midline thalamic nuclei


Summary: Small, nonspecific nerve cells scattered in the periventricular GRAY MATTER, separating the medial part of the thalamus from the EPENDYMA of the THIRD VENTRICLE. The group includes the paraventricular nucleus, paratenial nucleus, reuniens nucleus, rhomboidal nucleus, and subfascular nucleus.

Top Publications

  1. Padilla Coreano N, Do Monte F, Quirk G. A time-dependent role of midline thalamic nuclei in the retrieval of fear memory. Neuropharmacology. 2012;62:457-63 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that the projections from the paraventricular nucleus to CeL are involved in retrieval of well consolidated fear memories. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Anxiety and Depression'. ..
  2. Lephart E, Rhees R, Setchell K, Bu L, Lund T. Estrogens and phytoestrogens: brain plasticity of sexually dimorphic brain volumes. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2003;85:299-309 pubmed
    ..In summary, consumption of dietary phytoestrogens (estrogen mimics) can alter hormone-sensitive hypothalamic brain volumes in rodents during adulthood. ..
  3. McKenna J, Vertes R. Afferent projections to nucleus reuniens of the thalamus. J Comp Neurol. 2004;480:115-42 pubmed
    ..RE appears to be a major link in the two-way exchange of information between the hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex. ..
  4. Vertes R, Hoover W, Szigeti Buck K, Leranth C. Nucleus reuniens of the midline thalamus: link between the medial prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus. Brain Res Bull. 2007;71:601-9 pubmed
    ..We discuss the possibility that nucleus reuniens gates the flow of information between the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus dependent upon attentive/arousal states of the organism. ..
  5. Yasoshima Y, Scott T, Yamamoto T. Differential activation of anterior and midline thalamic nuclei following retrieval of aversively motivated learning tasks. Neuroscience. 2007;146:922-30 pubmed
    ..The difference of the activity between the ATN and MITC demonstrates their functional and anatomical heterogeneity in neural substrates for aversive learning tasks. ..
  6. Davoodi F, Motamedi F, Naghdi N, Akbari E. Effect of reversible inactivation of the reuniens nucleus on spatial learning and memory in rats using Morris water maze task. Behav Brain Res. 2009;198:130-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The data showed that reversible inactivation of the RE significantly impaired both RM and WM versions of MWM. Therefore, it seems that nucleus reuniens of thalamus plays a role in spatial RM and WM version of the MWM task in rats. ..
  7. Nakahara K, Fukui K, Murakami N. Involvement of thalamic paraventricular nucleus in the anticipatory reaction under food restriction in the rat. J Vet Med Sci. 2004;66:1297-300 pubmed
    ..The anticipatory increase of blood corticosterone levels was not established in long-term tPVN-lesioned rats. These results suggest that the tPVN is involved in the expression of anticipatory reactions under a food-restricted regimen. ..
  8. Watkins N, Cork S, Pyner S. An immunohistochemical investigation of the relationship between neuronal nitric oxide synthase, GABA and presympathetic paraventricular neurons in the hypothalamus. Neuroscience. 2009;159:1079-88 pubmed publisher
    ..This anatomical arrangement supports the known function role of a NO-GABA modulation of sympathetic outflow. ..
  9. Tsuneoka Y, Tokita K, Yoshihara C, Amano T, Esposito G, Huang A, et al. Distinct preoptic-BST nuclei dissociate paternal and infanticidal behavior in mice. EMBO J. 2015;34:2652-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, this study identifies the preoptic-BST nuclei underlying social motivations in male mice and reveals unexpected complexity in the circuit connecting these nuclei. ..

More Information

Publications137 found, 100 shown here

  1. Li Y, Li J, Li H, Kaneko T, Mizuno N. Protein kinase C gamma-like immunoreactivity of trigeminothalamic neurons in the medullary dorsal horn of the rat. Brain Res. 2001;913:159-64 pubmed
    ..No PKCgamma-neurons in the substantia gelatinosa (lamina II) were labeled with FG. PKCgamma-mediated regulation of trigeminothalamic neurons may contribute to the changes in MDH activity during persistent pain. ..
  2. Rajasekaran K, Sun C, Bertram E. Altered pharmacology and GABA-A receptor subunit expression in dorsal midline thalamic neurons in limbic epilepsy. Neurobiol Dis. 2009;33:119-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate significant alterations in the pharmacology of GABA and GABAARs in a key region for seizure generation, which may have implications for the physiology and pharmacology of limbic epilepsy. ..
  3. Ducret E, Gaidamaka G, Herbison A. Electrical and morphological characteristics of anteroventral periventricular nucleus kisspeptin and other neurons in the female mouse. Endocrinology. 2010;151:2223-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies provide a morphological and electrical description of AVPV/RP3V neurons and demonstrate their cycle-dependent firing patterns along with an unexpected lack of acute response to the circadian neuropeptides. ..
  4. Riters L, Ball G. Lesions to the medial preoptic area affect singing in the male European starling (Sturnus vulgaris). Horm Behav. 1999;36:276-86 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a general role for the POM in the expression of behaviors related to sexual arousal or anticipation, including song. ..
  5. Brill J, Lee M, Zhao S, Fernald R, Huguenard J. Chronic valproic acid treatment triggers increased neuropeptide y expression and signaling in rat nucleus reticularis thalami. J Neurosci. 2006;26:6813-22 pubmed
    ..Chronic VPA treatment significantly potentiated the effect of BIBP3226 on oscillation duration but not on oscillation period. These results demonstrate a novel mechanism for the antiepileptic actions of chronic VPA therapy. ..
  6. Zhang L, Kolaj M, Renaud L. Suprachiasmatic nucleus communicates with anterior thalamic paraventricular nucleus neurons via rapid glutamatergic and gabaergic neurotransmission: state-dependent response patterns observed in vitro. Neuroscience. 2006;141:2059-66 pubmed
  7. Craig A. Distribution of trigeminothalamic and spinothalamic lamina I terminations in the cat. Somatosens Mot Res. 2003;20:209-22 pubmed
    ..The novel identification of spinal lamina I input to the lateral habenula could be significant for homeostatic behaviors. ..
  8. Alponti R, Breno M, Mancera J, Martín del Río M, Silveira P. Distribution of somatostatin immunoreactivity in the brain of the snake Bothrops jararaca. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2006;145:270-9 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that somatostatin may function as a mediator of adenohypophysial secretion as well as neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator which can regulate the neurohypophysial peptides in the snake B. jararaca. ..
  9. Quennell J, Mulligan A, Tups A, Liu X, Phipps S, Kemp C, et al. Leptin indirectly regulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal function. Endocrinology. 2009;150:2805-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The location and phenotype of these leptin-responsive neurons remains to be elucidated. ..
  10. Tata B, Chung W, Brooks L, Kavanaugh S, Tsai P. Fibroblast growth factor signaling deficiencies impact female reproduction and kisspeptin neurons in mice. Biol Reprod. 2012;86:119 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, these deficiencies led to changes in the AVPV/PeV KP-ir neurons that may have contributed to the accelerated VO in the compound hypomorphs. ..
  11. Murillo Rodriguez E, Palomero Rivero M, Millán Aldaco D, Di Marzo V. The administration of endocannabinoid uptake inhibitors OMDM-2 or VDM-11 promotes sleep and decreases extracellular levels of dopamine in rats. Physiol Behav. 2013;109:88-95 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the infusion of compounds reduced the extracellular levels of dopamine collected from nucleus accumbens. Taken together, these findings illustrate a critical role of AMT in sleep modulation. ..
  12. Hasunuma I, Toyoda F, Yamamoto K, Yamashita M, Kikuyama S. Localization of prolactin receptor in the newt brain. Cell Tissue Res. 2005;320:477-85 pubmed
    ..This is the first report of PRLR localization in the amphibian brain. ..
  13. Sterzing F, Grehn C, Dinkel J, Krempien R, Hartung G, Debus J, et al. Severe reversible toxic encephalopathy induced by cisplatin in a patient with cervical carcinoma receiving combined radiochemotherapy. Strahlenther Onkol. 2007;183:487-9 pubmed
    ..Toxic encephalopathy is a rare but dramatic complication of various cytostatic drugs. With the widespread use of cisplatin this rare disorder should be kept in mind. ..
  14. Sellix M, Egli M, Poletini M, McKee D, Bosworth M, Fitch C, et al. Anatomical and functional characterization of clock gene expression in neuroendocrine dopaminergic neurons. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2006;290:R1309-23 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that clock gene expression, particularly PER1 and PER2, within NDNs may act to modulate diurnal rhythms of DA release from NDNs in the OVX rat. ..
  15. Parsons M, Li S, Kirouac G. Functional and anatomical connection between the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus and dopamine fibers of the nucleus accumbens. J Comp Neurol. 2007;500:1050-63 pubmed
    ..Modulation of DA levels in the NacSh by the PVT may be linked to arousal-induced increases in DA tone and could be involved in the facilitation of specific behavioral patterns associated with arousal or stressful situations. ..
  16. Fujisawa A, Matsuwaki T, Yamanouchi K, Nishihara M. Possible involvement of neuropeptide Y in photo-induced suppression of growth hormone pulses. J Vet Med Sci. 2013;75:275-81 pubmed
    ..5 hr after lights on than the other time points. These results suggest that NPY neurons in the caudal ARC projecting to the PeVN play a role in inhibiting GH pulses at the commencement of the light phase. ..
  17. Bianciardi M, Fukunaga M, van Gelderen P, de Zwart J, Duyn J. Negative BOLD-fMRI signals in large cerebral veins. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2011;31:401-12 pubmed publisher
    ..This effect may be more salient in high-resolution studies, in which positive and NBS may be more often spatially distinct. ..
  18. Nandi D, Aziz T, Carter H, Stein J. Thalamic field potentials in chronic central pain treated by periventricular gray stimulation -- a series of eight cases. Pain. 2003;101:97-107 pubmed
    ..It may be possible to use the presence of these slow FPs and the effect of trial PVG DBS on both the clinical status and the FPs to predict the probable success of future pain control in individual patients. ..
  19. Rayen I, Steinbusch H, Charlier T, Pawluski J. Developmental fluoxetine exposure and prenatal stress alter sexual differentiation of the brain and reproductive behavior in male rat offspring. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2013;38:1618-29 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide important evidence for the long-term impact of maternal adversity and maternal fluoxetine use on the development of primary endocrinology systems in juvenile and adult male offspring. ..
  20. Parsons M, Li S, Kirouac G. The paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus as an interface between the orexin and CART peptides and the shell of the nucleus accumbens. Synapse. 2006;59:480-90 pubmed
    ..The PVT may function to link visceral arousal signals with limbic regions involved in behavioral responses. ..
  21. Di Prisco G, Vertes R. Excitatory actions of the ventral midline thalamus (rhomboid/reuniens) on the medial prefrontal cortex in the rat. Synapse. 2006;60:45-55 pubmed
  22. Dassonville P, Bala J. Perception, action, and Roelofs effect: a mere illusion of dissociation. PLoS Biol. 2004;2:e364 pubmed
    ..This indicates a general need to re-evaluate the broad class of evidence purported to support this hypothesized dissociation. ..
  23. Leite L, Sharma N, Bafna S, Zheng H, Coimbra C, Patel K. Construction and validation of lentiviral vector carrying rat neuronal nitric oxide synthase in vitro and in vivo. J Neurosci Methods. 2012;211:77-83 pubmed publisher
  24. Ruzicka E, Jech R, Zarubova K, Roth J, Urgosik D. VIM thalamic stimulation for tremor in a patient with IgM paraproteinaemic demyelinating neuropathy. Mov Disord. 2003;18:1192-5 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate the effect of deep brain stimulation of the ventral intermediate thalamic nucleus on intractable action tremor, in a 72-year-old man suffering from neuropathy associated with monoclonal gammopathy. ..
  25. Morales G, Ramcharan E, Sundararaman N, Morgera S, Vertes R. Analysis of the actions of nucleus reuniens and the entorhinal cortex on EEG and evoked population behavior of the hippocampus. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2007;2007:2480-4 pubmed
    ..We demonstrated a consistent reduction in evoked potential (EP) latency at CA1 to RE and EC stimulation during theta compared to non-theta states. ..
  26. Thielen J, Takashima A, Rutters F, Tendolkar I, Fernández G. Transient relay function of midline thalamic nuclei during long-term memory consolidation in humans. Learn Mem. 2015;22:527-31 pubmed publisher
    ..hippocampus, mPFC, and posterior representational areas during memory retrieval at an early (2 h) stage of consolidation, extending classical systems consolidation models by attributing a transient role to midline thalamic nuclei.
  27. Vertes R, Hoover W. Projections of the paraventricular and paratenial nuclei of the dorsal midline thalamus in the rat. J Comp Neurol. 2008;508:212-37 pubmed publisher
  28. Bhatnagar S, Dallman M. The paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus alters rhythms in core temperature and energy balance in a state-dependent manner. Brain Res. 1999;851:66-75 pubmed
  29. Gorski R. Hypothalamic imprinting by gonadal steroid hormones. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2002;511:57-70; discussion 70-3 pubmed
  30. Bhatnagar S, Huber R, Lazar E, Pych L, Vining C. Chronic stress alters behavior in the conditioned defensive burying test: role of the posterior paraventricular thalamus. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2003;76:343-9 pubmed
  31. Csillik B, Mihaly A, Krisztin Peva B, Fenyo R, Knyihar Csillik E. Calcium-binding proteins in GABAergic calyciform synapses of the reticular nucleus. Neuroreport. 2006;17:575-8 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that synaptic activity of large calyciform gamma-aminobutyric acid-containing synapses of the reticular thalamic nucleus is mediated, regulated or accompanied by calcium ions. ..
  32. Hermes M, Kolaj M, Coderre E, Renaud L. Gastrin-releasing peptide acts via postsynaptic BB2 receptors to modulate inward rectifier K+ and TRPV1-like conductances in rat paraventricular thalamic neurons. J Physiol. 2013;591:1823-39 pubmed publisher
    ..The results provide a detailed picture of the receptor and ionic conductances that are involved in GRP's excitatory action in midline thalamus. ..
  33. Fusco P, Cofini V, Petrucci E, Scimia P, Paladini G, Behr A, et al. Unilateral paravertebral block compared with subarachnoid anesthesia for the management of postoperative pain syndrome after inguinal herniorrhaphy: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Pain. 2016;157:1105-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Paravertebral block provided good management of acute postoperative pain and limited neuropathic postoperative disturbances. ..
  34. Krout K, Loewy A, Westby G, Redgrave P. Superior colliculus projections to midline and intralaminar thalamic nuclei of the rat. J Comp Neurol. 2001;431:198-216 pubmed
    ..The retrograde tracer cholera toxin beta (CTb) was injected into one of the midline thalamic nuclei-paraventricular, intermediodorsal, rhomboid, reuniens, submedius, mediodorsal, paratenial, anteroventral, ..
  35. Tsukahara S. Increased Fos immunoreactivity in suprachiasmatic nucleus before luteinizing hormone surge in estrogen-treated ovariectomized female rats. Neuroendocrinology. 2006;83:303-12 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that in female rats during an LH surge, a peak in the Fos level in the SCN precedes peaks in Fos levels in the AVPV and GnRH neurons. ..
  36. Ito A, Miyoshi M, Ueki S, Fukada M, Komaki R, Watanabe T. "Green odor" inhalation by rats down-regulates stress-induced increases in Fos expression in stress-related forebrain regions. Neurosci Res. 2009;65:166-74 pubmed publisher
  37. Summ O, Charbit A, Andreou A, Goadsby P. Modulation of nocioceptive transmission with calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonists in the thalamus. Brain. 2010;133:2540-8 pubmed publisher
  38. Vertes R. Analysis of projections from the medial prefrontal cortex to the thalamus in the rat, with emphasis on nucleus reuniens. J Comp Neurol. 2002;442:163-87 pubmed
  39. Salazar Juárez A, Escobar C, Aguilar Roblero R. Anterior paraventricular thalamus modulates light-induced phase shifts in circadian rhythmicity in rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2002;283:R897-904 pubmed
    ..These results indicate the participation of the anterior PVT as a modulator of entrainment of circadian rhythms to light. ..
  40. Pompolo S, Pereira A, Estrada K, Clarke I. Colocalization of kisspeptin and gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the ovine brain. Endocrinology. 2006;147:804-10 pubmed
    ..Effects of ovariectomy on the non-GnRH, Kisspeptin-IR cells of the hypothalamus suggest that kisspeptin production is negatively regulated by ovarian steroids. ..
  41. Deyts C, Casane D, Vernier P, Bourrat F, Joly J. Morphological and gene expression similarities suggest that the ascidian neural gland may be osmoregulatory and homologous to vertebrate peri-ventricular organs. Eur J Neurosci. 2006;24:2299-308 pubmed
    ..We further speculate about the potential similarities between the ascidian NGC and the vertebrate choroid plexus, a neural peri-ventricular organ. ..
  42. Dakin C, Wilson C, Kallo I, Coen C, Davies D. Neonatal stimulation of 5-HT(2) receptors reduces androgen receptor expression in the rat anteroventral periventricular nucleus and sexually dimorphic preoptic area. Eur J Neurosci. 2008;27:2473-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that 5-HT(2) receptor activation can influence sexual differentiation of the brain by controlling AR expression. ..
  43. Semaan S, Dhamija S, Kim J, Ku E, Kauffman A. Assessment of epigenetic contributions to sexually-dimorphic Kiss1 expression in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus of mice. Endocrinology. 2012;153:1875-86 pubmed publisher
  44. Marcus J, Aschkenasi C, Lee C, Chemelli R, Saper C, Yanagisawa M, et al. Differential expression of orexin receptors 1 and 2 in the rat brain. J Comp Neurol. 2001;435:6-25 pubmed
    ..The differential distribution of orexin receptors is consistent with the proposed multifaceted roles of orexin in regulating homeostasis and may explain the unique role of the OX(2)R receptor in regulating sleep state stability. ..
  45. Penner S, Mueller H, Smyth D. Alpha 2-adrenoceptor stimulation in the periventricular nucleus increases urine flow rate with minimal effects on blood pressure. Proc West Pharmacol Soc. 2002;45:13-4 pubmed
  46. Date I, Matsui T. [Cell transplantation and stereotaxic neurosurgical procedures for therapy of patients with Parkinson's disease]. Nihon Naika Gakkai Zasshi. 2003;92:1448-55 pubmed
  47. Walker D, Kermath B, Woller M, Gore A. Disruption of reproductive aging in female and male rats by gestational exposure to estrogenic endocrine disruptors. Endocrinology. 2013;154:2129-43 pubmed publisher
  48. Linley S, Gallo M, Vertes R. Lesions of the ventral midline thalamus produce deficits in reversal learning and attention on an odor texture set shifting task. Brain Res. 2016;1649:110-122 pubmed publisher
    ..As such, the deficits in the AST task produced by RE/RH lesions suggest the ventral midline thalamus directly contributes to flexible goal directed behavior. ..
  49. Bhatnagar S, Huber R, Nowak N, Trotter P. Lesions of the posterior paraventricular thalamus block habituation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal responses to repeated restraint. J Neuroendocrinol. 2002;14:403-10 pubmed
    ..Thus, the intact pPVTh inhibits HPA activity under conditions of habituation, as well as facilitation, and represents an important regulator of HPA activity under conditions of chronic stress. ..
  50. Woody C, Gruen E, Wang X. Electrical properties affecting discharge of units of the mid and posterolateral thalamus of conscious cats. Neuroscience. 2003;122:531-9 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the discharge properties of units of the mid and posterolateral thalamus can change to support discrimination between acoustic stimuli of different functional significance after conditioning. ..
  51. Bennett E, McGuinness L, Gevers E, Thomas G, Robinson I, Davey H, et al. Hypothalamic STAT proteins: regulation of somatostatin neurones by growth hormone via STAT5b. J Neuroendocrinol. 2005;17:186-94 pubmed
  52. Marlinski V, McCrea R. Activity of ventroposterior thalamus neurons during rotation and translation in the horizontal plane in the alert squirrel monkey. J Neurophysiol. 2008;99:2533-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Results of this study imply that changes in the discharge rate of vestibular-sensitive thalamic neurons can be approximated using power functions of the angular and linear velocity of spatial motion. ..
  53. Li Y, Li S, Wei C, Wang H, Sui N, Kirouac G. Changes in emotional behavior produced by orexin microinjections in the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2010;95:121-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that orexins may act at the PVT to modulate behaviors associated with a negative emotional state. ..
  54. Johanson C, Stopa E, Baird A, Sharma H. Traumatic brain injury and recovery mechanisms: peptide modulation of periventricular neurogenic regions by the choroid plexus-CSF nexus. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2011;118:115-33 pubmed publisher
    ..CSF translational research presents opportunities that involve CP and ependymal manipulations to expedite recovery from TBI. ..
  55. Heydendael W, Sharma K, Iyer V, Luz S, Piel D, Beck S, et al. Orexins/hypocretins act in the posterior paraventricular thalamic nucleus during repeated stress to regulate facilitation to novel stress. Endocrinology. 2011;152:4738-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, the results suggest that orexin actions in the pPVT, mediated by orexin1 receptors, are important for the ability to adapt to repeated stress. ..
  56. Wong D, Poskitt K, Chau V, Miller S, Roland E, Hill A, et al. Brain injury patterns in hypoglycemia in neonatal encephalopathy. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2013;34:1456-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In term infants with NE and hypoglycemia, specific imaging features for both hypoglycemia and hypoxia-ischemia can be identified. ..
  57. Harlan R, Brown H, Lynch C, D SOUZA D, Garcia M. Androgenic-anabolic steroids blunt morphine-induced c-fos expression in the rat striatum: possible role of beta-endorphin. Brain Res. 2000;853:99-104 pubmed
    ..Chronic administration of AAS also increased the content of beta-endorphin in the midline thalamus, suggesting a possible mechanism by which AAS may modulate the response to morphine through regulation of thalamo-striatal neurons. ..
  58. Freeman D, Zucker I. Refractoriness to melatonin occurs independently at multiple brain sites in Siberian hamsters. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:6447-52 pubmed
    ..Restricted, target-specific actions of Mel are consistent with the independent regulation by day length of the several behavioral and physiological traits that vary seasonally in mammals. ..
  59. Peng Z, Bentivoglio M. The thalamic paraventricular nucleus relays information from the suprachiasmatic nucleus to the amygdala: a combined anterograde and retrograde tracing study in the rat at the light and electron microscopic levels. J Neurocytol. 2004;33:101-16 pubmed
    ..The findings demonstrate that information processed in the biological clock is conveyed to the amygdala through PVT, indicating that this nucleus plays a role in the transfer of circadian timing information to the limbic system. ..
  60. Kirouac G, Parsons M, Li S. Innervation of the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus from cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) containing neurons of the hypothalamus. J Comp Neurol. 2006;497:155-65 pubmed
    ..Consequently, CART neurons in the arcuate nucleus may transmit signals to the PVT which in turn may influence limbic regions involved in regulating food intake and the HPA. ..
  61. Quigg M, Frysinger R, Harrison M, Elias W. Acute insomnia following surgery of the ventralis intermedius nucleus of the thalamus for tremor. J Clin Sleep Med. 2007;3:58-9 pubmed
    ..This complication underscores the role of thalamic regulation on initiation and maintenance of sleep. ..
  62. Zhou Q, Peng X, Wu Q, Yu S, Wei J, Xu H, et al. [Effect of electroacupuncture on the expression of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) and CRHR 1 mRNA in paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus in stress-induced anxiety rats]. Zhen Ci Yan Jiu. 2008;33:372-6 pubmed
    ..05, P<0.01). EA can effectively relieve chronic stress stimulation induced anxiety in the rat, which is closely related to its effect in down regulating both CRH and CRHR 1 mRNA expression in PVN of hypothalamus. ..
  63. De Vries E, Kwakkel J, Eggels L, Kalsbeek A, Barrett P, Fliers E, et al. NF?B signaling is essential for the lipopolysaccharide-induced increase of type 2 deiodinase in tanycytes. Endocrinology. 2014;155:2000-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that NF?B signaling is essential for the up-regulation of D2 in tanycytes during inflammation. ..
  64. Michaud J, DeRossi C, May N, Holdener B, Fan C. ARNT2 acts as the dimerization partner of SIM1 for the development of the hypothalamus. Mech Dev. 2000;90:253-61 pubmed
    ..Together, these results implicate ARNT2 as the in vivo dimerization partner of SIM1 in controlling the development of these neuroendocrine lineages. ..
  65. Tillet Y, Batailler M, Thiery J, Thibault J. Neuronal projections to the lateral retrochiasmatic area of sheep with special reference to catecholaminergic afferents: immunohistochemical and retrograde tract-tracing studies. J Chem Neuroanat. 2000;19:47-67 pubmed
  66. Van Der Werf Y, Witter M, Groenewegen H. The intralaminar and midline nuclei of the thalamus. Anatomical and functional evidence for participation in processes of arousal and awareness. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 2002;39:107-40 pubmed
    ..of the results of neuroanatomical tracing studies on the connections of the individual intralaminar and midline thalamic nuclei in the rat, that have been performed over the past decade in our laboratory...
  67. Margolin E, Hanifan D, Berger M, Ahmad O, Trobe J, Gebarski S. Skew deviation as the initial manifestation of left paramedian thalamic infarction. J Neuroophthalmol. 2008;28:283-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The recognition of skew deviation in this setting is important because it may be the most specific indicator of a brainstem lesion. ..
  68. Leitner C, Bartness T. Distributed forebrain sites mediate melatonin-induced short-day responses in Siberian hamsters. Endocrinology. 2010;151:3133-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively these data suggest a distributed system of MEL-sensitive brain sites sufficient to mediate these SD responses, the redundancy of which suggests its importance for appropriate seasonal responses critical for overwintering. ..
  69. Cholvin T, Hok V, Giorgi L, Chaillan F, Poucet B. Ventral Midline Thalamus Is Necessary for Hippocampal Place Field Stability and Cell Firing Modulation. J Neurosci. 2018;38:158-172 pubmed publisher
    ..b>SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Growing evidence suggest that the ventral midline thalamic nuclei (reuniens and rhomboid) might play a substantial role in various cognitive tasks including spatial memory...
  70. Piper M, Dawson A, Lindwall C, Barry G, Plachez C, Richards L. Emx and Nfi genes regulate cortical development and axon guidance in the telencephalon. Novartis Found Symp. 2007;288:230-242; discussion 242-5, 276-81 pubmed
    ..We review the role of these genes in cortical cell migration, glial development and the formation of cortical axon projections, and examine the overlapping mutant phenotypes between the Emx and Nfi gene families. ..
  71. Browning J, Jansen H, Sorg B. Inactivation of the paraventricular thalamus abolishes the expression of cocaine conditioned place preference in rats. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2014;134:387-390 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we contribute to the growing body of research supporting a role for the PVT in addiction by demonstrating that the PVT is necessary for the expression of cocaine CPP. ..
  72. Kaur C, You Y. Ultrastructure and function of the amoeboid microglial cells in the periventricular white matter in postnatal rat brain following a hypoxic exposure. Neurosci Lett. 2000;290:17-20 pubmed
  73. Tribollet E, Ueta Y, Heitz F, Marguerat A, Koizumi K, Yamashita H. Up-regulation of vasopressin and angiotensin II receptors in the thalamus and brainstem of inbred polydipsic mice. Neuroendocrinology. 2002;75:113-23 pubmed
    ..Altogether, our results support the view that central AVP and Ang II systems are involved in the mechanisms responsible for polydipsia in STR/N mice. ..
  74. Fabene P, Marzola P, Sbarbati A, Bentivoglio M. Magnetic resonance imaging of changes elicited by status epilepticus in the rat brain: diffusion-weighted and T2-weighted images, regional blood volume maps, and direct correlation with tissue and cell damage. Neuroimage. 2003;18:375-89 pubmed
    ..The findings provide an interpretation of the brain response to sustained seizures revealed in vivo by different strategies of MRI analysis. ..
  75. Balasubramaniam J, Xue M, Buist R, Ivanco T, Natuik S, Del Bigio M. Persistent motor deficit following infusion of autologous blood into the periventricular region of neonatal rats. Exp Neurol. 2006;197:122-32 pubmed
    ..We conclude that autologous blood infusion into the brain of neonatal rats successfully models some aspects of periventricular hemorrhage that occurs after premature birth in humans. ..
  76. Pasumarthi R, Fadel J. Activation of orexin/hypocretin projections to basal forebrain and paraventricular thalamus by acute nicotine. Brain Res Bull. 2008;77:367-73 pubmed publisher
  77. Acar G, Acar F, Bir L, Kizilay Z, Cirak B. Vim stimulation in Holmes' tremor secondary to subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurol Res. 2010;32:992-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Thalamic Vim stimulation seems to be a good treatment option in medically intractable complex tremor syndromes. ..
  78. Di Giorgio N, Semaan S, Kim J, López P, Bettler B, Libertun C, et al. Impaired GABAB receptor signaling dramatically up-regulates Kiss1 expression selectively in nonhypothalamic brain regions of adult but not prepubertal mice. Endocrinology. 2014;155:1033-44 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that GABAB signaling may normally directly or indirectly inhibit Kiss1 expression, particularly in the BNST and MeA, and highlight the importance of studying kisspeptin populations outside the hypothalamus. ..
  79. Aggleton J, Brown M. Episodic memory, amnesia, and the hippocampal-anterior thalamic axis. Behav Brain Sci. 1999;22:425-44; discussion 444-89 pubmed
    ..In the large majority of amnesic cases both the hippocampal-anterior thalamic and the perirhinal-medial dorsal thalamic systems are compromised, leading to severe deficits in both recall and recognition. ..
  80. Gartlon J, Ashmeade T, Duxon M, Hagan J, Jones D. Urotensin-II, a neuropeptide ligand for GPR14, induces c-fos in the rat brain. Eur J Pharmacol. 2004;493:95-8 pubmed
    ..Urotensin-II increased Fos expression in the cingulate cortex and periaqueductal grey, suggesting important central roles for urotensin-II and its receptor. ..
  81. Whyte D, Johnson A. Thermoregulatory role of periventricular tissue surrounding the anteroventral third ventricle (AV3V) during acute heat stress in the rat. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2005;32:457-61 pubmed
    ..These data add further support to the hypothesis that thermal and non-thermal information may be integrated within this region. ..
  82. Halverson H, Freeman J. Medial auditory thalamic nuclei are necessary for eyeblink conditioning. Behav Neurosci. 2006;120:880-7 pubmed
    ..The medial auditory thalamic nuclei may modulate activity in a short-latency auditory CS pathway or serve as part of a longer latency auditory CS pathway that is necessary for eyeblink conditioning. ..
  83. Halverson H, Poremba A, Freeman J. Medial auditory thalamus inactivation prevents acquisition and retention of eyeblink conditioning. Learn Mem. 2008;15:532-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Results from this experiment indicate that the MATN contralateral to the trained eye and its projection to the pontine nuclei are necessary for acquisition and retention of eyeblink CRs to an auditory CS. ..
  84. Nishio M, Korematsu K, Yoshioka S, Nagai Y, Maruo T, Ushio Y, et al. Long-term suppression of tremor by deep brain stimulation of the ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus combined with pallidotomy in hemiparkinsonian patients. J Clin Neurosci. 2009;16:1489-91 pubmed publisher
    ..We report two hemiparkinsonian patients, in whom unilateral VIM DBS combined with posteroventral pallidotomy produced long-lasting suppression of not only hand tremor, but also leg or jaw tremor and other motor symptoms. ..
  85. Gamrani H, Elgot A, El Hiba O, Fevre Montange M. Cellular plasticity in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei after prolonged dehydration in the desert rodent Meriones shawi: Vasopressin and GFAP immunohistochemical study. Brain Res. 2011;1375:85-92 pubmed publisher
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    ..In conclusion, future directions in this area should include examination of the importance of location, timing, steroidal receptor/sex chromosome gene synergy and epigenetics in molding neural sex differences. ..
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    ..Furthermore, this enhanced activation of PVN-RVLM neurons may contribute to the altered responses to baroreceptor and osmotic challenges observed during CHF. ..
  88. Edelstyn N, Mayes A, Ellis S. Damage to the dorsomedial thalamic nucleus, central lateral intralaminar thalamic nucleus, and midline thalamic nuclei on the right-side impair executive function and attention under conditions of high demand but not low demand. Neurocase. 2014;20:121-32 pubmed publisher
    ..intralaminar nucleus (also known as the paralamellar DMT), the paraventricular and the central medial midline thalamic nuclei. According to the neuropsychological literature, the DMT, the midline and intralaminar thalamic nuclei ..
  89. Lee E, Lee H. Dual projections of single orexin- or CART-immunoreactive, lateral hypothalamic neurons to the paraventricular thalamic nucleus and nucleus accumbens shell in the rat: Light microscopic study. Brain Res. 2016;1634:104-118 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggested that a portion of ORX (or CART) neurons in the hypothalamus, via divergent axon collaterals, might concurrently modulate the activity of PVT and AcbSh cells to affect feeding and drug-seeking behaviors. ..
  90. Li Y, Wang H, Qi K, Chen X, Li S, Sui N, et al. Orexins in the midline thalamus are involved in the expression of conditioned place aversion to morphine withdrawal. Physiol Behav. 2011;102:42-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Orexins may mediate the aversive effects of morphine withdrawal by engaging the extended amygdala indirectly through the action of orexins on the PVT...
  91. Prasad J, Macgregor E, Chudasama Y. Lesions of the thalamic reuniens cause impulsive but not compulsive responses. Brain Struct Funct. 2013;218:85-96 pubmed publisher
  92. Leeb C, Eresheim C, Nimpf J. Clusterin is a ligand for apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2) and very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) and signals via the Reelin-signaling pathway. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:4161-72 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that in the subventricular zone where Reelin is not present but ApoER2, VLDLR, and Dab1, clusterin might be involved in maintaining neurogenesis in vivo. ..