thalamic nuclei


Summary: Several groups of nuclei in the thalamus that serve as the major relay centers for sensory impulses in the brain.

Top Publications

  1. Byne W, Dracheva S, Chin B, Schmeidler J, Davis K, Haroutunian V. Schizophrenia and sex associated differences in the expression of neuronal and oligodendrocyte-specific genes in individual thalamic nuclei. Schizophr Res. 2008;98:118-28 pubmed
    ..All markers were differentially expressed across nuclei. ..
  2. Feig S. The differential distribution of the growth-associated protein-43 in first and higher order thalamic nuclei of the adult rat. Neuroscience. 2005;136:1147-57 pubmed
    ..large terminals that make multiple synaptic contacts on proximal dendrites of relay cells in higher order thalamic nuclei and have been termed "driver" inputs...
  3. Wiegell M, Tuch D, Larsson H, Wedeen V. Automatic segmentation of thalamic nuclei from diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. Neuroimage. 2003;19:391-401 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI) can noninvasively resolve the major thalamic nuclei based on the characteristic fiber orientation of the corticothalamic/thalamocortical striations within each ..
  4. Ding Y, Li J, Clark J, Diaz F, Rafols J. Synaptic plasticity in thalamic nuclei enhanced by motor skill training in rat with transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Neurol Res. 2003;25:189-94 pubmed
    ..In treadmill-trained animals, however, similarly intense synaptic plasticity in these two thalamic nuclei was seen only at 28 days...
  5. Ziyan U, Tuch D, Westin C. Segmentation of thalamic nuclei from DTI using spectral clustering. Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv. 2006;9:807-14 pubmed
    Recent work shows that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can help resolving thalamic nuclei based on the characteristic fiber orientation of the corticothalamic/thalamocortical striations within each nucleus...
  6. Smith P, Bartlett E, Kowalkowski A. Unique combination of anatomy and physiology in cells of the rat paralaminar thalamic nuclei adjacent to the medial geniculate body. J Comp Neurol. 2006;496:314-34 pubmed
    ..As with the labeled paralaminar cells, parafascicular cells had physiological features distinguishing them from typical thalamic neurons. ..
  7. Deoni S, Rutt B, Parrent A, Peters T. Segmentation of thalamic nuclei using a modified k-means clustering algorithm and high-resolution quantitative magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 T. Neuroimage. 2007;34:117-26 pubmed
    ..In this paper we introduce a method for segmenting the individual thalamic nuclei based on high-resolution quantitative magnetic resonance images, providing improved target visualization...
  8. Van Der Werf Y, Jolles J, Witter M, Uylings H. Contributions of thalamic nuclei to declarative memory functioning. Cortex. 2003;39:1047-62 pubmed
    ..The two types of function subserved by these groups of thalamic nuclei, focussing on contents vs...
  9. Pergola G, Ranft A, Mathias K, Suchan B. The role of the thalamic nuclei in recognition memory accompanied by recall during encoding and retrieval: an fMRI study. Neuroimage. 2013;74:195-208 pubmed publisher
    ..for recognition accompanied by recall, and provide the first evidence of a functional segregation of the thalamic nuclei with respect to the memory retrieval phase...

More Information


  1. Yasoshima Y, Scott T, Yamamoto T. Differential activation of anterior and midline thalamic nuclei following retrieval of aversively motivated learning tasks. Neuroscience. 2007;146:922-30 pubmed
    Two thalamic nuclear groups, the anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN) and midline and intralaminar thalamic complex (MITC) have connections to the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus and accumbens that are important for learning and ..
  2. Gulcebi M, Ketenci S, Linke R, Hacıoğlu H, Yanalı H, VELISKOVA J, et al. Topographical connections of the substantia nigra pars reticulata to higher-order thalamic nuclei in the rat. Brain Res Bull. 2012;87:312-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study explores whether the SNR relates to all dorsal thalamic nuclei equally or just to a particular group of nuclei, such as first or higher-order nuclei...
  3. Xiao D, Zikopoulos B, Barbas H. Laminar and modular organization of prefrontal projections to multiple thalamic nuclei. Neuroscience. 2009;161:1067-81 pubmed publisher
    The prefrontal cortex projects to many thalamic nuclei, in pathways associated with cognition, emotion, and action...
  4. Byne W, Tatusov A, Yiannoulos G, Vong G, Marcus S. Effects of mental illness and aging in two thalamic nuclei. Schizophr Res. 2008;106:172-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Among subjects with psychiatric diagnoses, exposure to lithium was associated with an increase in the number of oligodendrocytes. No effects were detected for exposure to anticonvulsants or for abuse of alcohol or other substances. ..
  5. Yasukawa T, Kita T, Xue Y, Kita H. Rat intralaminar thalamic nuclei projections to the globus pallidus: a biotinylated dextran amine anterograde tracing study. J Comp Neurol. 2004;471:153-67 pubmed
    The topographical organization and ultrastructural features of the intralaminar thalamic nuclei (ITN) projections to the globus pallidus (GP) were studied using the biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) anterograde tracing method in the rat...
  6. Taktakishvili O, Sivan Loukianova E, Kultas Ilinsky K, Ilinsky I. Posterior parietal cortex projections to the ventral lateral and some association thalamic nuclei in Macaca mulatta. Brain Res Bull. 2002;59:135-50 pubmed
    ..The results demonstrate that projections from small loci of the PPC to functionally and connectionally different thalamic nuclei differ anatomically, implying a different functional impact on these diverse targets.
  7. Kuramoto E, Fujiyama F, Nakamura K, Tanaka Y, Hioki H, Kaneko T. Complementary distribution of glutamatergic cerebellar and GABAergic basal ganglia afferents to the rat motor thalamic nuclei. Eur J Neurosci. 2011;33:95-109 pubmed publisher
    Motor thalamic nuclei, ventral anterior (VA), ventral lateral (VL) and ventral medial (VM) nuclei, receive massive glutamatergic and GABAergic afferents from the cerebellum and basal ganglia, respectively...
  8. Kung J, Shyu B. Potentiation of local field potentials in the anterior cingulate cortex evoked by the stimulation of the medial thalamic nuclei in rats. Brain Res. 2002;953:37-44 pubmed
    ..The potentiation of MT-evoked ACC potentials provides a neural basis for synaptic plasticity, which may be essential for the establishment of pain-initiated conditioning behavior and affective responses to noxious stimuli. ..
  9. Clinton S, Ibrahim H, Frey K, Davis K, Haroutunian V, Meador Woodruff J. Dopaminergic abnormalities in select thalamic nuclei in schizophrenia: involvement of the intracellular signal integrating proteins calcyon and spinophilin. Am J Psychiatry. 2005;162:1859-71 pubmed
  10. Kovács K, Larson A. Mast cells accumulate in the anogenital region of somatosensory thalamic nuclei during estrus in female mice. Brain Res. 2006;1114:85-97 pubmed
    ..During estrus, mast cells were especially concentrated in those regions within the VPL and posterior thalamic nuclei that receive somatosensory information from the anogenital region...
  11. Bailey K, Mair R. Lesions of specific and nonspecific thalamic nuclei affect prefrontal cortex-dependent aspects of spatial working memory. Behav Neurosci. 2005;119:410-9 pubmed
    ..lesions of specific mediodorsal (MD) and nonspecific midline/intralaminar (M/IL) and ventromedial (VM) thalamic nuclei placed to spare the anterior nuclei...
  12. Maxwell W, Pennington K, MacKinnon M, Smith D, McIntosh T, Wilson J, et al. Differential responses in three thalamic nuclei in moderately disabled, severely disabled and vegetative patients after blunt head injury. Brain. 2004;127:2470-8 pubmed
    ..analysis of changes in numbers of neurons within the dorsomedial, ventral posterior and lateral posterior thalamic nuclei in patients assessed by the Glasgow Outcome Scale as moderately disabled (n = 9), severely disabled (n = 12) ..
  13. Ainge J, Jenkins T, Winn P. Induction of c-fos in specific thalamic nuclei following stimulation of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus. Eur J Neurosci. 2004;20:1827-37 pubmed
    ..Tracing studies have established that the PPTg has projections to many thalamic nuclei and electrophysiological studies have shown acetylcholine (ACh) to have characteristic effects on thalamic ..
  14. Deoni S, Josseau M, Rutt B, Peters T. Visualization of thalamic nuclei on high resolution, multi-averaged T1 and T2 maps acquired at 1.5 T. Hum Brain Mapp. 2005;25:353-9 pubmed
    ..These results confirm our hypothesis and demonstrate the potential high-resolution quantitative imaging for nucleus visualization and surgical planning. ..
  15. Wang Z, Zhang Z, Jiao Q, Liao W, Chen G, Sun K, et al. Impairments of thalamic nuclei in idiopathic generalized epilepsy revealed by a study combining morphological and functional connectivity MRI. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e39701 pubmed publisher
    Neuroimaging evidence suggested that the thalamic nuclei may play different roles in the progress of idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE)...
  16. Varela C, Sherman S. Differences in response to serotonergic activation between first and higher order thalamic nuclei. Cereb Cortex. 2009;19:1776-86 pubmed publisher
    Two types of thalamic nuclei have been recognized: first order, which relay information from subcortical sources, and higher order, which may relay information from one cortical area to another...
  17. Cho Z, Son Y, Kim H, Kim N, Choi E, Lee S, et al. Observation of glucose metabolism in the thalamic nuclei by fusion PET/MRI. J Nucl Med. 2011;52:401-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Measured metabolism in individual thalamic nuclei was quantified by corresponding PET/MRI images. Substructures of the thalamus were clearly distinguished in 7...
  18. Ohno S, Kuramoto E, Furuta T, Hioki H, Tanaka Y, Fujiyama F, et al. A morphological analysis of thalamocortical axon fibers of rat posterior thalamic nuclei: a single neuron tracing study with viral vectors. Cereb Cortex. 2012;22:2840-57 pubmed publisher
    The rostral sector of the posterior thalamic nuclei (POm) is, together with the ventral posterior nuclei (VP), involved in somatosensory information processing in rodents...
  19. Smith P, Bartlett E, Kowalkowski A. Cortical and collicular inputs to cells in the rat paralaminar thalamic nuclei adjacent to the medial geniculate body. J Neurophysiol. 2007;98:681-95 pubmed
    ..The inhibitory collicular inputs are GABAergic, activate GABA(A) receptors, and terminate on dendrites. Their activation can greatly alter EPSP-generated spike number and timing. ..
  20. Maxwell W, MacKinnon M, Smith D, McIntosh T, Graham D. Thalamic nuclei after human blunt head injury. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2006;65:478-88 pubmed
    ..The study provides novel quantitative evidence for differential neuronal loss, with survival after human head injury, from thalamic nuclei associated with different aspects of cortical activation.
  21. Pais Vieira M, Lebedev M, Wiest M, Nicolelis M. Simultaneous top-down modulation of the primary somatosensory cortex and thalamic nuclei during active tactile discrimination. J Neurosci. 2013;33:4076-93 pubmed publisher
    ..located in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1), the ventroposterior medial, and the posterior medial thalamic nuclei of the trigeminal somatosensory pathways exhibited prominent anticipatory firing modulations before the ..
  22. Lee K, Jang K, Shon Y. Chronic deep brain stimulation of subthalamic and anterior thalamic nuclei for controlling refractory partial epilepsy. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2006;99:87-91 pubmed
    ..We intended to describe the results of DBS on subthalamic nuclei and anterior thalamic nuclei (STN and ATN) from our patients and to evaluate the long-term efficiency and safety of DBS for controlling ..
  23. Hannoun S, Durand Dubief F, Confavreux C, Ibarrola D, Streichenberger N, Cotton F, et al. Diffusion tensor-MRI evidence for extra-axonal neuronal degeneration in caudate and thalamic nuclei of patients with multiple sclerosis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2012;33:1363-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased FA in the caudate and the thalamus may constitute a sensitive marker of MS pathologic processes, such as loss of dendrites and/or swelling of neuronal cell bodies. ..
  24. Schofield C, Huguenard J. GABA affinity shapes IPSCs in thalamic nuclei. J Neurosci. 2007;27:7954-62 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that within thalamic circuits, a powerful diversity of inhibitory function can result from simple differences in underlying GABA(A) receptor affinity. ..
  25. Dihné M, Grommes C, Lutzenburg M, Witte O, Block F. Different mechanisms of secondary neuronal damage in thalamic nuclei after focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Stroke. 2002;33:3006-11 pubmed
    ..Retrograde degeneration is not possible because the RTN, in contrast to the VPN, has no efferents to the cortex. ..
  26. Jones E, Rubenstein J. Expression of regulatory genes during differentiation of thalamic nuclei in mouse and monkey. J Comp Neurol. 2004;477:55-80 pubmed mice at birth (P0) and in adulthood, and in fetal monkeys early and late in the period of gestation when thalamic nuclei are becoming histologically differentiated out of a series of pronuclear masses...
  27. Li K, Zhang J, Li J. Gbx2 plays an essential but transient role in the formation of thalamic nuclei. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47111 pubmed publisher
    ..The molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of thalamic nuclei remain largely unknown...
  28. Binzegger T, Douglas R, Martin K. A quantitative map of the circuit of cat primary visual cortex. J Neurosci. 2004;24:8441-53 pubmed
  29. Hsu D, Price J. Midline and intralaminar thalamic connections with the orbital and medial prefrontal networks in macaque monkeys. J Comp Neurol. 2007;504:89-111 pubmed
    Although the midline and intralaminar thalamic nuclei (MITN) were long believed to project "nonspecifically," they are now known from rat studies to have restricted connections to the prefrontal cortex...
  30. Lam Y, Sherman S. Functional organization of the thalamic input to the thalamic reticular nucleus. J Neurosci. 2011;31:6791-9 pubmed publisher
  31. Tyvaert L, Chassagnon S, Sadikot A, Levan P, Dubeau F, Gotman J. Thalamic nuclei activity in idiopathic generalized epilepsy: an EEG-fMRI study. Neurology. 2009;73:2018-22 pubmed publisher absence seizures and during spike-and-wave discharges and suggest the involvement of different types of thalamic nuclei. With the development of deep brain stimulation in epilepsy, the role of the thalamic nuclei needs to be ..
  32. Rosenberg D, Mauguiere F, Demarquay G, Ryvlin P, Isnard J, Fischer C, et al. Involvement of medial pulvinar thalamic nucleus in human temporal lobe seizures. Epilepsia. 2006;47:98-107 pubmed
    ..This study shows that ictal changes in PuM activity are frequently observed during temporal lobe seizures and suggests that this thalamic nucleus might participate in their propagation. ..
  33. Espinosa F, Torres Vega M, Marks G, Joho R. Ablation of Kv3.1 and Kv3.3 potassium channels disrupts thalamocortical oscillations in vitro and in vivo. J Neurosci. 2008;28:5570-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The results support the hypothesis that altered electrophysiological properties of TRN neurons contribute to the reduced EEG power at slow frequencies in the thalamocortical network of Kv3-deficient mice. ..
  34. Shen P, Fu P, Phelan K, Scott D, Layfield S, Tregear G, et al. Restricted expression of LGR8 in intralaminar thalamic nuclei of rat brain suggests a role in sensorimotor systems. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005;1041:510-5 pubmed
  35. Steriade M. Sleep, epilepsy and thalamic reticular inhibitory neurons. Trends Neurosci. 2005;28:317-24 pubmed
  36. Scorza F, Sander J, Cendes F, Arida R, Cavalheiro E. A possible role of the thalamus in some cases of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2007;48:1036-7 pubmed
  37. Lavallée P, Urbain N, Dufresne C, Bokor H, Acsády L, Deschenes M. Feedforward inhibitory control of sensory information in higher-order thalamic nuclei. J Neurosci. 2005;25:7489-98 pubmed
    ..Instead, we propose that this pathway operates through disinhibition, and that the posterior group forwards to the cerebral cortex sensory information that is contingent on motor instructions. ..
  38. Lorincz M, Crunelli V, Hughes S. Cellular dynamics of cholinergically induced alpha (8-13 Hz) rhythms in sensory thalamic nuclei in vitro. J Neurosci. 2008;28:660-71 pubmed publisher
    ..of cholinergic activation on the thalamus and, in combination with previous studies, show that sensory thalamic nuclei possess powerful and dynamically reconfigurable mechanisms for generating synchronized alpha activity that ..
  39. Vue T, Bluske K, Alishahi A, Yang L, Koyano Nakagawa N, Novitch B, et al. Sonic hedgehog signaling controls thalamic progenitor identity and nuclei specification in mice. J Neurosci. 2009;29:4484-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, how a distinct array of postmitotic thalamic nuclei emerge from this single developmental unit has remained largely unknown...
  40. Tanibuchi I, Goldman Rakic P. Comparison of oculomotor neuronal activity in paralaminar and mediodorsal thalamus in the rhesus monkey. J Neurophysiol. 2005;93:614-9 pubmed
    ..In the course of mapping the dorsal thalamus, we also studied neurons in a subset of thalamic nuclei (the caudal part of the ventral lateral nucleus (VLc), the oral part of the ventral posterior lateral nucleus ..
  41. Olsen S, Bortone D, Adesnik H, Scanziani M. Gain control by layer six in cortical circuits of vision. Nature. 2012;483:47-52 pubmed publisher
  42. McAlonan K, Cavanaugh J, Wurtz R. Guarding the gateway to cortex with attention in visual thalamus. Nature. 2008;456:391-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The reciprocal modulation in LGN and TRN appears only during the initial visual response, but the modulation of LGN reappears later in the response, suggesting separate early and late sources of attentional modulation in LGN. ..
  43. Yu X, Xu X, He S, He J. Change detection by thalamic reticular neurons. Nat Neurosci. 2009;12:1165-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Deviance detection probably causes TRN neurons to transiently deactivate surrounding TRN neurons in response to a fresh stimulus, altering auditory thalamus responses and inducing attention shift. ..
  44. Petreanu L, Mao T, Sternson S, Svoboda K. The subcellular organization of neocortical excitatory connections. Nature. 2009;457:1142-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We expressed ChR2 in two thalamic nuclei, the whisker motor cortex and local excitatory neurons and mapped their synapses with pyramidal neurons in ..
  45. Linke R, Schwegler H. Convergent and complementary projections of the caudal paralaminar thalamic nuclei to rat temporal and insular cortex. Cereb Cortex. 2000;10:753-71 pubmed
    b>Thalamic nuclei adjacent to the medial geniculate body play a pivotal role in processing of sensory stimuli during emotional situations...
  46. Sziklas V, Petrides M. The effects of lesions to the anterior thalamic nuclei on object-place associations in rats. Eur J Neurosci. 1999;11:559-66 pubmed
    ..A third experiment examined the effects of damage to the anterior thalamic nuclei on the eight-arm radial maze, a spatial working memory task...
  47. Linke R, Braune G, Schwegler H. Differential projection of the posterior paralaminar thalamic nuclei to the amygdaloid complex in the rat. Exp Brain Res. 2000;134:520-32 pubmed
    ..Each of these thalamic nuclei receives a unique pattern of afferent input but an unresolved question is, how each of these thalamic nuclei ..
  48. Aggleton J, Hunt P, Nagle S, Neave N. The effects of selective lesions within the anterior thalamic nuclei on spatial memory in the rat. Behav Brain Res. 1996;81:189-98 pubmed
    ..lesions centred in either the anterior thalamic nucleus (AM), the anterior ventral and anterior dorsal thalamic nuclei (AV/AD), or all three nuclei combined (ANT.T)...
  49. Xing G, Zhang L, Heynen T, Yoshikawa T, Smith M, Weiss S, et al. Rat PPAR delta contains a CGG triplet repeat and is prominently expressed in the thalamic nuclei. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995;217:1015-25 pubmed
    ..These results raise the possibility that PPAR delta might play a role in modulating response to thermal and pain sensations. ..
  50. Lewis D, Cruz D, Melchitzky D, Pierri J. Lamina-specific deficits in parvalbumin-immunoreactive varicosities in the prefrontal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia: evidence for fewer projections from the thalamus. Am J Psychiatry. 2001;158:1411-22 pubmed
  51. Bertram E, Mangan P, Zhang D, Scott C, Williamson J. The midline thalamus: alterations and a potential role in limbic epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2001;42:967-78 pubmed
    ..Local neuronal changes can enhance the excitability of the thalamolimbic circuits. ..
  52. Lotto R, Asavaritikrai P, Vali L, Price D. Target-derived neurotrophic factors regulate the death of developing forebrain neurons after a change in their trophic requirements. J Neurosci. 2001;21:3904-10 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the onset of a requirement for cortex-derived neurotrophic factors initiates a competitive mechanism regulating programmed cell death among dorsal thalamic neurons. ..
  53. Crabtree J. Intrathalamic sensory connections mediated by the thalamic reticular nucleus. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999;56:683-700 pubmed
  54. Shibata H. Organization of projections of rat retrosplenial cortex to the anterior thalamic nuclei. Eur J Neurosci. 1998;10:3210-9 pubmed
    The organization of the projections from the retrosplenial cortex (Brodmann's area 29) to the anterior thalamic nuclei was examined in the rat with retrograde transport of the cholera toxin B subunit and anterograde transport of ..
  55. Bazhenov M, Timofeev I, Steriade M, Sejnowski T. Self-sustained rhythmic activity in the thalamic reticular nucleus mediated by depolarizing GABAA receptor potentials. Nat Neurosci. 1999;2:168-74 pubmed
    ..This model predicts that the isolated reticular nucleus could initiate sequences of spindle oscillations in thalamocortical networks in vivo. ..
  56. Smith R, Haroutunian V, Davis K, Meador Woodruff J. Expression of excitatory amino acid transporter transcripts in the thalamus of subjects with schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 2001;158:1393-9 pubmed
  57. Frappé I, Gaillard A, Roger M. Attraction exerted in vivo by grafts of embryonic neocortex on developing thalamic axons. Exp Neurol. 2001;169:264-75 pubmed
    ..into the occipital cortex of newborn rats receive inputs from the ventrolateral (VL) and ventromedial (VM) thalamic nuclei which, normally, project to the frontal cortex (25)...
  58. Nakagawa Y, O Leary D. Combinatorial expression patterns of LIM-homeodomain and other regulatory genes parcellate developing thalamus. J Neurosci. 2001;21:2711-25 pubmed
    ..These genes may also influence the pathfinding and targeting of thalamocortical axons through both cell-autonomous and non-autonomous mechanisms. ..
  59. Haidarliu S, Ahissar E. Size gradients of barreloids in the rat thalamus. J Comp Neurol. 2001;429:372-87 pubmed
    ..This implies that the extended representation is not merely a reflection of peripheral innervation biases and probably serves an as yet unknown processing function. ..
  60. Morel A, Magnin M, Jeanmonod D. Multiarchitectonic and stereotactic atlas of the human thalamus. J Comp Neurol. 1997;387:588-630 pubmed
    ..PV), calbindin D-28K (CB), and calretinin (CR) were used as neurochemical markers to further characterize thalamic nuclei and delimit subterritories of functional significance for stereotactic explorations...
  61. Byne W, Buchsbaum M, Mattiace L, Hazlett E, Kemether E, Elhakem S, et al. Postmortem assessment of thalamic nuclear volumes in subjects with schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 2002;159:59-65 pubmed
  62. Munoz F, Fuentealba P. Dynamics of action potential initiation in the GABAergic thalamic reticular nucleus in vivo. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30154 pubmed publisher
  63. Belekhova M, Kenigfest N, Rio J, Repérant J, Ward R, Vesselkin N, et al. Tectothalamic visual projections in turtles: their cells of origin revealed by tracing methods. J Comp Neurol. 2003;457:37-56 pubmed
  64. Little G, Lopez Bendito G, Rünker A, García N, Piñon M, Chedotal A, et al. Specificity and plasticity of thalamocortical connections in Sema6A mutant mice. PLoS Biol. 2009;7:e98 pubmed publisher
    The establishment of connectivity between specific thalamic nuclei and cortical areas involves a dynamic interplay between the guidance of thalamocortical axons and the elaboration of cortical areas in response to appropriate innervation...
  65. Piggott M, Ballard C, Dickinson H, McKeith I, Perry R, Perry E. Thalamic D2 receptors in dementia with Lewy bodies, Parkinson's disease, and Parkinson's disease dementia. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2007;10:231-44 pubmed
    ..D2 receptor binding did not vary with cognitive decline (MMSE) or visual hallucinations, but was significantly higher with increased extrapyramidal symptoms. ..
  66. Murasaki M. [Reconsideration of psychomotor seizure--importance of medio-dorsal thalmic nucleus]. Seishin Shinkeigaku Zasshi. 2007;109:813-21 pubmed
    ..It is my belief that experiments which are performed by clinicians field useful results which can be utilized clinically. ..
  67. Zakowski W, Zawistowski P, Braszka Ł, Jurkowlaniec E. The effect of pharmacological inactivation of the mammillary body and anterior thalamic nuclei on hippocampal theta rhythm in urethane-anesthetized rats. Neuroscience. 2017;362:196-205 pubmed publisher
    The mammillary body (MB) and the anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN) are closely related structures, which take part in learning and memory processes. However, the exact role of these structures has remained unclear...
  68. FitzGibbon T. Do first order and higher order regions of the thalamic reticular nucleus have different developmental timetables?. Exp Neurol. 2007;204:339-54 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, dendritic development in the TRN may be less dependent on extrinsic factors than an intrinsic growth pattern or factors other than a functional hierarchy within the visual pathway. ..
  69. Berger U, Hediger M. Comparative analysis of glutamate transporter expression in rat brain using differential double in situ hybridization. Anat Embryol (Berl). 1998;198:13-30 pubmed dorsal and ventral parts of the anterior olfactory nucleus, the majority of neurons in the anteromedial thalamic nuclei, the CA3 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus and neurons in the inferior olive...
  70. Perney T, Marshall J, Martin K, Hockfield S, Kaczmarek L. Expression of the mRNAs for the Kv3.1 potassium channel gene in the adult and developing rat brain. J Neurophysiol. 1992;68:756-66 pubmed
    ..Many thalamic nuclei, but in particular the reticular thalamic nucleus, hybridized well to Kv3.1 alpha-specific probes...
  71. Challet E. Interactions between light, mealtime and calorie restriction to control daily timing in mammals. J Comp Physiol B. 2010;180:631-44 pubmed publisher
    ..e. they are active during their usual sleep period). This change in behavioural timing is due in part to the fact that metabolic cues associated with calorie restriction affect the SCN clock and its synchronisation to light. ..
  72. Hampstead B, Koffler S. Thalamic contributions to anterograde, retrograde, and implicit memory: a case study. Clin Neuropsychol. 2009;23:1232-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Implications of this explicit-implicit discrepancy are discussed within the context of cognitive rehabilitation techniques that hold promise for more severely impaired patients...
  73. Glendenning K. Distribution of muscimol, QNB, and 5HT binding in the vertebrate diencephalon: a comparative study of eight mammals and three non-mammals. Microsc Res Tech. 2003;62:247-61 pubmed
    ..For muscaranic Ach, the labeling in marsupials differs from that in placentals. Primates differ from other species (nonmammals and mammals combined) in the amount of 5HT found in the ventral diencephalon and the hypothalamus. ..
  74. Yamazaki K, Wakabayashi N, Kobayashi T, Suzuki T. Effect of tooth loss on spatial memory and trkB-mRNA levels in rats. Hippocampus. 2008;18:542-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicated that, in rats, the spatial memory-linked trkB-mRNA was reduced in association with the tooth loss; this supports the hypothesis and suggests that teeth have a role in the prevention of spatial memory impairment. ..
  75. Liao C, Yen C. Functional connectivity of the secondary somatosensory cortex of the rat. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2008;291:960-73 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides further evidence to support the equivalent hierarchy of S1 and S2 in processing sensory information of the rat. ..
  76. Eckert U, Metzger C, Buchmann J, Kaufmann J, Osoba A, Li M, et al. Preferential networks of the mediodorsal nucleus and centromedian-parafascicular complex of the thalamus--a DTI tractography study. Hum Brain Mapp. 2012;33:2627-37 pubmed publisher
    Distinct thalamic nuclei, like the mediodorsal (MD) nucleus and the centromedian/parafascicular complex (CM/Pf), are embedded in different basal ganglia-thalamocortical loops, which were shown to integrate cognitive and emotional aspects ..
  77. Ni K, Hou X, Yang C, Dong P, Li Y, Zhang Y, et al. Selectively driving cholinergic fibers optically in the thalamic reticular nucleus promotes sleep. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    ..These findings stand in sharp contrast to previous reports of cholinergic activity driving arousal. Our results provide new insight into the mechanisms controlling sleep. ..
  78. Kouyialis A, Boviatsis E, Prezerakos G, Korfias S, Sakas D. Complex neurobehavioural syndrome due to bilateral thalamic glioma. Br J Neurosurg. 2004;18:534-7 pubmed
    ..allowed the manifestation of a complex neurobehavioural syndrome due to gradual involvement of several thalamic nuclei. An attempt is made to approach the complexity of symptoms according to the anatomical areas, nuclei and ..
  79. Olkowicz S, Turlejski K, Bartkowska K, Wielkopolska E, Djavadian R. Thalamic nuclei in the opossum Monodelphis domestica. J Chem Neuroanat. 2008;36:85-97 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to rodents, the lateral dorsal and lateral posterior nuclei in the opossum are poorly differentiated cytoarchitectonically...
  80. Kenigfest N, Belekhova M, Repérant J, Rio J, Ward R, Vesselkin N. The turtle thalamic anterior entopeduncular nucleus shares connectional and neurochemical characteristics with the mammalian thalamic reticular nucleus. J Chem Neuroanat. 2005;30:129-43 pubmed
    ..parvalbumin, and some of them were retrogradely labeled when the tracer was injected into the visual dorsal thalamic nuclei. Further experiments using double immunofluorescence revealed colocalization of GAD and parvalbumin in the ..
  81. Henry E, Catania K. Cortical, callosal, and thalamic connections from primary somatosensory cortex in the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber), with special emphasis on the connectivity of the incisor representation. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol. 2006;288:626-45 pubmed
  82. Halverson H, Freeman J. Medial auditory thalamic input to the lateral pontine nuclei is necessary for auditory eyeblink conditioning. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2010;93:92-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Phase 1 consisted of three training sessions with electrical stimulation of the medial auditory thalamic nuclei (MATN) paired with a periorbital shock unconditioned stimulus (US)...
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