posterior hypothalamus


Summary: The part of the hypothalamus posterior to the middle region consisting of several nuclei including the medial maxillary nucleus, lateral mammillary nucleus, and posterior hypothalamic nucleus (posterior hypothalamic area). The posterior hypothalamic area is concerned with control of sympathetic responses and is sensitive to conditions of decreasing temperature and controls the mechanisms for the conservation and increased production of heat.

Top Publications

  1. Hope S, Schmipp J, Rossi A, Bianciotti L, Vatta M. Regulation of the neuronal norepinephrine transporter by endothelin-1 and -3 in the rat anterior and posterior hypothalamus. Neurochem Int. 2008;53:207-13 pubmed publisher
    ..establish the role of endothelin-1 and -3 in the regulation of norepinephrine uptake in the anterior and posterior hypothalamus. Results showed that in the anterior hypothalamus endothelin-3 increased neuronal norepinephrine uptake ..
  2. Sani S, Shimamoto S, Turner R, Levesque N, Starr P. Microelectrode recording in the posterior hypothalamic region in humans. Neurosurgery. 2009;64:ons161-7; discussion ons167-9 pubmed publisher
    ..2 Hz and was significantly lower than medial thalamic neurons recorded dorsal to the target. The findings will be of use for microelectrode localization of the cluster headache target and for comparison with animal studies. ..
  3. Bartsch T, Levy M, Knight Y, Goadsby P. Differential modulation of nociceptive dural input to [hypocretin] orexin A and B receptor activation in the posterior hypothalamic area. Pain. 2004;109:367-78 pubmed
    The novel neuropeptides orexin A and B are selectively synthesised in the lateral and posterior hypothalamus and are involved in hypothalamic regulation of autonomic and neuroendocrine functions...
  4. Gerashchenko D, Chou T, Blanco Centurion C, Saper C, Shiromani P. Effects of lesions of the histaminergic tuberomammillary nucleus on spontaneous sleep in rats. Sleep. 2004;27:1275-81 pubmed
    ..neurons are found exclusively in the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN), and electrolytic lesions of the posterior hypothalamus, where the TMN resides, produce intense hypersomnolence...
  5. Earley C, Allen R, Connor J, Ferrucci L, Troncoso J. The dopaminergic neurons of the A11 system in RLS autopsy brains appear normal. Sleep Med. 2009;10:1155-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Changes at the cellular level in dopaminergic metabolism or at the distal synapse with changes in receptors or transporters were not evaluated in this study. ..
  6. Gerova M. Nitric oxide-compromised hypertension: facts and enigmas. Physiol Res. 2000;49:27-35 pubmed
    ..Local NOS inhibition in the posterior hypothalamus dose-dependently increased systemic blood pressure (BP) in rats...
  7. Hagiwara Y, Kubo T. Cholinergic systems in the posterior hypothalamic nucleus are involved in blood pressure decrease-induced excitation of anterior hypothalamic area neurons in rats. Neurosci Lett. 2005;390:61-5 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that the nitroprusside-induced increase of firing of AHA neurons is mediated via acetylcholine at the level of the PHN. ..
  8. Wang H, Li S, Kirouac G. Role of the orexin (hypocretin) system in contextual fear conditioning in rats. Behav Brain Res. 2017;316:47-53 pubmed publisher
    Orexin (hypocretin) neurons located in the posterior hypothalamus send projections to multiple areas of the brain involved in arousal and experimental evidence indicates that these neurons play a role in the physiological and behavioral ..
  9. Bocian R, Kłos Wojtczak P, Konopacki J. Cell discharge correlates of posterior hypothalamic theta rhythm. Recipe for success in recording stable field potential. Brain Res. 2016;1646:551-559 pubmed publisher
    The theta rhythm discovered in the posterior hypothalamus area (PHa) differs from theta observed in the hippocampal formation...

More Information


  1. de Lecea L, Kilduff T, Peyron C, Gao X, Foye P, Danielson P, et al. The hypocretins: hypothalamus-specific peptides with neuroexcitatory activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:322-7 pubmed
    ..The fibers of these neurons are widespread throughout the posterior hypothalamus and project to multiple targets in other areas, including brainstem and thalamus...
  2. Cordella R, Carella F, Leone M, Franzini A, Broggi G, Bussone G, et al. Spontaneous neuronal activity of the posterior hypothalamus in trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias. Neurol Sci. 2007;28:93-5 pubmed
    ..patients with trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias who were implanted with deep brain stimulators in the posterior hypothalamus. Two patients had chronic cluster headache, one short unilateral neuralgiform headache with conjunctival ..
  3. DiLeone R, Georgescu D, Nestler E. Lateral hypothalamic neuropeptides in reward and drug addiction. Life Sci. 2003;73:759-68 pubmed
    ..Regulation of LH intracellular signaling pathways in response to drugs of abuse supports a role for the LH neuropeptides in addiction. ..
  4. Kang M, Park M, Shin I, Koh H. Modification of cardiovascular response of posterior hypothalamic adenosine A(2) receptor stimulation by adenylate cylase, guanylate cyclase and by K(ATP) channel blockade in anesthetized rats. Neurosci Lett. 2003;344:57-61 pubmed
    ..A(2) receptor stimulation by adenylate cyclase, guanylate cyclase and ATP-sensitive K(+) channel in the posterior hypothalamus. Posterior hypothalamic injection of drugs was performed in anesthetized, artificially ventilated male ..
  5. Martinez Marcos A, Ubeda Bañon I, Lanuza E, Halpern M. Efferent connections of the "olfactostriatum": a specialized vomeronasal structure within the basal ganglia of snakes. J Chem Neuroanat. 2005;29:217-26 pubmed
    ..Since this hypothalamic nucleus has been previously described as projecting to the hypoglossal nucleus, both, the medial amygdala and the olfactostriatum may mediate vomeronasal influence on tongue-flick behavior. ..
  6. Lipp A, Tank J, Trottenberg T, Kupsch A, Arnold G, Jordan J. Sympathetic activation due to deep brain stimulation in the region of the STN. Neurology. 2005;65:774-5 pubmed
  7. Wouterlood F, Gaykema R. Innervation of histaminergic neurons in the posterior hypothalamic region by medial preoptic neurons. Anterograde tracing with Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin combined with immunocytochemistry of histidine decarboxylase in the rat. Brain Res. 1988;455:170-6 pubmed
    ..PHA-L-labeled fibers course to ipsi- and contralateral clusters of histaminergic neurons located in the posterior hypothalamus. Varicosities on the PHA-L-labeled fibers can be observed in close association with HDC-immunoreactive ..
  8. Zimatkin S, Baraban O, Emel yanchik S. Structural-metabolic changes in histaminergic neurons of the rat hypothalamus in conditions of loss of bile. Neurosci Behav Physiol. 2008;38:907-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Serial frontal cryostat sections cut from the posterior hypothalamus were used for detection of the activity of the following enzymes: monoamine oxidase B, succinate ..
  9. Della Marca G, Vollono C, Rubino M, Capuano A, Di Trapani G, Mariotti P. A sleep study in cluster headache. Cephalalgia. 2006;26:290-4 pubmed
    ..The posterior hypothalamus is the key structure for the biological phenomenon of CH...
  10. Nakanishi K, Saito H, Abe K. The supramammillary nucleus contributes to associative EPSP-spike potentiation in the rat dentate gyrus in vivo. Eur J Neurosci. 2001;13:793-800 pubmed
    ..SUM afferents may contribute to associative memory processing by modulating hippocampal excitability. ..
  11. Donato J, Cavalcante J, Silva R, Teixeira A, Bittencourt J, Elias C. Male and female odors induce Fos expression in chemically defined neuronal population. Physiol Behav. 2010;99:67-77 pubmed publisher
    ..In the PMV, NADPHd/CART neurons respond to male and female odors, suggesting a role in neuroendocrine regulation in response to olfactory cues. ..
  12. Franzini A, Ferroli P, Leone M, Broggi G. Stimulation of the posterior hypothalamus for treatment of chronic intractable cluster headaches: first reported series. Neurosurgery. 2003;52:1095-9; discussion 1099-101 pubmed
    To describe the results of deep brain stimulation of the ipsilateral posterior hypothalamus for the treatment of drug-resistant chronic cluster headaches (CHs). A technique for electrode placement is reported...
  13. Perfume G, Morgazo C, Nabhen S, Batistone A, Hope S, Bianciotti L, et al. Short-term regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase activity and expression by endothelin-1 and endothelin-3 in the rat posterior hypothalamus. Regul Pept. 2007;142:69-77 pubmed
    ..reported that endothelin-1 and -3 (ET-1 and ET-3) modulate norepinephrine release in the anterior and posterior hypothalamus. As tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis, the aim of the ..
  14. Kang M, Koh H. Involvement of guanylate cyclase in the cardiovascular response induced by adenosine A2B receptor stimulation in the posterior hypothalamus of the anesthetized rats. Auton Neurosci. 2007;134:55-60 pubmed
    ..we applied the 5'-N-Ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA), an adenosine A(2B) receptor agonist, to the posterior hypothalamus. Injection of NECA (1, 4 and 8 nmol) produced a dose-dependent decrease of arterial blood pressure and HR...
  15. Hagiwara Y, Ohi M, Kubo T. Cholinergic stimulation in the posterior hypothalamic nucleus activates angiotensin II-sensitive neurons in the anterior hypothalamic area of rats. Brain Res Bull. 2005;67:203-9 pubmed
    ..It seems likely that the activation of AHA angiotensin II-sensitive neurons induced by PHN cholinergic stimulation is partly mediated via release of angiotensins at AHA angiotensin II-sensitive neuron levels. ..
  16. Shahidi S, Motamedi F, Bakeshloo S, Taleghani B. The effect of reversible inactivation of the supramammillary nucleus on passive avoidance learning in rats. Behav Brain Res. 2004;152:81-7 pubmed
  17. Sergeeva O, Amberger B, Haas H. Editing of AMPA and serotonin 2C receptors in individual central neurons, controlling wakefulness. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2007;27:669-80 pubmed
  18. Perfume G, Nabhen S, Barrera K, Otero M, Bianciotti L, Vatta M. Long-term modulation of tyrosine hydroxylase activity and expression by endothelin-1 and -3 in the rat anterior and posterior hypothalamus. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2008;294:R905-14 pubmed
    ..Present and previous studies may partially explain the cardiovascular effects produced by ETs when applied to the brain. ..
  19. Vanni Mercier G, Gigout S, Debilly G, Lin J. Waking selective neurons in the posterior hypothalamus and their response to histamine H3-receptor ligands: an electrophysiological study in freely moving cats. Behav Brain Res. 2003;144:227-41 pubmed
    ..waking (waking selective) have been found in the tuberomamillary nucleus (TM) and adjacent areas of the posterior hypothalamus. Although they share some electrophysiological properties with aminergic neurons, there is no direct ..
  20. Guettler D, Ma S. Effects of nitric oxide and noradrenergic activation in the posterior hypothalamus on arterial pressure tolerance to nitroglycerin in rats. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2008;13:98-106 pubmed publisher
    The effects of nitric oxide (NO) and noradrenergic activation in the posterior hypothalamus on arterial pressure tolerance induced by subcutaneous injection of nitroglycerin (NTG) was investigated in anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats...
  21. Jackson J, Young C, Hu B, Bland B. High frequency stimulation of the posterior hypothalamic nucleus restores movement and reinstates hippocampal-striatal theta coherence following haloperidol-induced catalepsy. Exp Neurol. 2008;213:210-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the results support the view that hippocampal-striatal theta coherence may be important for the planning and execution of goal-oriented behaviors. ..
  22. Knigge U, Søe Jensen P, Jorgensen H, Kjaer A, Møller M, Warberg J. Stress-induced release of anterior pituitary hormones: effect of H3 receptor-mediated inhibition of histaminergic activity or posterior hypothalamic lesion. Neuroendocrinology. 1999;69:44-53 pubmed
    ..Bilateral lesion of the posterior hypothalamus inhibited the ACTH, beta-END and PRL responses to restraint stress, ether stress and LPS endotoxin, ..
  23. Bland B, Declerck S, Jackson J, Glasgow S, Oddie S. Septohippocampal properties of N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced theta-band oscillation and synchrony. Synapse. 2007;61:185-97 pubmed
  24. Dehkordi O, Rose J, Dávila García M, Millis R, Mirzaei S, Manaye K, et al. Neuroanatomical Relationships between Orexin/Hypocretin-Containing Neurons/Nerve Fibers and Nicotine-Induced c-Fos-Activated Cells of the Reward-Addiction Neurocircuitry. J Alcohol Drug Depend. 2017;5: pubmed publisher
    ..between the orexinergic fibers and the TH-expressing dopaminergic cells of VTA, dorsal raphe nucleus (DR), posterior hypothalamus (DA11), arcuate hypothalamic nucleus (DA12) and periventricular areas (DA14)...
  25. Scammell T, Saper C. Orexins: looking forward to sleep, back at addiction. Nat Med. 2007;13:126-8 pubmed
  26. Ito M, Shirao T, Doya K, Sekino Y. Three-dimensional distribution of Fos-positive neurons in the supramammillary nucleus of the rat exposed to novel environment. Neurosci Res. 2009;64:397-402 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these results we suggest that the medial SuM modulates defensive behavior and that the lateral SuM modulates emotional and memory functions of the hippocampus. ..
  27. Nakata T, Berard W, Kogosov E, Alexander N. Hypothalamic NE release and cardiovascular response to NaCl in sinoaortic-denervated rats. Am J Physiol. 1991;260:R733-8 pubmed
    We determined the activity of noradrenergic neurons in the nucleus of the posterior hypothalamus (PH) of sinoaortic-denervated (SAD) and sham-operated (SO) rats during cardiovascular responses to intravenous (iv) or local brain dialysis ..
  28. Leal A, Moreira A, Robalo C, Ribeiro C. Different electroclinical manifestations of the epilepsy associated with hamartomas connecting to the middle or posterior hypothalamus. Epilepsia. 2003;44:1191-5 pubmed
    ..of cortical involvement, one associated with the temporal lobe, produced by hamartomas connected to the posterior hypothalamus (mamillary bodies), and the other associated with the frontal lobe, seen in lesions connecting to the ..
  29. Spencer S, Sawyer W, Loewy A. L-glutamate mapping of cardioreactive areas in the rat posterior hypothalamus. Brain Res. 1990;511:149-57 pubmed
    The posterior hypothalamus has long been regarded as a CNS region that provides a sympatho-excitatory influence on the cardiovascular system and functions in thermoregulation as a heat-producing center...
  30. Szmigielska H, Szmigielski A, Szadowska A. The responsiveness of M2-muscarinic receptors in the posterior hypothalamus and brain stem of vasopressin hypertensive rats. Pol J Pharmacol. 1993;45:291-8 pubmed
    ..Tremorine induced a dose-dependent increase in type I inhibitor activity in the posterior hypothalamus and brain stem. The action of the compound was blocked by pretreatment with aminophylline and atropine...
  31. Bird D, Potter I, Sower S, Baker B. The distribution of melanin-concentrating hormone in the lamprey brain. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2001;121:232-41 pubmed
    ..perikarya were found in one major anatomical site, the periventricular dorsal hypothalamic nucleus of the posterior hypothalamus. Axons from these cell bodies projected medially into the ventricular cavity, and laterally to the ..
  32. Koyama Y, Kodama T, Takahashi K, Okai K, Kayama Y. Firing properties of neurones in the laterodorsal hypothalamic area during sleep and wakefulness. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2002;56:339-40 pubmed
    ..The majority of neurones started to increase firing activity prior to the transition of sleep-waking states. These results suggest that the area of the hypothalamus containing orexin neurones plays a role in sleep-waking regulation. ..
  33. Levy M, Knight Y, O Shaughnessy C, Goadsby P. Effect of IL-1beta microinjection into the posterior hypothalamic area on trigeminal nociception in the rat. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2003;110:1349-58 pubmed
    ..Microinjection of IL-1beta into the posterior hypothalamus of 9 animals resulted in a modest inhibition of evoked trigeminal responses in three units, no effect in ..
  34. Kocsis B, Kaminski M. Dynamic changes in the direction of the theta rhythmic drive between supramammillary nucleus and the septohippocampal system. Hippocampus. 2006;16:531-40 pubmed
    ..Thus, in certain states, rhythmically firing SUM neurons function to accelerate the septal theta oscillator, and in others, they are entrained by a superordinate oscillatory network. ..
  35. Leone M, Franzini A, D Andrea G, Broggi G, Casucci G, Bussone G. Deep brain stimulation to relieve drug-resistant SUNCT. Ann Neurol. 2005;57:924-7 pubmed
    ..We report the first patient with SUNCT in whom severe intractable pain (70 per day) was well controlled by electrode implant to and continuous stimulation of the posterior inferior hypothalamus. Ann Neurol 2005;57:925-927. ..
  36. Ahrens K, Wullimann M. Hypothalamic inferior lobe and lateral torus connections in a percomorph teleost, the red cichlid (Hemichromis lifalili). J Comp Neurol. 2002;449:43-64 pubmed
    ..e., dorsal posterior, anterior, and ventromedial thalamic nuclei) as well as quantitative (i.e., nucleus glomerulosus) additional visual input. ..
  37. Nguyen N, Keck M, Hetzenauer A, Thoeringer C, Wurst W, Deussing J, et al. Conditional CRF receptor 1 knockout mice show altered neuronal activation pattern to mild anxiogenic challenge. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2006;188:374-85 pubmed
  38. Arrang J, Garbarg M, Schwartz J. Autoinhibition of histamine synthesis mediated by presynaptic H3-receptors. Neuroscience. 1987;23:149-57 pubmed
    ..was also observed, although to a lesser extent, in synaptosomes from cerebral cortex and slices from the posterior hypothalamus where most histaminergic cell-bodies are located, suggesting that it may occur in nerve endings as well as ..
  39. Windsor Engnell B, Kasuya E, Mizuno M, Keen K, Terasawa E. An increase in in vivo release of LHRH and precocious puberty by posterior hypothalamic lesions in female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007;292:E1000-9 pubmed publisher
    ..pubertal increase in LHRH release, we examined monkeys with precocious puberty induced by lesions in the posterior hypothalamus (PH). Six prepubertal female rhesus monkeys (17.4 +/- 0...
  40. Ye S, Zhong H, Duong V, Campese V. Losartan reduces central and peripheral sympathetic nerve activity in a rat model of neurogenic hypertension. Hypertension. 2002;39:1101-6 pubmed
  41. Beatty J, Kramer J, Plowey E, Waldrop T. Physical exercise decreases neuronal activity in the posterior hypothalamic area of spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2005;98:572-8 pubmed
    ..Thus physical exercise may alter central neural control of cardiovascular function by inducing lasting changes in neuronal activity. ..
  42. Pandolfi M, Cánepa M, Ravaglia M, Maggese M, Paz D, Vissio P. Melanin-concentrating hormone system in the brain and skin of the cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus: anatomical localization, ontogeny and distribution in comparison to alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone-expressing cells. Cell Tissue Res. 2003;311:61-9 pubmed
  43. Martin J. Peptide YY administration into the posterior hypothalamic nucleus of the rat evokes cardiovascular changes by non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic mechanisms. Auton Autacoid Pharmacol. 2005;25:53-67 pubmed
  44. Goadsby P. Neuromodulatory approaches to the treatment of trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2007;97:99-110 pubmed
    ..role of neuromodulation procedures, such as occipital nerve stimulation and deep brain stimulation in the posterior hypothalamus are reviewed...
  45. Bussone G, Franzini A, Proietti Cecchini A, Mea E, Curone M, Tullo V, et al. Deep brain stimulation in craniofacial pain: seven years' experience. Neurol Sci. 2007;28 Suppl 2:S146-9 pubmed
    ..Hypothalamic stimulation is an effective, safe and well tolerated treatment for chronic drug-refractory CH. It appears as a valid alternative to destructive surgical modalities, and has the additional advantage of being reversible. ..
  46. Ikemoto S, Witkin B, Zangen A, Wise R. Rewarding effects of AMPA administration into the supramammillary or posterior hypothalamic nuclei but not the ventral tegmental area. J Neurosci. 2004;24:5758-65 pubmed
    We examined whether injections of the excitatory amino acid AMPA are rewarding when injected into the posterior hypothalamus and ventral tegmental area...
  47. Matoussi N, Aissa K, Fitouri Z, Hajji M, Makni S, Bellagha I, et al. [Central diabetes insipidus: diagnostic difficulties]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris). 2008;69:231-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Regular surveillance is warranted in patients with idiopathic central diabetes insipidus to identify potential etiologies. ..
  48. Ye S, Zhong H, Yanamadala S, Campese V. Oxidative stress mediates the stimulation of sympathetic nerve activity in the phenol renal injury model of hypertension. Hypertension. 2006;48:309-15 pubmed
    ..The studies suggest that central activation of the SNS in the phenol-renal injury model is mediated by increased reactive oxygen species in brain nuclei involved in the noradrenergic control of BP. ..
  49. Bocian R, Konopacki J. Posterior hypothalamic GABAergic mediation of hippocampal theta in the cat. Brain Res Bull. 2007;73:289-300 pubmed
    ..While the PH in rats is involved in programming the frequency of theta rhythm, the same region in cats mainly determines theta amplitude. ..
  50. Brittain J, Green A, Jenkinson N, Ray N, Holland P, Stein J, et al. Local field potentials reveal a distinctive neural signature of cluster headache in the hypothalamus. Cephalalgia. 2009;29:1165-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Deep brain stimulation of the posterior hypothalamus has shown potential in alleviating CH in its most severe, chronic form...
  51. Kramer J, Beatty J, Little H, Plowey E, Waldrop T. Chronic exercise alters caudal hypothalamic regulation of the cardiovascular system in hypertensive rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2001;280:R389-97 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that exercise training can alter CH cardiovascular regulation in hypertensive rats and therefore may play a role in increasing cardiovascular health. ..
  52. Monda M, Viggiano A, De Luca V. Intracerebroventricular injection of prostaglandin E(1) changes concentrations of biogenic amines in the posterior hypothalamus of the rat. Brain Res. 2000;873:197-202 pubmed
    Since the posterior hypothalamus (PH) plays a key role in the control of body temperature, the aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine levels in the PH during the hyperthermia induced by ..
  53. di Nunzio A, Legaz G, Rodano V, Bianciotti L, Vatta M. Modulatory effect of endothelin-1 and -3 on neuronal norepinephrine release in the rat posterior hypothalamus. Regul Pept. 2004;118:51-9 pubmed
    ..effects of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and endothelin-3 (ET-3) on neuronal norepinephrine (NE) release in the rat posterior hypothalamus. The intracellular pathways and receptors involved were also investigated...