basal nucleus of meynert


Summary: A group of nerve cells in the SUBSTANTIA INNOMINATA that has wide projections to the NEOCORTEX and is rich in ACETYLCHOLINE and CHOLINE ACETYLTRANSFERASE. In PARKINSON DISEASE and ALZHEIMER DISEASE the nucleus undergoes degeneration.

Top Publications

  1. Knox D, Berntson G. Effect of nucleus basalis magnocellularis cholinergic lesions on fear-like and anxiety-like behavior. Behav Neurosci. 2006;120:307-12 pubmed
    ..The results of the study suggest that NBM/SI cholinergic neurons may be important in mediating selective aspects of aversive states. ..
  2. Kilgard M. Cholinergic modulation of skill learning and plasticity. Neuron. 2003;38:678-80 pubmed
    ..New results indicate that nucleus basalis lesions prevent motor cortex map plasticity and impair skill learning. These results strengthen the hypothesis that nucleus basalis gates neural plasticity necessary for instrumental learning. ..
  3. Gericke C, Schulte Herbrüggen O, Arendt T, Hellweg R. Chronic alcohol intoxication in rats leads to a strong but transient increase in NGF levels in distinct brain regions. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2006;113:813-20 pubmed
    ..These results support the idea of an endogenous neuroprotective mechanism acting through a transient NGF induction followed by a decrease in NGF-levels during the course of further neuronal degeneration. ..
  4. Horvath K, Harkany T, Mulder J, Koolhaas J, Luiten P, Meerlo P. Neonatal handling increases sensitivity to acute neurodegeneration in adult rats. J Neurobiol. 2004;60:463-72 pubmed
    ..The present results provide evidence for an enhanced vulnerability of postnatally handled rats to acute neurodegeneration in contrast to the previously reported attenuation of spontaneous aging-related neurodegenerative processes. ..
  5. Eggermann E, Serafin M, Bayer L, Machard D, Saint Mleux B, Jones B, et al. Orexins/hypocretins excite basal forebrain cholinergic neurones. Neuroscience. 2001;108:177-81 pubmed
    ..1999). These results suggest that the orexins excite cholinergic neurones that release acetylcholine in the cerebral cortex and thereby contribute to the cortical activation associated with wakefulness. ..
  6. Shu S, Bao X, Ning Q, Wu Y, Wang J, Leonard B. New component of the limbic system: Marginal division of the neostriatum that links the limbic system to the basal nucleus of Meynert. J Neurosci Res. 2003;71:751-7 pubmed
    ..In a previous study, c-fos expression showed functional connections between the MrD, basal nucleus of Meynert (NBM) and limbic system (Shu et al., 1988a, 1999)...
  7. Moser K, Humpel C. Vascular endothelial growth factor counteracts NMDA-induced cell death of adult cholinergic neurons in rat basal nucleus of Meynert. Brain Res Bull. 2005;65:125-31 pubmed
    ..counteract the excitotoxic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced cell death of cholinergic neurons of the basal nucleus of Meynert in vivo in adult rats...
  8. Sassin I, Schultz C, Thal D, Rüb U, Arai K, Braak E, et al. Evolution of Alzheimer's disease-related cytoskeletal changes in the basal nucleus of Meynert. Acta Neuropathol. 2000;100:259-69 pubmed
    ..the evolution of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related pathology in a subcortical predilection site, the basal nucleus of Meynert (bnM), which is a major source of cortical cholinergic innervation...
  9. Ridley R, Baker H, Leow Dyke A, Cummings R. Further analysis of the effects of immunotoxic lesions of the basal nucleus of Meynert reveals substantial impairment on visual discrimination learning in monkeys. Brain Res Bull. 2005;65:433-42 pubmed which marmoset monkeys received immunotoxic lesions of the cortical cholinergic projections from the basal nucleus of Meynert (NBM) bilaterally and/or in combination with immunotoxic lesions of other parts of the cholinergic system ..

More Information

Publications141 found, 100 shown here

  1. McGaughy J, Dalley J, Morrison C, Everitt B, Robbins T. Selective behavioral and neurochemical effects of cholinergic lesions produced by intrabasalis infusions of 192 IgG-saporin on attentional performance in a five-choice serial reaction time task. J Neurosci. 2002;22:1905-13 pubmed
    ..These data provide the first direct evidence for a relationship between selective damage in the basal forebrain with decreased cortical ACh efflux and impaired attentional function. ..
  2. Conner J, Culberson A, Packowski C, Chiba A, Tuszynski M. Lesions of the Basal forebrain cholinergic system impair task acquisition and abolish cortical plasticity associated with motor skill learning. Neuron. 2003;38:819-29 pubmed
    ..These results support the hypothesis that the basal forebrain cholinergic system may be specifically implicated in forms of learning requiring plasticity of cortical representations. ..
  3. Sarter M, Hasselmo M, Bruno J, Givens B. Unraveling the attentional functions of cortical cholinergic inputs: interactions between signal-driven and cognitive modulation of signal detection. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 2005;48:98-111 pubmed
  4. Counts S, Mufson E. The role of nerve growth factor receptors in cholinergic basal forebrain degeneration in prodromal Alzheimer disease. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2005;64:263-72 pubmed
    ..Therapeutic neurotrophic intervention might delay or prevent NB neuron degeneration and preserve cholinergic cortical function during prodromal AD. ..
  5. Zassler B, Humpel C. Transplantation of NGF secreting primary monocytes counteracts NMDA-induced cell death of rat cholinergic neurons in vivo. Exp Neurol. 2006;198:391-400 pubmed
    ..secreting NGF may counteract N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced cell death of cholinergic neurons of the basal nucleus of Meynert (nBM) in vivo. Monocytes were purified by indirect magnetic separation from rat blood...
  6. Goard M, Dan Y. Basal forebrain activation enhances cortical coding of natural scenes. Nat Neurosci. 2009;12:1444-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the basal forebrain neuromodulatory circuit, which is known to be activated during aroused and attentive states, acts through both local and distributed mechanisms to improve sensory coding. ..
  7. Takata N, Mishima T, Hisatsune C, Nagai T, Ebisui E, Mikoshiba K, et al. Astrocyte calcium signaling transforms cholinergic modulation to cortical plasticity in vivo. J Neurosci. 2011;31:18155-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data present coherent lines of in vivo evidence for astrocytic involvement in cortical plasticity. These findings suggest an unexpected role of astrocytes as a gate for cholinergic plasticity in the cortex. ..
  8. Chen N, Sugihara H, Sharma J, Perea G, Petravicz J, Le C, et al. Nucleus basalis-enabled stimulus-specific plasticity in the visual cortex is mediated by astrocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:E2832-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these findings reveal a unique and surprising role for astrocytes in NB-induced stimulus-specific plasticity in the cerebral cortex. ..
  9. Weis C, Marksteiner J, Humpel C. Nerve growth factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor restore the cholinergic neuronal phenotype in organotypic brain slices of the basal nucleus of Meynert. Neuroscience. 2001;102:129-38 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate whether cholinergic neurons of the basal nucleus of Meynert can be cultured in rat organotypic slices, and if nerve growth factor and glial cell line-derived ..
  10. McLin D, Miasnikov A, Weinberger N. Induction of behavioral associative memory by stimulation of the nucleus basalis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:4002-7 pubmed
    ..The discovery of memory induction by direct activation of the NB supports the NB-memory hypothesis and provides a potentially powerful way to control and investigate neural mechanisms of memory. ..
  11. Zassler B, Weis C, Humpel C. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha triggers cell death of sensitized potassium chloride-stimulated cholinergic neurons. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2003;113:78-85 pubmed
    ..was to study the role of TNF-alpha in the survival and nerve fiber growth of cholinergic neurons of the basal nucleus of Meynert in organotypic brain slices and in adult rats...
  12. Moser K, Schmidt Kastner R, Hinterhuber H, Humpel C. Brain capillaries and cholinergic neurons persist in organotypic brain slices in the absence of blood flow. Eur J Neurosci. 2003;18:85-94 pubmed
    ..Cholinergic neurons survived in slices of the basal nucleus of Meynert; however, hyperthermia but not acidosis markedly decreased their number...
  13. Chudasama Y, Dalley J, Nathwani F, Bouger P, Robbins T, Nathwani F. Cholinergic modulation of visual attention and working memory: dissociable effects of basal forebrain 192-IgG-saporin lesions and intraprefrontal infusions of scopolamine. Learn Mem. 2004;11:78-86 pubmed
    ..Together, these findings implicate the nBM cortical cholinergic system in both attentional and mnemonic processing. ..
  14. Henny P, Jones B. Projections from basal forebrain to prefrontal cortex comprise cholinergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic inputs to pyramidal cells or interneurons. Eur J Neurosci. 2008;27:654-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Through distinct glutamatergic, GABAergic and cholinergic projections, the BF can thus influence cortical activity in a diverse manner. ..
  15. Pirchl M, Ullrich C, Humpel C. Differential effects of short- and long-term hyperhomocysteinaemia on cholinergic neurons, spatial memory and microbleedings in vivo in rats. Eur J Neurosci. 2010;32:1516-27 pubmed publisher
    ..HHcy significantly reduced the number of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive neurons in the basal nucleus of Meynert and ChAT-positive axons in the cortex only after short-term but not long-term treatment, while ..
  16. He J, Hoffman S, Stein D. Allopregnanolone, a progesterone metabolite, enhances behavioral recovery and decreases neuronal loss after traumatic brain injury. Restor Neurol Neurosci. 2004;22:19-31 pubmed
  17. Loopuijt L, Zahm D. Synaptologic and fine structural features distinguishing a subset of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons embedded in the dense intrinsic fiber network of the caudal extended amygdala. J Comp Neurol. 2006;498:93-111 pubmed
    ..The implications of these findings for interaction of fear, anxiety, and attention are considered. ..
  18. Szego E, Csorba A, Janaky T, Kekesi K, Abraham I, Mórotz G, et al. Effects of estrogen on beta-amyloid-induced cholinergic cell death in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis. Neuroendocrinology. 2011;93:90-105 pubmed publisher
    ..Our experiments suggest that regulation of the MAPK pathway, mitochondrial pH and NO production may all contribute to A? toxicity, and their regulation can be prevented partly by estrogen pretreatment. ..
  19. Kuba H. Structural tuning and plasticity of the axon initial segment in auditory neurons. J Physiol. 2012;590:5571-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These structural tunings and plasticities of the AIS are thus indispensable for the function of the auditory circuits in both normal and pathological conditions. ..
  20. Zhang Y, Mei J, Lu S, Zhao Z. Age-related alterations in responses of nucleus basalis magnocellularis neurons to peripheral nociceptive stimuli. Brain Res. 2002;948:47-55 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that there might be some functional changes in the nbM neurons and its projection pathway with aging, which impair their responsive ability to peripheral nociceptive stimuli. ..
  21. Salehi A, Delcroix J, Belichenko P, Zhan K, Wu C, Valletta J, et al. Increased App expression in a mouse model of Down's syndrome disrupts NGF transport and causes cholinergic neuron degeneration. Neuron. 2006;51:29-42 pubmed
    ..Our study thus provides evidence for a pathogenic mechanism for DS in which increased expression of App, in the context of trisomy, causes abnormal transport of NGF and cholinergic neurodegeneration. ..
  22. Holland P. Disconnection of the amygdala central nucleus and the substantia innominata/nucleus basalis magnocellularis disrupts performance in a sustained attention task. Behav Neurosci. 2007;121:80-9 pubmed
    ..The lesions impaired performance under conditions of increased attentional load, suggesting that a circuit that includes CeA and SI/nBM regulates these aspects of attention. ..
  23. Nimmrich V, Szabo R, Nyakas C, Granic I, Reymann K, Schröder U, et al. Inhibition of Calpain Prevents N-Methyl-D-aspartate-Induced Degeneration of the Nucleus Basalis and Associated Behavioral Dysfunction. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008;327:343-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, calpain inhibition may be a promising and novel approach for the treatment of various neurodegenerative disorders. ..
  24. Ciric J, Lazic K, Petrovic J, Kalauzi A, Saponjic J. Age-related disorders of sleep and motor control in the rat models of functionally distinct cholinergic neuropathology. Behav Brain Res. 2016;301:273-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study provided evidence of distinct REM sleep disorders and sleep state related cortical drives as the signs of aging onset during functionally distinct cholinergic neuropathologies (NB lesion vs. PPT lesion). ..
  25. Salehi A, Ocampo M, Verhaagen J, Swaab D. P75 neurotrophin receptor in the nucleus basalis of meynert in relation to age, sex, and Alzheimer's disease. Exp Neurol. 2000;161:245-58 pubmed
  26. McGaugh J, McIntyre C, Power A. Amygdala modulation of memory consolidation: interaction with other brain systems. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2002;78:539-52 pubmed
    ..These findings provide strong support for the hypothesis that the BLA plays a critical role in regulating the consolidation of lasting memories of significant experiences. ..
  27. Balducci C, Nurra M, Pietropoli A, Samanin R, Carli M. Reversal of visual attention dysfunction after AMPA lesions of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) by the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil and by a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY 100635. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2003;167:28-36 pubmed
    ..Blockade of 5-HT(1A) receptors may be useful to treat some aspects of attentional dysfunction in AD. ..
  28. Schnider A, Bonvallat J, Emond H, Leemann B. Reality confusion in spontaneous confabulation. Neurology. 2005;65:1117-9 pubmed
    ..The findings support the theory that the defect causing spontaneous confabulation precedes conscious memory processing. ..
  29. Azam L, Winzer Serhan U, Leslie F. Co-expression of alpha7 and beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit mRNAs within rat brain cholinergic neurons. Neuroscience. 2003;119:965-77 pubmed
    ..There may also be differential nAChR regulation of cholinergic and non-cholinergic cells within the mesopontine tegmentum that are implicated in acquisition of nicotine self-administration. ..
  30. Hotta H, Masamoto K, Uchida S, Sekiguchi Y, Takuwa H, Kawaguchi H, et al. Layer-specific dilation of penetrating arteries induced by stimulation of the nucleus basalis of Meynert in the mouse frontal cortex. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2013;33:1440-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that activation of the NBM dilates cortical penetrating arteries in a layer-specific manner in magnitude and latency, presumably related to the density of cholinergic nerve terminals from the NBM. ..
  31. Takata N, Nagai T, Ozawa K, Oe Y, Mikoshiba K, Hirase H. Cerebral blood flow modulation by Basal forebrain or whisker stimulation can occur independently of large cytosolic Ca2+ signaling in astrocytes. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e66525 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that neural activity-driven CBF modulation could occur without large cytosolic increases of Ca2+ in astrocytes. ..
  32. Foidl B, Ucar B, Schwarz A, Rebelo A, Pandit A, Humpel C. Nerve growth factor released from collagen scaffolds protects axotomized cholinergic neurons of the basal nucleus of Meynert in organotypic brain slices. J Neurosci Methods. 2017;295:77-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Organotypic brain slices of the basal nucleus of Meynert (nBM) are a valuable tool to study cell death of axotomized cholinergic neurons, as well as protective ..
  33. Ferencz I, Leanza G, Nanobashvili A, Kokaia Z, Kokaia M, Lindvall O. Septal cholinergic neurons suppress seizure development in hippocampal kindling in rats: comparison with noradrenergic neurons. Neuroscience. 2001;102:819-32 pubmed
    ..This shows that, depending on the location of the primary epileptic focus, i.e. the site of stimulation, basal forebrain cholinergic neurons operate through different subsystems to counteract seizure development in kindling. ..
  34. McMillan P, LeMaster A, Dorsa D. Tamoxifen enhances choline acetyltransferase mRNA expression in rat basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2002;103:140-5 pubmed
    ..These results indicate tamoxifen has estrogenic properties with respect to cholinergic neurons, suggesting a previously unidentified effect of this agent in the CNS. ..
  35. Zhang Y, Lu S, Ji Y, Wang G, Zhao Z, Mei J. Age-related alterations in responses of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis neurons to frontal cortex stimulation in rats. Neurosci Lett. 2002;330:285-9 pubmed
    ..The mean peak-firing rate of exciting phase was gradually reduced with aging. These findings indicate that there might be some functional changes in the nbM neurons with aging. ..
  36. Lambiase A, Pagani L, Di Fausto V, Sposato V, Coassin M, Bonini S, et al. Nerve growth factor eye drop administrated on the ocular surface of rodents affects the nucleus basalis and septum: biochemical and structural evidence. Brain Res. 2007;1127:45-51 pubmed
    ..The present findings suggest that eye NGF application can represent an alternative route to prevent degeneration of NGF-receptive neurons involved in disorders such as Alzheimer and Parkinson. ..
  37. Horvath K, Abrahám I, Harkany T, Meerlo P, Bohus B, Nyakas C, et al. Postnatal treatment with ACTH-(4-9) analog ORG 2766 attenuates N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced excitotoxicity in rat nucleus basalis in adulthood. Eur J Pharmacol. 2000;405:33-42 pubmed
  38. Zaborszky L. The modular organization of brain systems. Basal forebrain: the last frontier. Prog Brain Res. 2002;136:359-72 pubmed
  39. Burger R, Pfeiffer J, Westrum L, Bernard A, Rubel E. Expression of GABA(B) receptor in the avian auditory brainstem: ontogeny, afferent deprivation, and ultrastructure. J Comp Neurol. 2005;489:11-22 pubmed
    ..The characterization of GABA(B)R distribution enriches our understanding of the full complement of inhibitory influences on central auditory processing in this well-studied neuronal circuit. ..
  40. Weinberger N, Miasnikov A, Bieszczad K, Chen J. Gamma band plasticity in sensory cortex is a signature of the strongest memory rather than memory of the training stimulus. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2013;104:49-63 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that the strength of specific increased neuronal synchronization within primary sensory cortical fields can determine the specific contents of memory. ..
  41. Paula Barbosa M, Pereira P, Cardoso A, Madeira M, Cadete Leite A. The effects of nerve growth factor upon the neuropeptide content of the suprachiasmatic nucleus of rats withdrawn from ethanol are mediated by the nucleus basalis magnocellularis. J Neurocytol. 2004;33:453-63 pubmed
    ..Instead, they are indirect and, according to our results, NBM neurons, whose axons give rise to a cholinergic projection to the SCN, seem to be essential for eliciting those effects. ..
  42. Berdiev R, Chepurnov S, Veening J, Chepurnova N, van Luijtelaar G. The role of the nucleus basalis of Meynert and reticular thalamic nucleus in pathogenesis of genetically determined absence epilepsy in rats: a lesion study. Brain Res. 2007;1185:266-74 pubmed
  43. Baldi E, Mariottini C, Bucherelli C. The role of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis in fear conditioning consolidation in the rat. Learn Mem. 2007;14:855-60 pubmed
    ..The present findings help to elucidate the role of the NBM in memory consolidation and better define the neural circuits involved in fear memories. ..
  44. Wahlberg L, Lind G, Almqvist P, Kusk P, Tornøe J, Juliusson B, et al. Targeted delivery of nerve growth factor via encapsulated cell biodelivery in Alzheimer disease: a technology platform for restorative neurosurgery. J Neurosurg. 2012;117:340-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The first cohort of 3 patients received single implants targeting the basal nucleus of Meynert (Ch4 region) bilaterally (2 implants per patient), and after a safety evaluation, a second cohort of 3 ..
  45. Greenaway R, Davis G, Plaisted Grant K. Marked selective impairment in autism on an index of magnocellular function. Neuropsychologia. 2013;51:592-600 pubmed publisher
    ..It may be amenable to explanation in terms of decreased endogenous neural noise, a novel alternative we outline here. ..
  46. Wall N, De La Parra M, Sorokin J, Taniguchi H, Huang Z, Callaway E. Brain-Wide Maps of Synaptic Input to Cortical Interneurons. J Neurosci. 2016;36:4000-9 pubmed publisher
    ..input from known cortical and thalamic input sources, as well as from probable cholinergic cells in the basal nucleus of Meynert. Despite their common input sources, these classes differed in the proportion of long-distance cortical ..
  47. Harkany T, Penke B, Luiten P. beta-Amyloid excitotoxicity in rat magnocellular nucleus basalis. Effect of cortical deafferentation on cerebral blood flow regulation and implications for Alzheimer's disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2000;903:374-86 pubmed
  48. Sarter M, Givens B, Bruno J. The cognitive neuroscience of sustained attention: where top-down meets bottom-up. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 2001;35:146-60 pubmed
  49. Zhao L, Brinton R. Select estrogens within the complex formulation of conjugated equine estrogens (Premarin) are protective against neurodegenerative insults: implications for a composition of estrogen therapy to promote neuronal function and prevent Alzheimer's diseas. BMC Neurosci. 2006;7:24 pubmed
  50. Doulah A, Rohani A, Khaksari Haddad M, Motamedi F, Farbood Y, Badavi M, et al. The effect of peripheral administration of growth hormone on AD-like cognitive deficiency in NBM-lesioned rats. Neurosci Lett. 2009;466:47-51 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism may result in the improvement of learning and memory in rats with NBM lesion. ..
  51. Kalaitzakis M, Graeber M, Gentleman S, Pearce R. The dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus is not an obligatory trigger site of Parkinson's disease: a critical analysis of alpha-synuclein staging. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2008;34:284-95 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate a predominant involvement of the SN and NBM in PD but do not support the existence of a medullary induction site of alpha Syn pathology in all PD brains. ..
  52. Moron I, Ramírez Lugo L, Ballesteros M, Gutierrez R, Miranda M, Gallo M, et al. Differential effects of bicuculline and muscimol microinjections into the nucleus basalis magnocellularis in taste and place aversive memory formation. Behav Brain Res. 2002;134:425-31 pubmed
    ..However, when the rats were tested 24 h later, those injected with bicuculline or muscimol showed an impairment of the IA learning. The present results support a role of the GABAergic system in the consolidation process of IA learning. ..
  53. Li H, Fukuda M, Tanifuji M, Rockland K. Intrinsic collaterals of layer 6 Meynert cells and functional columns in primate V1. Neuroscience. 2003;120:1061-9 pubmed
    ..This might be related to processes such as optic flow or, especially given the wide-field spread, even contour completion or interpolation. ..
  54. Hotta H, Kanai C, Uchida S, Kanda K. Stimulation of the nucleus basalis of Meynert increases diameter of the parenchymal blood vessels in the rat cerebral cortex. Neurosci Lett. 2004;358:103-6 pubmed
    ..93+/-0.23 microm). The result suggests that functional vasodilation in the cortical parenchyma during NBM stimulation correlates with histologically observed vasodilation in the cortical parenchyma. ..
  55. Sato A, Sato Y, Uchida S. Activation of the intracerebral cholinergic nerve fibers originating in the basal forebrain increases regional cerebral blood flow in the rat's cortex and hippocampus. Neurosci Lett. 2004;361:90-3 pubmed
    ..The augmentation of rCBF is independent of both systemic blood pressure and regional metabolism. The intracerebral cholinergic fibers are able to act as autonomic nerve fibers for the regulation of cortical and hippocampal blood flow. ..
  56. Egorov A, Unsicker K, Von Bohlen Und Halbach O. Muscarinic control of graded persistent activity in lateral amygdala neurons. Eur J Neurosci. 2006;24:3183-94 pubmed
    ..The internal ability of LA neurons to generate graded persistent activity could be essential for amygdala-mediated memory operations. ..
  57. Chen L, Wei L, Liu H, Qiu Y, Chan Y. Cholinergic neurons expressing substance P receptor (NK(1)) in the basal forebrain of the rat: a double immunocytochemical study. Brain Res. 2001;904:161-6 pubmed
    ..The present study has provided morphological evidence for direct physiological modulation of cholinergic neurons by tachykinins through substance P receptor in the basal forebrain of the rat. ..
  58. Bush A, Carzoli K, Hyson R. The influence of chronic lithium administration on deafferentation-induced cellular changes in the chick cochlear nucleus. Neuroscience. 2008;157:229-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Lithium treatment also prevented the robust upregulation of b cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) mRNA that is observed in a subpopulation of deafferented NM neurons 6 h following cochlea removal. ..
  59. Bohnen N, Müller M, Kuwabara H, Constantine G, Studenski S. Age-associated leukoaraiosis and cortical cholinergic deafferentation. Neurology. 2009;72:1411-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support a regionally specific disruption of cholinergic projection fibers by WMH. ..
  60. Craft T, Mahoney J, Devries A, Sarter M. Microsphere embolism-induced cortical cholinergic deafferentation and impairments in attentional performance. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;21:3117-32 pubmed
    ..Microsphere embolism represents a useful animal model for studying the role of interactions between microvascular disorder and impaired forebrain cholinergic neurotransmission in the manifestation of cognitive impairments. ..
  61. Manabe T, Tatsumi K, Inoue M, Matsuyoshi H, Makinodan M, Yamauchi T, et al. Knockdown of the L3/Lhx8 gene suppresses cholinergic differentiation of murine embryonic stem cell-derived spheres. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2008;26:249-52 pubmed publisher
    ..These results strongly suggest that L3/Lhx8 is a key factor for cholinergic differentiation of murine ES cell-derived spheres and is involved in basal forebrain development. ..
  62. Rispoli V, Ragusa S, Nistico R, Marra R, Russo E, Leo A, et al. Huperzine a restores cortico-hippocampal functional connectivity after bilateral AMPA lesion of the nucleus basalis of meynert. J Alzheimers Dis. 2013;35:833-46 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the present results are in agreement with other experimental evidence that promote the clinical use of this natural drug. ..
  63. Okubo M, Nicholls M. Hemispheric asymmetry in temporal resolution: contribution of the magnocellular pathway. Psychon Bull Rev. 2005;12:755-9 pubmed
    ..Because the red background attenuates functions of the magnocellular pathway, these results suggest that the magnocellular pathway contributes to the LH advantage for fine temporal resolution. ..
  64. Korn M, Cramer K. Distribution of glial-associated proteins in the developing chick auditory brainstem. Dev Neurobiol. 2008;68:1093-106 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show considerable changes in glial development after initial NM-NL connections are made, suggesting that glia may facilitate maturation of the auditory circuit. ..
  65. Oliet S, Panatier A, Piet R, Mothet J, Poulain D, Theodosis D. Neuron-glia interactions in the rat supraoptic nucleus. Prog Brain Res. 2008;170:109-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our observations indicate that the neuron-glial anatomical reorganization leads to modifications of glutamatergic transmission that might be important for the physiology of the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system. ..
  66. Higgs M, Kuznetsova M, Spain W. Adaptation of spike timing precision controls the sensitivity to interaural time difference in the avian auditory brainstem. J Neurosci. 2012;32:15489-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Adaptation of spike timing in NM reduced ITD sensitivity in NL, demonstrating the dominant role of timing in the short-term plasticity as well as the immediate response of this sound localization circuit. ..
  67. Hernandez D, Sugaya K, Qu T, McGowan E, Duff K, McKinney M. Survival and plasticity of basal forebrain cholinergic systems in mice transgenic for presenilin-1 and amyloid precursor protein mutant genes. Neuroreport. 2001;12:1377-84 pubmed
    ..The data indicate that the basal forebrain cholinergic system does not degenerate in mice expressing AD-related transgenes, even in mice with extreme amyloid load. The ..
  68. Harkany T, Mulder J, Horvath K, Keijser J, van der Meeberg E, Nyakas C, et al. Oral post-lesion administration of 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist repinotan hydrochloride (BAY x 3702) attenuates NMDA-induced delayed neuronal death in rat magnocellular nucleus basalis. Neuroscience. 2001;108:629-42 pubmed
    ..Post-lesion treatment with 5-HT(1A) receptor agonists may therefore be of significance in the intervention of neuronal damage associated with acute excitotoxic conditions. ..
  69. Nieto Escámez F, Sanchez Santed F, de Bruin J. Cholinergic receptor blockade in prefrontal cortex and lesions of the nucleus basalis: implications for allocentric and egocentric spatial memory in rats. Behav Brain Res. 2002;134:93-112 pubmed
    ..We conclude that acetylcholine in the medial PFC is important for egocentric but not allocentric spatial memory, whereas the NBM is involved in the learning of both tasks, be it to a different degree. ..
  70. Heimer L. A new anatomical framework for neuropsychiatric disorders and drug abuse. Am J Psychiatry. 2003;160:1726-39 pubmed
    ..These two macro-anatomical systems, together with the basal nucleus of Meynert, represent the main components of the new anatomy of the basal forebrain...
  71. Decossas M, Doudnikoff E, Bloch B, Bernard V. Aging and subcellular localization of m2 muscarinic autoreceptor in basalocortical neurons in vivo. Neurobiol Aging. 2005;26:1061-72 pubmed
  72. Fragkouli A, Hearn C, Errington M, Cooke S, Grigoriou M, Bliss T, et al. Loss of forebrain cholinergic neurons and impairment in spatial learning and memory in LHX7-deficient mice. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;21:2923-38 pubmed
    ..Overall our experiments demonstrate that Lhx7 expression is required for the specification or differentiation of cholinergic forebrain neurons involved in the processing of spatial information. ..
  73. Zhong Z, Qu Z, Wang N, Zhang F, Zhang W, Lu U. [Effects of the Panax notoginseng saponins on the level of synaptophysin protein in brain in rat model with lesion of Meynert]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2005;30:913-5 pubmed
    ..PNS plays a protective role by reducing down of the level of synaptophysin protein in brain in lesion of AD animal model. ..
  74. Counts S, Che S, Ginsberg S, Mufson E. Gender differences in neurotrophin and glutamate receptor expression in cholinergic nucleus basalis neurons during the progression of Alzheimer's disease. J Chem Neuroanat. 2011;42:111-7 pubmed publisher
  75. Williams M, Marsh R, Macdonald C, Jain J, Pearce R, Hirsch S, et al. Neuropathological changes in the nucleus basalis in schizophrenia. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2013;263:485-95 pubmed publisher
    ..1 %) and major depressive disorder (39.9 %) than in controls (7.9 %). These results suggest glial cell abnormalities in the nucleus basalis in schizophrenia possibly leading to cortical-limbic disturbance and subcortical dysfunction. ..
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    ..These results show that hyperosmolarity stimulates the local release of an endogenous ligand in the PVN to bind to and activate NK3R on vasopressinergic neurons. ..
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    ..05). In vitro, TanIIA could inhibit the calcium current amplification induced by Abeta25-35 in neurons of nbM. TanIIA may protect neurons against the toxicity of Abeta and decrease the inward flow of Ca(2+). ..
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    ..These data indicate that alterations in the number of nucleus basalis neurons containing trkA immunoreactivity occurs early and are not accelerated from the transition from MCI to mild AD...
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    ..The development of this new, minimally invasive mechanical dissociation method has revealed that SMOCs are common in native CNS neurons. ..
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    ..Abeta1-42 may also trigger cholinergic dysfunction by promoting aberrant neuritic sprouting. ..
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    ..These results are discussed in relation to the interaction of arousal systems in the modulation of cognitive processes. ..
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    ..The basal forebrain histaminergic pathway appears to play a role in modulating arousal/emergence from anesthesia. ..
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    ..These results do not support the hypothesis that sleep loss increases the sensitivity to neurodegenerative processes. ..