subthalamic nucleus

Summary

Summary: Lens-shaped structure on the inner aspect of the INTERNAL CAPSULE. The SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS and pathways traversing this region are concerned with the integration of somatic motor function.

Top Publications

  1. Neagu B, Tsang E, Mazzella F, Hamani C, Moro E, Hodaie M, et al. Pedunculopontine nucleus evoked potentials from subthalamic nucleus stimulation in Parkinson's disease. Exp Neurol. 2013;250:221-7 pubmed publisher
    The effects of subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation on the pedunculopontine nucleus area (PPNR) evoked activities were examined in two patients with Parkinson's disease...
  2. Florin E, Dafsari H, Reck C, Barbe M, Pauls K, Maarouf M, et al. Modulation of local field potential power of the subthalamic nucleus during isometric force generation in patients with Parkinson's disease. Neuroscience. 2013;240:106-16 pubmed publisher
    Investigations of local field potentials of the subthalamic nucleus of patients with Parkinson's disease have provided evidence for pathologically exaggerated oscillatory beta-band activity (13-30 Hz) which is amenable to physiological ..
  3. Chu J, Jeong M, Song K, Lee H, Kim J, Kim Y, et al. Spontaneous synchronized burst firing of subthalamic nucleus neurons in rat brain slices measured on multi-electrode arrays. Neurosci Res. 2012;72:324-40 pubmed publisher
    ..It could be concluded that the STN neurons and their interconnectivity are essential requirements in the rat brain slice preparation to produce spontaneous synchronized burst firing. ..
  4. Brunenberg E, Moeskops P, Backes W, Pollo C, Cammoun L, Vilanova A, et al. Structural and resting state functional connectivity of the subthalamic nucleus: identification of motor STN parts and the hyperdirect pathway. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e39061 pubmed publisher
    ..Identification of the motor part of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) as part of the presurgical workup could minimize these adverse effects...
  5. Joundi R, Brittain J, Green A, Aziz T, Jenkinson N. High-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus selectively decreases central variance of rhythmic finger tapping in Parkinson's disease. Neuropsychologia. 2012;50:2460-6 pubmed publisher
    ..to further understand the role of the basal ganglia in motor timing by studying PD patients with implanted subthalamic nucleus (STN) electrodes...
  6. Schafer A, Forstmann B, Neumann J, Wharton S, Mietke A, Bowtell R, et al. Direct visualization of the subthalamic nucleus and its iron distribution using high-resolution susceptibility mapping. Hum Brain Mapp. 2012;33:2831-42 pubmed publisher
    Histological studies have shown a relatively high iron concentration in the subthalamic nucleus (STN). T2- and T2*-weighted sequences have previously been used to visualize the STN in vivo...
  7. Ledonne A, Mango D, Bernardi G, Berretta N, Mercuri N. A continuous high frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus determines a suppression of excitatory synaptic transmission in nigral dopaminergic neurons recorded in vitro. Exp Neurol. 2012;233:292-302 pubmed publisher
    High frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (HFS-STN) has been successfully introduced to treat symptoms of advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) (rigidity, tremor and akinesia)...
  8. Kahan J, Mancini L, Urner M, Friston K, Hariz M, Holl E, et al. Therapeutic subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation reverses cortico-thalamic coupling during voluntary movements in Parkinson's disease. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e50270 pubmed publisher
    Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) has become an accepted treatment for patients experiencing the motor complications of Parkinson's disease (PD)...
  9. Weiss D, Breit S, Hoppe J, Hauser A, Freudenstein D, Kruger R, et al. Subthalamic nucleus stimulation restores the efferent cortical drive to muscle in parallel to functional motor improvement. Eur J Neurosci. 2012;35:896-908 pubmed publisher
    ..precision grip task were performed in four perioperative sessions in 10 patients with PD undergoing subthalamic nucleus deep-brain stimulation: (i) 1 day before (D0); (ii) 1 day after (D1); (iii) 8 days after implantation of ..

More Information

Publications100

  1. Keuken M, Bazin P, Schafer A, Neumann J, Turner R, Forstmann B. Ultra-high 7T MRI of structural age-related changes of the subthalamic nucleus. J Neurosci. 2013;33:4896-900 pubmed publisher
    The subthalamic nucleus (STh) is a small subcortical structure which is involved in regulating motor as well as cognitive functions...
  2. Fan K, Baufreton J, Surmeier D, Chan C, Bevan M. Proliferation of external globus pallidus-subthalamic nucleus synapses following degeneration of midbrain dopamine neurons. J Neurosci. 2012;32:13718-28 pubmed publisher
    ..of activity in the reciprocally connected GABAergic external globus pallidus (GPe) and glutamatergic subthalamic nucleus (STN)...
  3. Harries A, Kausar J, Roberts S, Mocroft A, Hodson J, Pall H, et al. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus for advanced Parkinson disease using general anesthesia: long-term results. J Neurosurg. 2012;116:107-13 pubmed publisher
    The authors analyze long-term outcome in a substantial number of patients who underwent subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery under general anesthesia...
  4. Fridley J, Adams G, Sun P, York M, Atassi F, Lai E, et al. Effect of subthalamic nucleus or globus pallidus interna stimulation on oculomotor function in patients with Parkinson's disease. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2013;91:113-21 pubmed publisher
    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of either the globus pallidus interna (GPi) or subthalamic nucleus (STN) is similarly effective for treating somatomotor manifestations of Parkinson's disease (PD), but differences in how stimulation of each ..
  5. Merola A, Zibetti M, Artusi C, Marchisio A, Ricchi V, Rizzi L, et al. Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation outcome in young onset Parkinson's disease: a role for age at disease onset?. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2012;83:251-7 pubmed publisher
    Patients with young onset Parkinson's disease (YOPD) are often candidates for subthalamic nucleus-deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS)...
  6. Chabardes S, Polosan M, Krack P, Bastin J, Krainik A, David O, et al. Deep brain stimulation for obsessive-compulsive disorder: subthalamic nucleus target. World Neurosurg. 2013;80:S31.e1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..However, a recent interest has been developed toward the subthalamic nucleus (STN), a key structure of the basal ganglia that connects the motor, limbic, and associative systems...
  7. Pavlides A, Hogan S, Bogacz R. Improved conditions for the generation of beta oscillations in the subthalamic nucleus--globus pallidus network. Eur J Neurosci. 2012;36:2229-39 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the network model composed of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus (GP) developed by A. Nevado Holgado et al...
  8. Sidiropoulos C, Walsh R, Meaney C, Poon Y, Fallis M, Moro E. Low-frequency subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation for axial symptoms in advanced Parkinson's disease. J Neurol. 2013;260:2306-11 pubmed publisher
    ..High-frequency (?130 Hz) deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is highly efficacious in ameliorating appendicular symptoms in PD...
  9. Koshimizu Y, Fujiyama F, Nakamura K, Furuta T, Kaneko T. Quantitative analysis of axon bouton distribution of subthalamic nucleus neurons in the rat by single neuron visualization with a viral vector. J Comp Neurol. 2013;521:2125-46 pubmed publisher
    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) of the basal ganglia plays a key role in motor control, and STN efferents are known to mainly target the external segment of the globus pallidus (GPe), entopeduncular nucleus (Ep), and substantia nigra (SN) ..
  10. Bröer S, Backofen Wehrhahn B, Bankstahl M, Gey L, Gernert M, Loscher W. Vigabatrin for focal drug delivery in epilepsy: bilateral microinfusion into the subthalamic nucleus is more effective than intranigral or systemic administration in a rat seizure model. Neurobiol Dis. 2012;46:362-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, because the subthalamic nucleus (STN) plays a crucial role as a regulator of basal ganglia outflow by providing excitatory glutamatergic ..
  11. Baunez C, Yelnik J, Mallet L. Six questions on the subthalamic nucleus: lessons from animal models and from stimulated patients. Neuroscience. 2011;198:193-204 pubmed publisher
    Since the early 90s, the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has started to be the subject of an increasing interest not only in the community of the basal ganglia scientists but also for neurosurgeons and neurologists, thanks to the development ..
  12. Peron J, Frühholz S, Verin M, Grandjean D. Subthalamic nucleus: a key structure for emotional component synchronization in humans. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2013;37:358-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Now, however, deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), a neurosurgical treatment for Parkinson's disease and obsessive-compulsive disorder, is helping ..
  13. Kerl H, Gerigk L, Pechlivanis I, Al Zghloul M, Groden C, Nolte I. The subthalamic nucleus at 7.0 Tesla: evaluation of sequence and orientation for deep-brain stimulation. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2012;154:2051-62 pubmed publisher
    Deep-brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an accepted neurosurgical technique for the treatment of medication-resistant Parkinson's disease and other neurological disorders...
  14. Paek S, Lee J, Kim H, Kang D, Lim Y, Kim M, et al. Electrode position and the clinical outcome after bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation. J Korean Med Sci. 2011;26:1344-55 pubmed publisher
    We compared the surgical outcome with electrode positions after bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation surgery for Parkinson's disease. Fifty-seven patients treated with bilateral STN stimulations were included in this study...
  15. Reymann J, Naudet F, Pihan M, Saikali S, Laviolle B, Bentué Ferrer D. Subthalamic nucleus modulates social and anxogenic-like behaviors. Behav Brain Res. 2013;252:356-62 pubmed publisher
    In Parkinson's disease, global social maladjustment and anxiety are frequent after subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation and are generally considered to be linked with sociofamilial alterations induced by the motor effects of stimulation...
  16. Kantak K, Yager L, Brisotti M. Impact of medial orbital cortex and medial subthalamic nucleus inactivation, individually and together, on the maintenance of cocaine self-administration behavior in rats. Behav Brain Res. 2013;238:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..inactivation procedure was used to study the role of the medial orbital cortex (MO) and medial tip of the subthalamic nucleus (mSTN) in maintenance of cocaine self-administration studied under a second-order schedule of drug and cue ..
  17. Mathai A, Wichmann T, Smith Y. More than meets the eye-myelinated axons crowd the subthalamic nucleus. Mov Disord. 2013;28:1811-5 pubmed publisher
    High frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a successful treatment for patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD)...
  18. Massey L, Miranda M, Zrinzo L, Al Helli O, Parkes H, Thornton J, et al. High resolution MR anatomy of the subthalamic nucleus: imaging at 9.4 T with histological validation. Neuroimage. 2012;59:2035-44 pubmed publisher
    Using conventional MRI the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is not clearly defined. Our objective was to define the anatomy of the STN using 9.4 T MRI of post mortem tissue with histological validation...
  19. Campbell M, Black K, Weaver P, Lugar H, Videen T, Tabbal S, et al. Mood response to deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus in Parkinson's disease. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2012;24:28-36 pubmed publisher
    Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) improves motor functioning but has variable effects on mood...
  20. Tan S, Hartung H, Visser Vandewalle V, Steinbusch H, Temel Y, Sharp T. A combined in vivo neurochemical and electrophysiological analysis of the effect of high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus on 5-HT transmission. Exp Neurol. 2012;233:145-53 pubmed publisher
    ..disability in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) can be treated by high frequency stimulation (HFS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) but some patients experience psychiatric side-effects including depression, which is strongly linked ..
  21. Chowdhury R, Guitart Masip M, Lambert C, Dolan R, Düzel E. Structural integrity of the substantia nigra and subthalamic nucleus predicts flexibility of instrumental learning in older-age individuals. Neurobiol Aging. 2013;34:2261-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Older, but not younger, participants with greater structural integrity of the SN/VTA and the adjacent subthalamic nucleus could overcome this asymmetry...
  22. Favre E, Ballanger B, Thobois S, Broussolle E, Boulinguez P. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus, but not dopaminergic medication, improves proactive inhibitory control of movement initiation in Parkinson's disease. Neurotherapeutics. 2013;10:154-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Fourteen patients with dopaminergic (DA) medication and 11 with subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation were tested on and off treatment, and compared with 14 healthy controls...
  23. Atherton J, Menard A, Urbain N, Bevan M. Short-term depression of external globus pallidus-subthalamic nucleus synaptic transmission and implications for patterning subthalamic activity. J Neurosci. 2013;33:7130-44 pubmed publisher
    ..of activity in the reciprocally connected GABAergic external globus pallidus (GPe) and glutamatergic subthalamic nucleus (STN) are closely related to motor function...
  24. Buot A, Welter M, Karachi C, Pochon J, Bardinet E, Yelnik J, et al. Processing of emotional information in the human subthalamic nucleus. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2013;84:1331-8 pubmed publisher
    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an efficient target for treating patients with Parkinson's disease as well as patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) using high frequency stimulation (HFS)...
  25. Kita T, Kita H. The subthalamic nucleus is one of multiple innervation sites for long-range corticofugal axons: a single-axon tracing study in the rat. J Neurosci. 2012;32:5990-9 pubmed publisher
    The frontal cortex provides strong excitatory inputs to the subthalamic nucleus (STN), and these cortico-STN inputs play critical roles in the control of basal ganglia activity...
  26. Yan Z, Liu S, Li J, Wang Y, Gao L, Xie R, et al. Membrane resonance and its ionic mechanisms in rat subthalamic nucleus neurons. Neurosci Lett. 2012;506:160-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We studied the resonance characteristics of subthalamic nucleus (STN) neurons and their ionic mechanisms using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in rat brain slices...
  27. Zibetti M, Merola A, Rizzi L, Ricchi V, Angrisano S, Azzaro C, et al. Beyond nine years of continuous subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2011;26:2327-34 pubmed publisher
    Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus is an effective treatment for advanced Parkinson's disease...
  28. Follett K, Torres Russotto D. Deep brain stimulation of globus pallidus interna, subthalamic nucleus, and pedunculopontine nucleus for Parkinson's disease: which target?. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2012;18 Suppl 1:S165-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Standard DBS targets are globus pallidus interna (GPi) and subthalamic nucleus (STN). The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is being investigated as a novel target...
  29. Mure H, Tang C, Argyelan M, Ghilardi M, Kaplitt M, Dhawan V, et al. Improved sequence learning with subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation: evidence for treatment-specific network modulation. J Neurosci. 2012;32:2804-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Eight Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation underwent H(2)(15)O positron emission tomography (PET) imaging to measure ..
  30. Brittain J, Watkins K, Joundi R, Ray N, Holland P, Green A, et al. A role for the subthalamic nucleus in response inhibition during conflict. J Neurosci. 2012;32:13396-401 pubmed
    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a key node in the network that supports response inhibition...
  31. Pinkhardt E, Jurgens R, Lule D, Heimrath J, Ludolph A, Becker W, et al. Eye movement impairments in Parkinson's disease: possible role of extradopaminergic mechanisms. BMC Neurol. 2012;12:5 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the impairment of SPEM in PD results from a cortical, conceivably non-dopaminergic dysfunction, whereas patients' difficulty to rapidly execute AVGS might be related to their BG dysfunction. ..
  32. Zaghloul K, Weidemann C, Lega B, Jaggi J, Baltuch G, Kahana M. Neuronal activity in the human subthalamic nucleus encodes decision conflict during action selection. J Neurosci. 2012;32:2453-60 pubmed publisher
    The subthalamic nucleus (STN), which receives excitatory inputs from the cortex and has direct connections with the inhibitory pathways of the basal ganglia, is well positioned to efficiently mediate action selection...
  33. Mills K, Scherzer R, Starr P, Ostrem J. Weight change after globus pallidus internus or subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease and dystonia. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2012;90:386-93 pubmed publisher
    Weight gain has been described in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients after subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS).
  34. Greenbaum L, Israeli Korn S, Cohen O, Elincx Benizri S, Yahalom G, Kozlova E, et al. The LRRK2 G2019S mutation status does not affect the outcome of subthalamic stimulation in patients with Parkinson's disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2013;19:1053-6 pubmed publisher
    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an established therapy for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD)...
  35. Sáez Zea C, Escamilla Sevilla F, Katati M, Minguez Castellanos A. Cognitive effects of subthalamic nucleus stimulation in Parkinson's disease: a controlled study. Eur Neurol. 2012;68:361-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) improves motor function in selected patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) but can be associated with variable changes in cognitive functions...
  36. Witt K, Granert O, Daniels C, Volkmann J, Falk D, van Eimeren T, et al. Relation of lead trajectory and electrode position to neuropsychological outcomes of subthalamic neurostimulation in Parkinson's disease: results from a randomized trial. Brain. 2013;136:2109-19 pubmed publisher
    Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus improves motor functions in patients suffering from advanced Parkinson's disease but in some patients, it is also associated with a mild decline in cognitive functioning about one ..
  37. Tan H, Pogosyan A, Anzak A, Ashkan K, Bogdanovic M, Green A, et al. Complementary roles of different oscillatory activities in the subthalamic nucleus in coding motor effort in Parkinsonism. Exp Neurol. 2013;248:187-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we investigated the relationship between frequency-specific oscillatory activities in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and manual grips made with different efforts...
  38. Coxon J, Van Impe A, Wenderoth N, Swinnen S. Aging and inhibitory control of action: cortico-subthalamic connection strength predicts stopping performance. J Neurosci. 2012;32:8401-12 pubmed publisher
    ..network consisting of right inferior frontal cortex (r-IFC), pre-supplementary motor area (preSMA), and the subthalamic nucleus (STN)...
  39. Tykocki T, Nauman P, Koziara H, Mandat T. Microlesion effect as a predictor of the effectiveness of subthalamic deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2013;91:12-7 pubmed publisher
    Microlesion effect (MLE) is a commonly observed phenomenon after electrode insertion into the subthalamic nucleus (STN) for deep brain stimulation (DBS)...
  40. Lhommée E, Klinger H, Thobois S, Schmitt E, Ardouin C, Bichon A, et al. Subthalamic stimulation in Parkinson's disease: restoring the balance of motivated behaviours. Brain. 2012;135:1463-77 pubmed publisher
  41. Antoniades C, Carpenter R, Temel Y. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus in Parkinson's disease: similar improvements in saccadic and manual responses. Neuroreport. 2012;23:179-83 pubmed publisher
  42. Raoul S, Roualdes V, Deligny C, Leduc D, Lamy J, Lackmy Vallée A, et al. Subthalamic nucleus stimulation reverses spinal motoneuron activity in parkinsonian patients. Brain. 2012;135:139-47 pubmed publisher
  43. de Hemptinne C, Ryapolova Webb E, Air E, Garcia P, Miller K, Ojemann J, et al. Exaggerated phase-amplitude coupling in the primary motor cortex in Parkinson disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:4780-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Excessive coupling may be reduced by therapeutic subthalamic nucleus stimulation. Peaks in M1 ?-amplitude are coupled to, and precede, the subthalamic nucleus ?-trough...
  44. Tachibana Y, Iwamuro H, Kita H, Takada M, Nambu A. Subthalamo-pallidal interactions underlying parkinsonian neuronal oscillations in the primate basal ganglia. Eur J Neurosci. 2011;34:1470-84 pubmed publisher
    ..abnormal neuronal oscillations (8-15?Hz) in the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi) and the subthalamic nucleus (STN) during the ON state when Parkinsonian signs were alleviated and during l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia...
  45. Haynes W, Haber S. The organization of prefrontal-subthalamic inputs in primates provides an anatomical substrate for both functional specificity and integration: implications for Basal Ganglia models and deep brain stimulation. J Neurosci. 2013;33:4804-14 pubmed publisher
    The identification of a hyperdirect cortico-subthalamic nucleus connection highlighted the important role of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in regulating behavior. However, this pathway was shown primarily from motor areas...
  46. Karlsson F, Blomstedt P, Olofsson K, Linder J, Nordh E, Van Doorn J. Control of phonatory onset and offset in Parkinson patients following deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus and caudal zona incerta. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2012;18:824-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study examined the effect of subthalamic nucleus STN-DBS (n = 8, aged 51-72 yrs; median = 63 yrs) and caudal Zona incerta cZi-DBS (n = 8, aged 49-71..
  47. Lambert C, Zrinzo L, Nagy Z, Lutti A, Hariz M, Foltynie T, et al. Confirmation of functional zones within the human subthalamic nucleus: patterns of connectivity and sub-parcellation using diffusion weighted imaging. Neuroimage. 2012;60:83-94 pubmed publisher
    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a small, glutamatergic nucleus situated in the diencephalon. A critical component of normal motor function, it has become a key target for deep brain stimulation in the treatment of Parkinson's disease...
  48. Little S, Pogosyan A, Neal S, Zavala B, Zrinzo L, Hariz M, et al. Adaptive deep brain stimulation in advanced Parkinson disease. Ann Neurol. 2013;74:449-57 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested BCI-controlled adaptive DBS (aDBS) of the subthalamic nucleus in 8 PD patients...
  49. Little S, Brown P. What brain signals are suitable for feedback control of deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease?. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2012;1265:9-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, whether brain signals are causally important needs to be established before stimulation can be specifically patterned rather than delivered at empirically defined high frequency. ..
  50. Lefaucheur R, Derrey S, Martinaud O, Wallon D, Chastan N, Gerardin E, et al. Early verbal fluency decline after STN implantation: is it a cognitive microlesion effect?. J Neurol Sci. 2012;321:96-9 pubmed publisher
    Worsening of verbal fluency is reported after subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease. It is postulated that these changes could reflect microlesion consecutive to the surgical procedure itself...
  51. Yamanaka T, Ishii F, Umemura A, Miyata M, Horiba M, Oka Y, et al. Temporary deterioration of executive function after subthalamic deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2012;114:347-51 pubmed publisher
    ..function has been shown in Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients undergoing Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) of the Subthalamic Nucleus (STN)...
  52. Tass P, Qin L, Hauptmann C, Dovero S, Bezard E, Boraud T, et al. Coordinated reset has sustained aftereffects in Parkinsonian monkeys. Ann Neurol. 2012;72:816-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that coordinated reset neuromodulation of the subthalamic nucleus has both acute and sustained long-lasting aftereffects on motor function in parkinsonian nonhuman primates...
  53. Hirschmann J, Hartmann C, Butz M, Hoogenboom N, Ozkurt T, Elben S, et al. A direct relationship between oscillatory subthalamic nucleus-cortex coupling and rest tremor in Parkinson's disease. Brain. 2013;136:3659-70 pubmed publisher
    ..We simultaneously recorded local field potentials from the subthalamic nucleus, the magnetoencephalogram and the electromyogram of forearm muscles in 11 patients with Parkinson's disease ..
  54. Tan H, Pogosyan A, Anzak A, Foltynie T, Limousin P, Zrinzo L, et al. Frequency specific activity in subthalamic nucleus correlates with hand bradykinesia in Parkinson's disease. Exp Neurol. 2013;240:122-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore recorded from the subthalamic nucleus region (STNr) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) as they made maximal voluntary grips...
  55. Li Q, Ke Y, Chan D, Qian Z, Yung K, Ko H, et al. Therapeutic deep brain stimulation in Parkinsonian rats directly influences motor cortex. Neuron. 2012;76:1030-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This activity may be closely related to an oscillation between subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus...
  56. Schuepbach W, Rau J, Knudsen K, Volkmann J, Krack P, Timmermann L, et al. Neurostimulation for Parkinson's disease with early motor complications. N Engl J Med. 2013;368:610-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Subthalamic stimulation was superior to medical therapy in patients with Parkinson's disease and early motor complications. (Funded by the German Ministry of Research and others; EARLYSTIM ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00354133.). ..
  57. Tsang E, Hamani C, Moro E, Mazzella F, Saha U, Lozano A, et al. Subthalamic deep brain stimulation at individualized frequencies for Parkinson disease. Neurology. 2012;78:1930-8 pubmed publisher
    The oscillation model of Parkinson disease (PD) states that, in the subthalamic nucleus (STN), increased ? (4-10 Hz) and ? (11-30 Hz) frequencies were associated with worsening whereas ? frequencies (31-100 Hz) were associated with ..
  58. Litvak V, Eusebio A, Jha A, Oostenveld R, Barnes G, Foltynie T, et al. Movement-related changes in local and long-range synchronization in Parkinson's disease revealed by simultaneous magnetoencephalography and intracranial recordings. J Neurosci. 2012;32:10541-53 pubmed publisher
    ..and, if so, in what way? We acquired simultaneously magnetoencephalography and direct recordings from the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in 17 PD patients...
  59. Ruzicka F, Jech R, Novakova L, Urgosik D, Vymazal J, Ruzicka E. Weight gain is associated with medial contact site of subthalamic stimulation in Parkinson's disease. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38020 pubmed publisher
    ..of our study was to assess changes in body-weight in relation to active electrode contact position in the subthalamic nucleus. Regular body weight measurements were done in 20 patients with advanced Parkinson's disease within a ..
  60. Antoniades C, Buttery P, Fitzgerald J, Barker R, Carpenter R, Watts C. Deep brain stimulation: eye movements reveal anomalous effects of electrode placement and stimulation. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32830 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent work has shown that DBS of the subthalamic nucleus in Parkinson's disease greatly reduces the time it takes the eyes to make a saccade in response to a visual ..
  61. Joundi R, Brittain J, Green A, Aziz T, Brown P, Jenkinson N. Oscillatory activity in the subthalamic nucleus during arm reaching in Parkinson's disease. Exp Neurol. 2012;236:319-26 pubmed publisher
    ..However, their roles remain unclear. Here, we record local field potential activity from the region of the subthalamic nucleus during movement of the contralateral limb in 11 patients with Parkinson's disease...
  62. Tripoliti E, Strong L, Hickey F, Foltynie T, Zrinzo L, Candelario J, et al. Treatment of dysarthria following subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2011;26:2434-6 pubmed publisher
    Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) is an established treatment for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Speech impairment is a frequent side effect of the surgery...
  63. Cavanagh J, Wiecki T, Cohen M, Figueroa C, Samanta J, Sherman S, et al. Subthalamic nucleus stimulation reverses mediofrontal influence over decision threshold. Nat Neurosci. 2011;14:1462-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Although medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is broadly implicated in effortful control over behavior, the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is specifically thought to contribute by acting as a brake on cortico-striatal function during ..
  64. Daniels C, Krack P, Volkmann J, Raethjen J, Pinsker M, Kloss M, et al. Is improvement in the quality of life after subthalamic nucleus stimulation in Parkinson's disease predictable?. Mov Disord. 2011;26:2516-21 pubmed publisher
    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) significantly improves quality of life (QoL) in PD. However, QoL fails to improve in a relevant proportion of patients...
  65. Ray N, Brittain J, Holland P, Joundi R, Stein J, Aziz T, et al. The role of the subthalamic nucleus in response inhibition: evidence from local field potential recordings in the human subthalamic nucleus. Neuroimage. 2012;60:271-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Cortical and sub-cortical structures, such as the subthalamic nucleus (STN), that are active during attempts to inhibit action are thought to contribute to a 'stop-process' that ..
  66. Kase D, Inoue T, Imoto K. Roles of the subthalamic nucleus and subthalamic HCN channels in absence seizures. J Neurophysiol. 2012;107:393-406 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the membrane excitability in subthalamic nucleus (STN) neurons was enhanced in tottering mice, which resulted from reduced hyperpolarization-activated ..
  67. Ratcliff R, Frank M. Reinforcement-based decision making in corticostriatal circuits: mutual constraints by neurocomputational and diffusion models. Neural Comput. 2012;24:1186-229 pubmed publisher
    ..This profile captures the role and dynamics of the subthalamic nucleus in BG circuitry, and as such, parametric modulations of projection strengths from this nucleus were ..
  68. Walker R, Moore C, Davies G, Dirling L, Koch R, Meshul C. Effects of subthalamic nucleus lesions and stimulation upon corticostriatal afferents in the 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32919 pubmed publisher
    ..disease and may respond to neurosurgical interventions, specifically stimulation or lesioning of the subthalamic nucleus (STN)...
  69. Lohnes C, Earhart G. Effect of subthalamic deep brain stimulation on turning kinematics and related saccadic eye movements in Parkinson disease. Exp Neurol. 2012;236:389-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Eleven subjects with PD and DBS of the subthalamic nucleus performed a seated voluntary saccade task and standing 180° turns in DBS OFF and DBS ON conditions...
  70. Odekerken V, van Laar T, Staal M, Mosch A, Hoffmann C, Nijssen P, et al. Subthalamic nucleus versus globus pallidus bilateral deep brain stimulation for advanced Parkinson's disease (NSTAPS study): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Neurol. 2013;12:37-44 pubmed publisher
    ..pallidus pars interna (GPi) deep brain stimulation (DBS) gives greater functional improvement than does subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS...
  71. Shimamoto S, Ryapolova Webb E, Ostrem J, Galifianakis N, Miller K, Starr P. Subthalamic nucleus neurons are synchronized to primary motor cortex local field potentials in Parkinson's disease. J Neurosci. 2013;33:7220-33 pubmed publisher
    ..implantation surgery, we use the novel technique of subdural electrocorticography in combination with subthalamic nucleus (STN) single-unit recording to study basal ganglia-cortex interactions at the millisecond time scale...
  72. Quintana A, Sgambato Faure V, Savasta M. Effects of L-DOPA and STN-HFS dyskinesiogenic treatments on NR2B regulation in basal ganglia in the rat model of Parkinson's disease. Neurobiol Dis. 2012;48:379-90 pubmed publisher
    ..High-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-HFS) alleviates parkinsonian motor symptoms and indirectly improves dyskinesia by decreasing L-DOPA ..
  73. Abosch A, Lanctin D, Onaran I, Eberly L, Spaniol M, Ince N. Long-term recordings of local field potentials from implanted deep brain stimulation electrodes. Neurosurgery. 2012;71:804-14 pubmed
    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus is an effective treatment for Parkinson disease...
  74. Priori A, Foffani G, Rossi L, Marceglia S. Adaptive deep brain stimulation (aDBS) controlled by local field potential oscillations. Exp Neurol. 2013;245:77-86 pubmed publisher
  75. Anzak A, Tan H, Pogosyan A, Foltynie T, Limousin P, Zrinzo L, et al. Subthalamic nucleus activity optimizes maximal effort motor responses in Parkinson's disease. Brain. 2012;135:2766-78 pubmed publisher
    ..a striking correlation between both theta/alpha (5-12?Hz) and high-gamma/high-frequency (55-375 Hz) subthalamic nucleus activity and force measures, which explained close to 70% of interindividual variance in maximal motor ..
  76. Hilliard J, Frysinger R, Elias W. Effective subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation sites may differ for tremor, bradykinesia and gait disturbances in Parkinson's disease. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2011;89:357-64 pubmed publisher
    b>Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD)...
  77. Navailles S, De Deurwaerdère P. Contribution of serotonergic transmission to the motor and cognitive effects of high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus or levodopa in Parkinson's disease. Mol Neurobiol. 2012;45:173-85 pubmed publisher
    ..3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L: -DOPA), the gold standard medication and high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (HFS-STN), can lead to cognitive and mood alterations...
  78. Oswal A, Brown P, Litvak V. Movement related dynamics of subthalmo-cortical alpha connectivity in Parkinson's disease. Neuroimage. 2013;70:132-42 pubmed publisher
    ..magnetoencephalographic (MEG) and local field potential (LFP) recordings from the region of the subthalamic nucleus (STNr) has characterised resting patterns of connectivity in the alpha and beta frequency bands and their ..
  79. Jech R, Mueller K, Urgosik D, Sieger T, Holiga S, Ruzicka F, et al. The subthalamic microlesion story in Parkinson's disease: electrode insertion-related motor improvement with relative cortico-subcortical hypoactivation in fMRI. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e49056 pubmed publisher
    Electrode implantation into the subthalamic nucleus for deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with a temporary motor improvement occurring prior to neurostimulation...
  80. Zheng F, Lammert K, Nixdorf Bergweiler B, Steigerwald F, Volkmann J, Alzheimer C. Axonal failure during high frequency stimulation of rat subthalamic nucleus. J Physiol. 2011;589:2781-93 pubmed publisher
    ..In PD, DBS targets predominantly the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and relieves motor deficits only at high frequency (>100 Hz)...
  81. Bocková M, Chladek J, Jurak P, Halamek J, Balaz M, Rektor I. Involvement of the subthalamic nucleus and globus pallidus internus in attention. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2011;118:1235-45 pubmed publisher
    ..of cognitive event-related potentials (ERPs) and event-related de/synchronizations (ERD/S) in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus internus (GPi)...
  82. Tripoliti E, Zrinzo L, Martinez Torres I, Tisch S, Frost E, Borrell E, et al. Effects of contact location and voltage amplitude on speech and movement in bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation. Mov Disord. 2008;23:2377-83 pubmed publisher
    b>Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is particularly effective in improving limb symptoms in Parkinson's disease. However, speech shows a variable response...
  83. Mirabella G, Iaconelli S, Romanelli P, Modugno N, Lena F, Manfredi M, et al. Deep brain stimulation of subthalamic nuclei affects arm response inhibition in Parkinson's patients. Cereb Cortex. 2012;22:1124-32 pubmed publisher
    ..motor area, which would control the neural processes for movement inhibition acting through the right subthalamic nucleus (STN)...
  84. Rosa M, Giannicola G, Servello D, Marceglia S, Pacchetti C, Porta M, et al. Subthalamic local field beta oscillations during ongoing deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease in hyperacute and chronic phases. Neurosignals. 2011;19:151-62 pubmed publisher
    In the past years, local field potential (LFP) signals recorded from the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in patients undergoing deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson's disease (PD) disclosed that DBS has a controversial effect on STN beta ..
  85. Cho Z, Min H, Oh S, Han J, Park C, Chi J, et al. Direct visualization of deep brain stimulation targets in Parkinson disease with the use of 7-tesla magnetic resonance imaging. J Neurosurg. 2010;113:639-47 pubmed publisher
    ..With 7-T imaging, distinct images of the brain were obtained, including the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and internal globus pallidus (GPi). Compared with the 1...
  86. Shon Y, Lee K, Goerss S, Kim I, Kimble C, Van Gompel J, et al. High frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus evokes striatal dopamine release in a large animal model of human DBS neurosurgery. Neurosci Lett. 2010;475:136-40 pubmed publisher
    b>Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) ameliorates motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease, but the precise mechanism is still unknown...
  87. Le Jeune F, Drapier D, Bourguignon A, Peron J, Mesbah H, Drapier S, et al. Subthalamic nucleus stimulation in Parkinson disease induces apathy: a PET study. Neurology. 2009;73:1746-51 pubmed publisher
    Apathy may be induced by subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) in Parkinson disease (PD)...
  88. Blahak C, Bazner H, Capelle H, Wohrle J, Weigel R, Hennerici M, et al. Rapid response of parkinsonian tremor to STN-DBS changes: direct modulation of oscillatory basal ganglia activity?. Mov Disord. 2009;24:1221-5 pubmed publisher
    Although deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has proved to be effective for tremor and other cardinal symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), the precise mechanisms of action of DBS are still unclear...
  89. Kim H, Paek S, Kim J, Lee J, Lim Y, Kim D, et al. Two-year follow-up on the effect of unilateral subthalamic deep brain stimulation in highly asymmetric Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2009;24:329-35 pubmed publisher
    ..At 24 months, all the patients were considering the second-side surgery. Our results suggest that bilateral STN DBS should be considered even in highly asymmetric PD. ..
  90. Paek S, Han J, Lee J, Kim C, Jeon B, Kim D. Electrode position determined by fused images of preoperative and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging and surgical outcome after subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation. Neurosurgery. 2008;63:925-36; discussion 936-7 pubmed publisher
    The electrode position is important to the surgical outcome after subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS)...
  91. Henning J, Strauss U, Wree A, Gimsa J, Rolfs A, Benecke R, et al. Differential astroglial activation in 6-hydroxydopamine models of Parkinson's disease. Neurosci Res. 2008;62:246-53 pubmed publisher
    ..e. the globus pallidus (GP) and the subthalamic nucleus (STN) following 6-OHDA lesion of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) or the striatum...