrochalcone derivatives are positive allosteric modulators at synaptic and extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptors in vitro. Br J Pharmacol. 2011;162:1326-39 pubmed publisher
    ..These novel modulators act through an original mode, thus making them putative drug candidates in the treatment of GABA(A)-related disorders in vivo. ..
  40. Zhang W, Jin Z, Luo F, Zhang L, Zeng Y, Han J. Evidence from brain imaging with fMRI supporting functional specificity of acupoints in humans. Neurosci Lett. 2004;354:50-3 pubmed
    ..Thus, stimulation of acupoints in the same spinal segments induced distinct though overlapped cerebral response patterns, which indicated the existence of acupoint specificity. ..
  41. Shoykhet M, Simons D. Development of thalamocortical response transformations in the rat whisker-barrel system. J Neurophysiol. 2008;99:356-66 pubmed
  42. Mao L, Cho Y, Li C. Modulation of activity of gustatory neurons in the hamster parabrachial nuclei by electrical stimulation of the ventroposteromedial nucleus of the thalamus. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2008;294:R1461-73 pubmed publisher
    ..These results may provide functional insight of neural circuitry for taste processing and modulation involving these two nuclei. ..
  43. Yamamoto T, Katayama Y, Fukaya C, Oshima H, Kasai M, Kobayashi K. New method of deep brain stimulation therapy with two electrodes implanted in parallel and side by side. J Neurosurg. 2001;95:1075-8 pubmed
    ..With the aid of this method, one can use two electrodes, implanted in parallel and side by side, to achieve maximum efficacy and to reduce adverse effects in some instances of DBS therapy. ..
  44. Nikkhah G, Prokop T, Hellwig B, Lücking C, Ostertag C. Deep brain stimulation of the nucleus ventralis intermedius for Holmes (rubral) tremor and associated dystonia caused by upper brainstem lesions. Report of two cases. J Neurosurg. 2004;100:1079-83 pubmed
    ..Here, the authors describe two patients in whom both tremor and associated dystonia improved markedly following unilateral stimulation of the thalamic nucleus ventralis intermedius. ..
  45. Bokor H, Acsády L, Deschenes M. Vibrissal responses of thalamic cells that project to the septal columns of the barrel cortex and to the second somatosensory area. J Neurosci. 2008;28:5169-77 pubmed publisher
  46. Klein J, Barbe M, Seifried C, Baudrexel S, Runge M, Maarouf M, et al. The tremor network targeted by successful VIM deep brain stimulation in humans. Neurology. 2012;78:787-95 pubmed publisher
    ..In the future, preoperative tractography could aid with stereotactic planning of individual subcortical target points for stimulation in tremor and in other disease entities. ..
  47. Zhang W, Davenport P. Activation of thalamic ventroposteriolateral neurons by phrenic nerve afferents in cats and rats. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2003;94:220-6 pubmed
  48. Cho Y, Mao L, Li C. Modulation of solitary taste neurons by electrical stimulation of the ventroposteromedial nucleus of the thalamus in the hamster. Brain Res. 2008;1221:67-79 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that a subset of taste neurons in the NST is under the influence from the bilateral VPMpc and that the VPMpc activation modulates taste responses of these cells. ..
  49. Hebb M, Gaudet P, Mendez I. Deep brain stimulation to treat hyperkinetic symptoms of Cockayne syndrome. Mov Disord. 2006;21:112-5 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that patients with Cockayne syndrome should be considered for deep brain stimulation to treat refractory movement disorders. ..
  50. Birzniece V, Turkmen S, Lindblad C, Zhu D, Johansson I, Backstrom T, et al. GABA(A) receptor changes in acute allopregnanolone tolerance. Eur J Pharmacol. 2006;535:125-34 pubmed
    ..These changes in GABA(A) receptor subunits mRNA expression and protein (alpha4) might be of importance for the development of acute tolerance to allopregnanolone. ..
  51. Kobayashi K, Winberry J, Liu C, Treede R, Lenz F. A painful cutaneous laser stimulus evokes responses from single neurons in the human thalamic principal somatic sensory nucleus ventral caudal (Vc). J Neurophysiol. 2009;101:2210-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore neuronal spike trains in the I category may mediate shifts in endogenous or cognitive pain-related behavior. ..
  52. Masliukov P, Nozdrachev A. Development of the evoked potentials in the thalamus and cerebral cortex after stimulation of the stellate ganglion afferents in kittens. Auton Neurosci. 2001;93:36-40 pubmed
    ..Maturation of the SG afferent pathways exists in parallel with the somatosensory ones and does not finish at 1 month of life. ..
  53. Halliday G, Macdonald V, Henderson J. A comparison of degeneration in motor thalamus and cortex between progressive supranuclear palsy and Parkinson's disease. Brain. 2005;128:2272-80 pubmed
    ..The selective involvement of the VLp and primary motor cortex in PSP implicates these cerebellothalamocortical pathways as differentiating this disease, possibly contributing to the early falls...
  54. Xia Y, Arai A. Prolactin-releasing peptide enhances synaptic transmission in rat thalamus. Neuroscience. 2011;172:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, PrRP increases both excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in the thalamus via distinct mechanisms, and the receptors responsible for these actions are in all cases present in the principal neuron of the RTN. ..
  55. Smith P, Ferguson A. Neurophysiology of hunger and satiety. Dev Disabil Res Rev. 2008;14:96-104 pubmed publisher
  56. Wagenknecht N, Becker B, Scheld M, Beyer C, Clarner T, Hochstrasser T, et al. Thalamus Degeneration and Inflammation in Two Distinct Multiple Sclerosis Animal Models. J Mol Neurosci. 2016;60:102-14 pubmed publisher
    ..This study highlights the possibility of trans-neuronal degeneration as one mechanism of secondary neuronal damage in MS. Further studies are now warranted to investigate involved cell types and cellular mechanisms. ..
  57. Kolmac C, Mitrofanis J. Induction of Fos-like immunoreactivity in the ventral thalamus after electrical or chemical stimulation of various subcortical centres of rats. Neurosci Lett. 2001;301:195-8 pubmed
    ..These activated cells of the ventral thalamus, are in turn, in a position to influence particular thalamocortical pathways through their dorsal thalamic projections. ..
  58. Adams S, de Rivero Vaccari J, Corriveau R. Pronounced cell death in the absence of NMDA receptors in the developing somatosensory thalamus. J Neurosci. 2004;24:9441-50 pubmed
    ..5. The results indicate that NMDA receptors play a major role in cell survival during naturally occurring cell death in the VB and demonstrate that cell death is a consideration in NMDA receptor knock-out studies. ..
  59. Patel S, Ohara S, Dougherty P, Gracely R, Lenz F. Psychophysical elements of place and modality specificity in the thalamic somatic sensory nucleus (ventral caudal, vc) of awake humans. J Neurophysiol. 2006;95:646-59 pubmed
    ..The results provide strong evidence for psychophysically defined elements that are responsible for modality specificity of nonpainful sensations, place specificity, and intensity coding of somatic sensation in the human thalamus. ..
  60. Ego Stengel V, Le Cam J, Shulz D. Coding of apparent motion in the thalamic nucleus of the rat vibrissal somatosensory system. J Neurosci. 2012;32:3339-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that nonlinear processing of stimuli from different whiskers emerges in subcortical nuclei and is amplified by the corticofugal feedback. ..
  61. Gentil M, Garcia Ruiz P, Pollak P, Benabid A. Effect of bilateral deep-brain stimulation on oral control of patients with parkinsonism. Eur Neurol. 2000;44:147-52 pubmed
    ..The target of stimulation differently influences the oral system and modulates neuronal structures involved in speech. ..
  62. Castro Alamancos M. Origin of synchronized oscillations induced by neocortical disinhibition in vivo. J Neurosci. 2000;20:9195-206 pubmed
    ..Each current sink in the approximately 10 Hz oscillation reflects a small PDS and is followed by a current source that reflects the repolarization after each PDS. ..
  63. Willis W, Zhang X, Honda C, Giesler G. Projections from the marginal zone and deep dorsal horn to the ventrobasal nuclei of the primate thalamus. Pain. 2001;92:267-76 pubmed
    ..This pathway is likely to be important for the sensory-discriminative processing of nociceptive information with respect to the location and intensity of painful stimuli. ..
  64. Wimmer V, Bruno R, de Kock C, Kuner T, Sakmann B. Dimensions of a projection column and architecture of VPM and POm axons in rat vibrissal cortex. Cereb Cortex. 2010;20:2265-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we present anatomical dimensions of "TC projection domains" for a standard column in S1...
  65. Burdick A, Foote K, Wu S, Bowers D, Zeilman P, Jacobson C, et al. Do patient's get angrier following STN, GPi, and thalamic deep brain stimulation. Neuroimage. 2011;54 Suppl 1:S227-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, on closer inspection of the COMPARE DBS data, VAMS anger scores did not change on or off DBS, suggesting that anger changes may be more of a lesional effect rather than a stimulation induced one (Okun et al., 2009). ..
  66. Copeland C, Neale S, Salt T. Actions of Xanthurenic acid, a putative endogenous Group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist, on sensory transmission in the thalamus. Neuropharmacology. 2013;66:133-42 pubmed publisher
    ..This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors'. ..
  67. Alonso Calviño E, Martínez Camero I, Fernández López E, Humanes Valera D, Foffani G, Aguilar J. Increased responses in the somatosensory thalamus immediately after spinal cord injury. Neurobiol Dis. 2016;87:39-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results indicate that the thalamic changes occurring immediately after SCI could contribute to the cortical changes also detected immediately after such spinal lesions. ..
  68. Zincone A, Landi A, Piolti R, Appollonio I, Mariani C, Pezzoli G, et al. Physiologic study of the subthalamic volume. Neurol Sci. 2001;22:111-2 pubmed
    ..In fact, the stimulation of this volume obtains reduction of PD symptoms comparable to Stn. ..
  69. Miyata M, Kashiwadani H, Fukaya M, Hayashi T, Wu D, Suzuki T, et al. Role of thalamic phospholipase C[beta]4 mediated by metabotropic glutamate receptor type 1 in inflammatory pain. J Neurosci. 2003;23:8098-108 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that the thalamic mGluR1-PLCbeta4 cascade is indispensable for the formalin-induced inflammatory pain by regulating the response of VPL neurons. ..
  70. Vaillancourt D, Sturman M, Verhagen Metman L, Bakay R, Corcos D. Deep brain stimulation of the VIM thalamic nucleus modifies several features of essential tremor. Neurology. 2003;61:919-25 pubmed
    ..The changes in ET after VIM DBS provide strong evidence for clinical efficacy. ..
  71. Petersen R, Brambilla M, Bale M, Alenda A, Panzeri S, Montemurro M, et al. Diverse and temporally precise kinetic feature selectivity in the VPm thalamic nucleus. Neuron. 2008;60:890-903 pubmed publisher
    ..A minority (19%) encoded two or more features. These results indicate that VPm contains a distributed representation of whisker motion, based on high-resolution kinetic features. ..
  72. Vayssiere N, van der Gaag N, Cif L, Hemm S, Verdier R, Frerebeau P, et al. Deep brain stimulation for dystonia confirming a somatotopic organization in the globus pallidus internus. J Neurosurg. 2004;101:181-8 pubmed
  73. Calle M, Kozicz T, van der Linden E, Desfeux A, Veening J, Barendregt H, et al. Effect of starvation on Fos and neuropeptide immunoreactivities in the brain and pituitary gland of Xenopus laevis. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2006;147:237-46 pubmed
  74. Fang W, Chen H, Wang H, Zhang H, Puneet M, Liu M, et al. Essential tremor is associated with disruption of functional connectivity in the ventral intermediate Nucleus--Motor Cortex--Cerebellum circuit. Hum Brain Mapp. 2016;37:165-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, these findings demonstrate a potential approach for elucidating the neural network mechanisms underlying this disease. ..
  75. Shields K, Goadsby P. Propranolol modulates trigeminovascular responses in thalamic ventroposteromedial nucleus: a role in migraine?. Brain. 2005;128:86-97 pubmed
    ..Thalamic involvement in migraine is attractive given the complex and widespread nature of the sensory disturbance. ..
  76. Kim J, Eun Lee S, Sik Min K, Jung H, Lee J, Kim S, et al. Ventral posterolateral deep brain stimulation treatment for neuropathic pain shortens pain response after cold stimuli. J Neurosci Res. 2013;91:997-1004 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that VPL DBS was partially effective in cold allodynia, implicating complex pathways of pain signaling. ..
  77. Fletcher M, Ogg M, Lu L, Ogg R, Boughter J. Overlapping Representation of Primary Tastes in a Defined Region of the Gustatory Cortex. J Neurosci. 2017;37:7595-7605 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, population analysis reveals that activity in the neuronal population in this area appears to be related to measures of taste quality or hedonics. ..
  78. Ito S. Visceral region in the rat primary somatosensory cortex identified by vagal evoked potential. J Comp Neurol. 2002;444:10-24 pubmed
    ..The rat S1 contains a region representing general visceral information, topographically located as if the visceral organs protruded from the mouth. ..
  79. Ohye C, Shibazaki T. Lesioning the thalamus for dyskinesia. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2001;77:33-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, selective Vim-Vo thalamotomy was shown to be quite successful for the treatment of dyskinesia. ..
  80. Schroy P, Wheeler R, Davidson C, Scalera G, Twining R, Grigson P. Role of gustatory thalamus in anticipation and comparison of rewards over time in rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2005;288:R966-80 pubmed
    ..Together, the results suggest that the lesion leads to a specific reward comparison deficit, whereby the rats fail to compare the value of an available reward with the memory of a preferred reward that is anticipated in the near future. ..
  81. Shields K, Goadsby P. Serotonin receptors modulate trigeminovascular responses in ventroposteromedial nucleus of thalamus: a migraine target?. Neurobiol Dis. 2006;23:491-501 pubmed
  82. Itami C, Kimura F, Nakamura S. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor regulates the maturation of layer 4 fast-spiking cells after the second postnatal week in the developing barrel cortex. J Neurosci. 2007;27:2241-52 pubmed
    ..Because BDNF is suggested to regulate the initiation of plasticity, our results strongly indicate that BDNF is involved in the regulation of the critical period by promoting the functional development of PV-FS GABAergic neurons. ..
  83. Pollak G, Gittelman J, Li N, Xie R. Inhibitory projections from the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus and superior paraolivary nucleus create directional selectivity of frequency modulations in the inferior colliculus: a comparison of bats with other mammals. Hear Res. 2011;273:134-44 pubmed publisher
    ..In the final section we discuss why multiple formations of common response properties could amplify differences in population activity patterns evoked by signals that have similar spectrotemporal features. ..
  84. Li L, Ebner F. Balancing bilateral sensory activity: callosal processing modulates sensory transmission through the contralateral thalamus by altering the response threshold. Exp Brain Res. 2006;172:397-415 pubmed
    ..We conclude that global sensory processing is created by combining activity in each cerebral hemisphere and continually balancing the flow of information to cortex by adjusting the responsiveness of ascending sensory pathways. ..
  85. Garonzik I, Hua S, Ohara S, Lenz F. Intraoperative microelectrode and semi-microelectrode recording during the physiological localization of the thalamic nucleus ventral intermediate. Mov Disord. 2002;17 Suppl 3:S135-44 pubmed
    ..We also review the relationship between thalamic neuronal firing and electromyographic activity during tremor. Implications of these results for the mechanisms for parkinsonian, essential, and intention tremors are discussed. ..
  86. Miao S, Zhuang P, Li J, Li Y. [Neuronal activity of ventrolateral thalamus in patients with essential tremor]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2009;89:620-4 pubmed
    ..05). Vim receives the projection from cerebellum. The increase of neuronal firing frequency observed in Vim suggests that the pathophysiology of ET may be correlated with excessive activity of cerebellum. ..
  87. Chen H, Zhuang P, Zhang Y, Li J, Li Y. Neuronal firing in the globus pallidus internus and the ventrolateral thalamus related to parkinsonian motor symptoms. Chin Med J (Engl). 2009;122:2308-14 pubmed
    ..The results support the view that abnormal neuronal activity in GPi and Vop/Vim are involved in the pathophysiology of parkinsonism. ..
  88. Badalyan S, Sargsyan V, Sarkisyan D. Are the thalamic projections of nucleus Z of the medulla oblongata reorganized after partial deafferentation of the ventrolateral nucleus of the thalamus?. Neurosci Behav Physiol. 2010;40:363-8 pubmed publisher
  89. Iwata M, LeBlanc B, Kadasi L, Zerah M, Cosgrove R, Saab C. High-frequency stimulation in the ventral posterolateral thalamus reverses electrophysiologic changes and hyperalgesia in a rat model of peripheral neuropathic pain. Pain. 2011;152:2505-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, this study demonstrates that electrical stimulation within the VPL can effectively modulate some nociceptive phenomena associated with peripheral neuropathic pain. ..
  90. Tran T, Kubota M, Takeshita K, Yanagisawa M, Sakakihara Y. Varicella-associated acute necrotizing encephalopathy with a good prognosis. Brain Dev. 2001;23:54-7 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, our results support the idea of distinct generators for the three earliest cortical SEF components (N20m, P30m, N45m)...
  91. Goto S, Kunitoku N, Hamasaki T, Nishikawa S, Ushio Y. Abolition of postapoplectic hemichorea by Vo-complex thalamotomy: long-term follow-up study. Mov Disord. 2001;16:771-4 pubmed
    ..We report a patient with hemichorea following subthalamic hemorrhage. Vo-complex thalamotomy abolished the choreic movements for over 4 years of follow-up. ..
  92. Stocker S, Meador R, Adams J. Neurons of the rostral ventrolateral medulla contribute to obesity-induced hypertension in rats. Hypertension. 2007;49:640-6 pubmed
    ..The present findings suggest that the elevated sympathetic nerve activity and arterial blood pressure in obese rats depends on the tonic activity of rostral ventrolateral medulla sympathetic neurons. ..