geniculate bodies


Summary: Part of the DIENCEPHALON inferior to the caudal end of the dorsal THALAMUS. Includes the lateral geniculate body which relays visual impulses from the OPTIC TRACT to the calcarine cortex, and the medial geniculate body which relays auditory impulses from the lateral lemniscus to the AUDITORY CORTEX.

Top Publications

  1. Schmid M, Mrowka S, Turchi J, Saunders R, Wilke M, Peters A, et al. Blindsight depends on the lateral geniculate nucleus. Nature. 2010;466:373-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that direct LGN projections to the extrastriate cortex have a critical functional contribution to blindsight. They suggest a viable pathway to mediate fast detection during normal vision. ..
  2. Feller M. Retinal waves are likely to instruct the formation of eye-specific retinogeniculate projections. Neural Dev. 2009;4:24 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, I argue that a full understanding requires an identification of the features of retinal activity that drive the refinement as well as an understanding of mechanisms that transform these signals into axonal rearrangements. ..
  3. Lu E, Llano D, Sherman S. Different distributions of calbindin and calretinin immunostaining across the medial and dorsal divisions of the mouse medial geniculate body. Hear Res. 2009;257:16-23 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, these data extend previous observations that the medial division of the medial geniculate body shares many properties with the paralaminar group of nuclei. ..
  4. Zhang S, Wang H, Lu Q, Qing G, Wang N, Wang Y, et al. Detection of early neuron degeneration and accompanying glial responses in the visual pathway in a rat model of acute intraocular hypertension. Brain Res. 2009;1303:131-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Neuroprotection of the entire visual pathway and glia-target therapies may bring new insights into the glaucoma treatment. ..
  5. Huberman A, Manu M, Koch S, Susman M, Lutz A, Ullian E, et al. Architecture and activity-mediated refinement of axonal projections from a mosaic of genetically identified retinal ganglion cells. Neuron. 2008;59:425-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal that in a genetically identified sensory map, spontaneous activity promotes synaptic specificity by segregating axons arising from RGCs of the same subtype. ..
  6. Szmajda B, Grünert U, Martin P. Retinal ganglion cell inputs to the koniocellular pathway. J Comp Neurol. 2008;510:251-68 pubmed publisher
  7. Rebsam A, Petros T, Mason C. Switching retinogeniculate axon laterality leads to normal targeting but abnormal eye-specific segregation that is activity dependent. J Neurosci. 2009;29:14855-63 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings implicate molecular determinants for targeting of eye-specific zones that are independent of midline guidance cues and that function in concert with correlated retinal activity to sculpt retinogeniculate projections. ..
  8. Luo B, Wang H, Su Y, Wu S, Chen L. Activation of presynaptic GABAB receptors modulates GABAergic and glutamatergic inputs to the medial geniculate body. Hear Res. 2011;280:157-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study provides electrophysiological evidence for the presence of functional presynaptic GABA(B) receptors in the MGB and suggests an age-dependent role of these receptors in the synaptic transmission in this central auditory region. ..
  9. Briggs F, Usrey W. Corticogeniculate feedback and visual processing in the primate. J Physiol. 2011;589:33-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review the evidence for stream-specific feedback in the primate and consider the implications of parallel streams of feedback for vision. ..

More Information


  1. Su J, Haner C, Imbery T, Brooks J, Morhardt D, Gorse K, et al. Reelin is required for class-specific retinogeniculate targeting. J Neurosci. 2011;31:575-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data reveal that reelin is essential for the targeting of LGN subnuclei by functionally distinct classes of RGCs. ..
  2. Piscopo D, El Danaf R, Huberman A, Niell C. Diverse visual features encoded in mouse lateral geniculate nucleus. J Neurosci. 2013;33:4642-56 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings should therefore have a significant impact on our understanding of the computations performed in mouse visual cortex. ..
  3. Lam D, Jim J, To E, Rasmussen C, Kaufman P, Matsubara J. Astrocyte and microglial activation in the lateral geniculate nucleus and visual cortex of glaucomatous and optic nerve transected primates. Mol Vis. 2009;15:2217-29 pubmed
    ..To examine early cellular changes, including astrocyte reactivity and microglial activation, in the central nervous system (CNS) after unilateral optic nerve transection (ONT) or ocular hypertension (OHT) in monkeys...
  4. Antal M, Acuna Goycolea C, Pressler R, Blitz D, Regehr W. Cholinergic activation of M2 receptors leads to context-dependent modulation of feedforward inhibition in the visual thalamus. PLoS Biol. 2010;8:e1000348 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that cholinergic modulation regulates feedforward inhibition in a context-dependent manner. ..
  5. Bridge H, Jindahra P, Barbur J, Plant G. Imaging reveals optic tract degeneration in hemianopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:382-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This method of objectively assessing structural images provides an effective, noninvasive approach to monitor the timescale of optic tract degeneration. ..
  6. Lindström S, Wrobel A. Feedforward and recurrent inhibitory receptive fields of principal cells in the cat's dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. Pflugers Arch. 2011;461:277-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The diameter of the feedforward inhibitory field is two times larger, and the recurrent two to four times larger than the excitatory field centre. The inhibitory circuitry is similar for X and Y principal cells. ..
  7. Blank M, Fuerst P, Stevens B, Nouri N, Kirkby L, Warrier D, et al. The Down syndrome critical region regulates retinogeniculate refinement. J Neurosci. 2011;31:5764-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, altered developmental refinement of visual circuits that occurs before sensory experience is likely to contribute to visual impairment in individuals with Down syndrome...
  8. Sincich L, Horton J, Sharpee T. Preserving information in neural transmission. J Neurosci. 2009;29:6207-16 pubmed publisher
  9. Ziburkus J, Dilger E, Lo F, Guido W. LTD and LTP at the developing retinogeniculate synapse. J Neurophysiol. 2009;102:3082-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus the Ca(2+) influx associated with L-type channel activation mediates the induction of synaptic plasticity and may signal the pruning and subsequent stabilization of developing retinogeniculate connections. ..
  10. Zacharaki T, Sophou S, Giannakopoulou A, Dinopoulos A, Antonopoulos J, Parnavelas J, et al. Natural and lesion-induced apoptosis in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus during development. Brain Res. 2010;1344:62-76 pubmed publisher
  11. Yu X, Xu X, He S, He J. Change detection by thalamic reticular neurons. Nat Neurosci. 2009;12:1165-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Deviance detection probably causes TRN neurons to transiently deactivate surrounding TRN neurons in response to a fresh stimulus, altering auditory thalamus responses and inducing attention shift. ..
  12. Guido W. Refinement of the retinogeniculate pathway. J Physiol. 2008;586:4357-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The activity-dependent influx of Ca(2+) through L-type channels and associated activation of CREB signalling may underlie the pruning and stabilization of developing retinogeniculate connections. ..
  13. Speer C, Mikula S, Huberman A, Chapman B. The developmental remodeling of eye-specific afferents in the ferret dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2010;293:1-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The emergence of On/Off sublaminae occurs following eye-specific segregation in this species. On the basis of these findings, we constructed a three-dimensional map of eye-specific channels in the developing and mature ferret dLGN. ..
  14. Chalupa L. Retinal waves are unlikely to instruct the formation of eye-specific retinogeniculate projections. Neural Dev. 2009;4:25 pubmed publisher
  15. Ito Y, Shimazawa M, Chen Y, Tsuruma K, Yamashima T, Araie M, et al. Morphological changes in the visual pathway induced by experimental glaucoma in Japanese monkeys. Exp Eye Res. 2009;89:246-55 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that in Japanese monkeys, damage to neurons in LGN can be detected in the early phase (first few weeks) after an IOP elevation, as can damage to ONH. ..
  16. Romo P, Wang C, Zeater N, Solomon S, Dreher B. Phase sensitivities, excitatory summation fields, and silent suppressive receptive fields of single neurons in the parastriate cortex of the cat. J Neurophysiol. 2011;106:1688-712 pubmed publisher
    ..In most area 18 cells, costimulation of CRFs and ECRFs resulted in significant increases in F1/F0 spike-response ratios, and thus there was a contextually modulated functional continuum between the simple and complex cells. ..
  17. Mullen K, Dumoulin S, Hess R. Color responses of the human lateral geniculate nucleus: [corrected] selective amplification of S-cone signals between the lateral geniculate nucleno and primary visual cortex measured with high-field fMRI. Eur J Neurosci. 2008;28:1911-23 pubmed publisher
    ..While the mechanism of this cortical enhancement of BY color vision and its dynamic component is unknown, its role may be to compensate for a weak BY signal originating from the sparse distribution of neurons in the retina and LGN. ..
  18. Tailby C, Szmajda B, Buzas P, Lee B, Martin P. Transmission of blue (S) cone signals through the primate lateral geniculate nucleus. J Physiol. 2008;586:5947-67 pubmed publisher
  19. Yucel Y, Gupta N. Glaucoma of the brain: a disease model for the study of transsynaptic neural degeneration. Prog Brain Res. 2008;173:465-78 pubmed publisher
    ..The study of this glaucoma model of transsynaptic brain injury may be relevant to understanding more complex pathways and point to new strategies to prevent disease progression in other neurodegenerative diseases. ..
  20. Gjorgjieva J, Toyoizumi T, Eglen S. Burst-time-dependent plasticity robustly guides ON/OFF segregation in the lateral geniculate nucleus. PLoS Comput Biol. 2009;5:e1000618 pubmed publisher
    ..Our model suggests that diverse input statistics of retinal waves can be robustly interpreted by a burst-based rule, which underlies retinogeniculate plasticity across different species. ..
  21. Ly T, Gupta N, Weinreb R, Kaufman P, Yucel Y. Dendrite plasticity in the lateral geniculate nucleus in primate glaucoma. Vision Res. 2011;51:243-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Dendrite plasticity of LGN relay neurons in adult primate glaucoma has implications for potential disease modification by treatment interventions. ..
  22. Bartlett E, Wang X. Correlation of neural response properties with auditory thalamus subdivisions in the awake marmoset. J Neurophysiol. 2011;105:2647-67 pubmed publisher
    ..MGV and MGAD neurons exhibited responses consistent with provision of thalamocortical input to core regions, whereas MGPD neurons were consistent with provision of input to belt regions. ..
  23. Martin L, Adams N, Pan Y, Price A, Wong M. The mitochondrial permeability transition pore regulates nitric oxide-mediated apoptosis of neurons induced by target deprivation. J Neurosci. 2011;31:359-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate in adult mouse brain neurons that the mPTP functions to enhance ROS production and the mPTP and NO trigger apoptosis; thus, the mPTP is a target for neuroprotection in vivo. ..
  24. Camp A, Tailby C, Solomon S. Adaptable mechanisms that regulate the contrast response of neurons in the primate lateral geniculate nucleus. J Neurosci. 2009;29:5009-21 pubmed publisher
  25. Lorincz M, Kekesi K, Juhasz G, Crunelli V, Hughes S. Temporal framing of thalamic relay-mode firing by phasic inhibition during the alpha rhythm. Neuron. 2009;63:683-96 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide a potential cellular substrate for linking the alpha rhythm to perception and further underscore the central role of inhibition in controlling spike timing during cognitively relevant brain oscillations. ..
  26. Campi K, Bales K, Grunewald R, Krubitzer L. Connections of auditory and visual cortex in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster): evidence for multisensory processing in primary sensory areas. Cereb Cortex. 2010;20:89-108 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that multisensory integration occurs in primary sensory areas of the prairie vole cortex, and this may be related to behavioral specializations associated with its niche. ..
  27. Lau C, Zhang J, Xing K, Zhou I, Cheung M, Chan K, et al. BOLD responses in the superior colliculus and lateral geniculate nucleus of the rat viewing an apparent motion stimulus. Neuroimage. 2011;58:878-84 pubmed publisher
    ..This work represents the first fMRI study of stimulus speed dependence in the SC and is also the first fMRI study of motion responsiveness in the rat. ..
  28. Jones H, Andolina I, Ahmed B, Shipp S, Clements J, Grieve K, et al. Differential feedback modulation of center and surround mechanisms in parvocellular cells in the visual thalamus. J Neurosci. 2012;32:15946-51 pubmed publisher
    ..In short, both center and surround mechanisms are influenced by the feedback. This dynamically sharpens the spatial focus of the receptive field and introduces nonlinearities from the cortical mechanism into the LGN...
  29. Marshel J, KAYE A, Nauhaus I, Callaway E. Anterior-posterior direction opponency in the superficial mouse lateral geniculate nucleus. Neuron. 2012;76:713-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, they support recent conjecture that cortical direction and orientation selectivity emerge in part from a previously undescribed motion-selective retinogeniculate pathway. ..
  30. Datwani A, McConnell M, Kanold P, Micheva K, Busse B, Shamloo M, et al. Classical MHCI molecules regulate retinogeniculate refinement and limit ocular dominance plasticity. Neuron. 2009;64:463-70 pubmed publisher
    ..H2-K(b) and H2-D(b) ligands, signaling via neuronal MHCI receptors, may enable activity-dependent remodeling of brain circuits during developmental critical periods. ..
  31. Krahe T, Guido W. Homeostatic plasticity in the visual thalamus by monocular deprivation. J Neurosci. 2011;31:6842-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that homeostatic synaptic regulation from MD extends beyond cortical circuitry and shed light on how the brain modulates and integrates activity in the face of altered sensory experience. ..
  32. Halnes G, Augustinaite S, Heggelund P, Einevoll G, Migliore M. A multi-compartment model for interneurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. PLoS Comput Biol. 2011;7:e1002160 pubmed publisher
  33. Briggs F, Usrey W. Parallel processing in the corticogeniculate pathway of the macaque monkey. Neuron. 2009;62:135-46 pubmed publisher
  34. Krahe T, El Danaf R, Dilger E, Henderson S, Guido W. Morphologically distinct classes of relay cells exhibit regional preferences in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the mouse. J Neurosci. 2011;31:17437-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these data coupled with recent observations in the retina suggest that the mouse has many of the hallmark features of a system-wide parallel organization. ..
  35. Dilger E, Shin H, Guido W. Requirements for synaptically evoked plateau potentials in relay cells of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the mouse. J Physiol. 2011;589:919-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in addition to the changing patterns of synaptic connectivity and retinal activity, the expression of L-type Ca2+ channels is a requisite component in the manifestation of plateau activity. ..
  36. Bickford M, Slusarczyk A, Dilger E, Krahe T, Kucuk C, Guido W. Synaptic development of the mouse dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. J Comp Neurol. 2010;518:622-35 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the synaptic architecture of the mouse dLGN is similar to that of other higher mammals, and thus provides further support for its use as a model system for visual system development. ..
  37. Parajuli L, Fukazawa Y, Watanabe M, Shigemoto R. Subcellular distribution of ?1G subunit of T-type calcium channel in the mouse dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. J Comp Neurol. 2010;518:4362-74 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide ultrastructural evidence for cell-type-specific expression levels and for uniform expression density of the ?1G subunit over the plasma membrane of dLGN cells. ..
  38. Huberman A, Wei W, Elstrott J, Stafford B, Feller M, Barres B. Genetic identification of an On-Off direction-selective retinal ganglion cell subtype reveals a layer-specific subcortical map of posterior motion. Neuron. 2009;62:327-34 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that each RGC subtype represents a unique parallel pathway whose synaptic specificity in the retina is recapitulated in central targets. ..
  39. Sepulcre J, Goni J, Masdeu J, Bejarano B, Velez de Mendizabal N, Toledo J, et al. Contribution of white matter lesions to gray matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis: evidence from voxel-based analysis of T1 lesions in the visual pathway. Arch Neurol. 2009;66:173-9 pubmed publisher
  40. Gupta N, Greenberg G, de Tilly L, Gray B, Polemidiotis M, Yucel Y. Atrophy of the lateral geniculate nucleus in human glaucoma detected by magnetic resonance imaging. Br J Ophthalmol. 2009;93:56-60 pubmed publisher
    ..LGN atrophy may be a relevant biomarker of visual system injury and/or progression in some glaucoma patients. ..
  41. Anderson L, Christianson G, Linden J. Stimulus-specific adaptation occurs in the auditory thalamus. J Neurosci. 2009;29:7359-63 pubmed publisher
  42. Imamura K, Onoe H, Shimazawa M, Nozaki S, Wada Y, Kato K, et al. Molecular imaging reveals unique degenerative changes in experimental glaucoma. Neuroreport. 2009;20:139-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The present findings establish the usefulness of noninvasive molecular imaging for early diagnosis of glaucoma by providing a sharper surrogate end point for an early phase of glaucoma. ..
  43. Allen E, Freeman R. Dynamic spatial processing originates in early visual pathways. J Neurosci. 2006;26:11763-74 pubmed
    ..Overall, our simulations suggest that coarse-to-fine tuning in the visual cortex can be generated completely by a feedforward process. ..
  44. Anderson L, Wallace M, Palmer A. Identification of subdivisions in the medial geniculate body of the guinea pig. Hear Res. 2007;228:156-67 pubmed
    ..This suggests that CYO permits the identification of core and belt areas within the guinea pig MGB. ..
  45. Uebachs M, Schaub C, Perez Reyes E, Beck H. T-type Ca2+ channels encode prior neuronal activity as modulated recovery rates. J Physiol. 2006;571:519-36 pubmed
    ..These data provide a novel mechanism for cellular short-term plasticity on the millisecond to second time scale that relies on biophysical properties of specific T-type Ca2+ channel subunits. ..
  46. Gupta N, Ang L, Noel de Tilly L, Bidaisee L, Yucel Y. Human glaucoma and neural degeneration in intracranial optic nerve, lateral geniculate nucleus, and visual cortex. Br J Ophthalmol. 2006;90:674-8 pubmed
    ..Neuropathology in the glaucoma brain is compared to age matched controls. In the presence of advanced human glaucoma with 50% visual field loss, neural damage is evident in multiple vision stations within the brain. ..
  47. Huberman A. Mechanisms of eye-specific visual circuit development. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2007;17:73-80 pubmed
    ..Although many outstanding questions remain, the mechanisms that instruct eye-specific circuit development are becoming clear. ..
  48. Bickford M, Wei H, Eisenback M, Chomsung R, Slusarczyk A, Dankowsi A. Synaptic organization of thalamocortical axon collaterals in the perigeniculate nucleus and dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. J Comp Neurol. 2008;508:264-85 pubmed publisher
  49. Lee C, Winer J. Connections of cat auditory cortex: I. Thalamocortical system. J Comp Neurol. 2008;507:1879-900 pubmed publisher
    ..This expansion suggests emergent cortical roles consistent with the divergence of thalamocortical connections. ..
  50. Acuna Goycolea C, Brenowitz S, Regehr W. Active dendritic conductances dynamically regulate GABA release from thalamic interneurons. Neuron. 2008;57:420-31 pubmed publisher
  51. Suta D, Popelar J, Syka J. Coding of communication calls in the subcortical and cortical structures of the auditory system. Physiol Res. 2008;57 Suppl 3:S149-59 pubmed
    ..The investigation of the principles of the neural coding of species-specific vocalizations offers some keys for understanding the neural mechanisms underlying human speech perception. ..
  52. Basta D, Goetze R, Ernst A. Effects of salicylate application on the spontaneous activity in brain slices of the mouse cochlear nucleus, medial geniculate body and primary auditory cortex. Hear Res. 2008;240:42-51 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the present results suggest that the individual, specific salicylate sensitivity of CN, MGB and AC neurons can modulate the salicylate-induced generation of tinnitus. ..
  53. Bonin V, Mante V, Carandini M. The suppressive field of neurons in lateral geniculate nucleus. J Neurosci. 2005;25:10844-56 pubmed
    ..The latter property is hardly consistent with feedback from cortex. These measurements thoroughly describe the visual properties of contrast gain control in LGN and provide a parsimonious explanation for disparate suppressive phenomena. ..
  54. Anderson L, Malmierca M, Wallace M, Palmer A. Evidence for a direct, short latency projection from the dorsal cochlear nucleus to the auditory thalamus in the guinea pig. Eur J Neurosci. 2006;24:491-8 pubmed
    ..Short latency responses may be important in priming the auditory cortex to prepare it for rapid analysis and in recruiting the amygdala for rapid emotional responses such as fear. ..
  55. Ruksenas O, Bulatov A, Heggelund P. Dynamics of spatial resolution of single units in the lateral geniculate nucleus of cat during brief visual stimulation. J Neurophysiol. 2007;97:1445-56 pubmed
    ..Thereby, there is a change from coarse-to-fine also in the recruitment of responding neurons during brief static stimulation. ..
  56. Torborg C, Feller M. Spontaneous patterned retinal activity and the refinement of retinal projections. Prog Neurobiol. 2005;76:213-35 pubmed
    ..It is likely that an understanding of retinal activity, guidance molecules, downstream signaling cascades, and the interactions between these biological systems will be critical to elucidating the mechanisms of sensory map formation. ..
  57. Demas J, Sagdullaev B, Green E, Jaubert Miazza L, McCall M, Gregg R, et al. Failure to maintain eye-specific segregation in nob, a mutant with abnormally patterned retinal activity. Neuron. 2006;50:247-59 pubmed
    ..Thus, normally structured spontaneous retinal activity stabilizes newly refined retinogeniculate circuitry. ..
  58. Bartlett E, Wang X. Neural representations of temporally modulated signals in the auditory thalamus of awake primates. J Neurophysiol. 2007;97:1005-17 pubmed
    ..In particular, the MGB appears to be the first station in the auditory ascending pathway in which substantial nonsynchronized responses emerge. ..
  59. Ringach D. On the origin of the functional architecture of the cortex. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e251 pubmed
    ..The theory's simplicity, explanatory and predictive power makes it a serious candidate for the origin of the functional architecture of primary visual cortex. ..
  60. Wallace M, Anderson L, Palmer A. Phase-locked responses to pure tones in the auditory thalamus. J Neurophysiol. 2007;98:1941-52 pubmed
    ..Cells in both the ventral and medial divisions of the MGB showed a response that phase-locked to the fundamental frequency of a guinea pig purr and may be involved in analyzing communication calls. ..
  61. Gupta N, Ly T, Zhang Q, Kaufman P, Weinreb R, Yucel Y. Chronic ocular hypertension induces dendrite pathology in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the brain. Exp Eye Res. 2007;84:176-84 pubmed
    ..The striking dendrite changes in the LGN following chronically elevated intraocular pressure may be relevant to early visual dysfunction in glaucoma. ..
  62. Ziburkus J, Guido W. Loss of binocular responses and reduced retinal convergence during the period of retinogeniculate axon segregation. J Neurophysiol. 2006;96:2775-84 pubmed
    ..These results provide a better understanding of the underlying changes in synaptic circuitry that occur during the anatomical segregation of retinal inputs into eye-specific territories. ..
  63. Lesica N, Weng C, Jin J, Yeh C, Alonso J, Stanley G. Dynamic encoding of natural luminance sequences by LGN bursts. PLoS Biol. 2006;4:e209 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a dynamic role for burst responses during visual processing that may change according to behavioral state. ..
  64. Donishi T, Kimura A, Okamoto K, Tamai Y. "Ventral" area in the rat auditory cortex: a major auditory field connected with the dorsal division of the medial geniculate body. Neuroscience. 2006;141:1553-67 pubmed
    ..The results provide insight into structural and functional organization of the rat auditory cortex. ..
  65. Wolfart J, Debay D, Le Masson G, Destexhe A, Bal T. Synaptic background activity controls spike transfer from thalamus to cortex. Nat Neurosci. 2005;8:1760-7 pubmed
    ..Because in thalamic neurons, background synaptic input originates mainly from cortex, these results support a determinant role of corticothalamic feedback during sensory information processing. ..
  66. Sasaoka M, Nakamura K, Shimazawa M, Ito Y, Araie M, Hara H. Changes in visual fields and lateral geniculate nucleus in monkey laser-induced high intraocular pressure model. Exp Eye Res. 2008;86:770-82 pubmed publisher
  67. Pfeiffenberger C, Yamada J, Feldheim D. Ephrin-As and patterned retinal activity act together in the development of topographic maps in the primary visual system. J Neurosci. 2006;26:12873-84 pubmed
  68. Andolina I, Jones H, Wang W, Sillito A. Corticothalamic feedback enhances stimulus response precision in the visual system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:1685-90 pubmed
    ..We discuss the significance of these data for cortical function and suggest that the precision in stimulus-linked firing in the LGN appears as an emergent factor from the corticothalamic interaction. ..
  69. Smith P, Bartlett E, Kowalkowski A. Unique combination of anatomy and physiology in cells of the rat paralaminar thalamic nuclei adjacent to the medial geniculate body. J Comp Neurol. 2006;496:314-34 pubmed
    ..As with the labeled paralaminar cells, parafascicular cells had physiological features distinguishing them from typical thalamic neurons. ..
  70. Sincich L, Adams D, Economides J, Horton J. Transmission of spike trains at the retinogeniculate synapse. J Neurosci. 2007;27:2683-92 pubmed
    ..Hence, the timing of EPSPs arising from the primary retinal driver governs synaptic efficacy and provides the basis for successful retinogeniculate transmission. ..
  71. Wu Y, Yan J. Modulation of the receptive fields of midbrain neurons elicited by thalamic electrical stimulation through corticofugal feedback. J Neurosci. 2007;27:10651-8 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that the intact colliculo-thalamo-cortico-collicular loops are important for the coordination of sound-guided plasticity in the central auditory system. ..