ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus


Summary: A nucleus of the middle hypothalamus, the largest cell group of the tuberal region with small-to-medium size cells.

Top Publications

  1. Dhillon H, Zigman J, Ye C, Lee C, McGovern R, Tang V, et al. Leptin directly activates SF1 neurons in the VMH, and this action by leptin is required for normal body-weight homeostasis. Neuron. 2006;49:191-203 pubmed
    ..These results reveal a critical role for leptin action on VMH neurons. ..
  2. Zhang R, Dhillon H, Yin H, Yoshimura A, Lowell B, Maratos Flier E, et al. Selective inactivation of Socs3 in SF1 neurons improves glucose homeostasis without affecting body weight. Endocrinology. 2008;149:5654-61 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Socs3 in SF1 neurons negatively regulates leptin signaling and plays important roles in mediating leptin sensitivity, glucose homeostasis, and energy expenditure. ..
  3. Majdic G, Young M, Gomez Sanchez E, Anderson P, Szczepaniak L, Dobbins R, et al. Knockout mice lacking steroidogenic factor 1 are a novel genetic model of hypothalamic obesity. Endocrinology. 2002;143:607-14 pubmed
    ..includes adrenal and gonadal agenesis, impaired gonadotropin expression, and abnormalities of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH)...
  4. Flanagan Cato L, Fluharty S, Weinreb E, LaBelle D. Food restriction alters neuronal morphology in the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus of male rats. Endocrinology. 2008;149:93-9 pubmed
    ..These results also suggest that the direction of the LPD may be an important marker of neuronal function in the VMH. ..
  5. Fan X, Ding Y, Brown S, Zhou L, Shaw M, Vella M, et al. Hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase activation with AICAR amplifies counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemia in a rodent model of type 1 diabetes. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009;296:R1702-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, our data suggest that it may be possible to partially restore the hypoglycemia-specific glucagon secretory defect characteristic of T1DM through manipulation of VMH AMPK. ..
  6. Chan O, Lawson M, Zhu W, Beverly J, Sherwin R. ATP-sensitive K(+) channels regulate the release of GABA in the ventromedial hypothalamus during hypoglycemia. Diabetes. 2007;56:1120-6 pubmed
    ..CONCLUSIONS-Our data suggests that K(ATP) channels within the VMH may modulate the magnitude of counterregulatory responses by altering release of GABA within that region. ..
  7. Lee J, Choi I, Park E, Cho J, Lee M, Choi B, et al. beta(2)-Adrenoceptor-mediated facilitation of glutamatergic transmission in rat ventromedial hypothalamic neurons. Neuroscience. 2007;144:1255-65 pubmed
    ..beta(2)-Adrenoceptor-mediated presynaptic modulation of excitatory glutamatergic transmission would therefore be expected to play a pivotal role in the regulation of a variety of behavioral functions, which are mediated by the VMH. ..
  8. Dunn Meynell A, Sanders N, Compton D, Becker T, Eiki J, Zhang B, et al. Relationship among brain and blood glucose levels and spontaneous and glucoprivic feeding. J Neurosci. 2009;29:7015-22 pubmed publisher
  9. Irani B, Dunn Meynell A, Levin B. Altered hypothalamic leptin, insulin, and melanocortin binding associated with moderate-fat diet and predisposition to obesity. Endocrinology. 2007;148:310-6 pubmed
    ..These results corroborate our previous findings demonstrating a preexisting decrease in DIO hypothalamic leptin and insulin signaling and demonstrate that HE diet intake reduces hypothalamic melanocortin and hippocampal insulin binding. ..

More Information


  1. Musatov S, Chen W, Pfaff D, Kaplitt M, Ogawa S. RNAi-mediated silencing of estrogen receptor {alpha} in the ventromedial nucleus of hypothalamus abolishes female sexual behaviors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:10456-10460 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide evidence that adeno-associated virus-mediated long-term knockdown of genes can be used to delineate their effects on complex behaviors in discrete brain regions. ..
  2. Shima Y, Zubair M, Ishihara S, Shinohara Y, Oka S, Kimura S, et al. Ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus-specific enhancer of Ad4BP/SF-1 gene. Mol Endocrinol. 2005;19:2812-23 pubmed
    ..the cis-regulatory regions of the mouse Ad4BP/SF-1 gene by transgenic mouse assays, and identified a ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH)-specific enhancer...
  3. Toda C, Shiuchi T, Lee S, Yamato Esaki M, Fujino Y, Suzuki A, et al. Distinct effects of leptin and a melanocortin receptor agonist injected into medial hypothalamic nuclei on glucose uptake in peripheral tissues. Diabetes. 2009;58:2757-65 pubmed publisher
    ..The leptin receptor in the ARC and MCR in the PVH regulate glucose uptake in BAT. Medial hypothalamic nuclei thus play distinct roles in leptin- and MT-II-induced glucose uptake in peripheral tissues. ..
  4. Le Foll C, Irani B, Magnan C, Dunn Meynell A, Levin B. Effects of maternal genotype and diet on offspring glucose and fatty acid-sensing ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus neurons. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009;297:R1351-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We assessed glucose and oleic acid (OA) sensitivity of dissociated ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN) neurons from 3- to 4-wk old offspring of DIO and DR dams fed chow or HE diet using fura-2 ..
  5. Le Foll C, Irani B, Magnan C, Dunn Meynell A, Levin B. Characteristics and mechanisms of hypothalamic neuronal fatty acid sensing. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009;297:R655-64 pubmed publisher
    ..This glucose-OA interaction provides a potential mechanism whereby such "metabolic sensing" neurons can respond to differences in the metabolic states associated with fasting and feeding. ..
  6. Kang L, Dunn Meynell A, Routh V, Gaspers L, Nagata Y, Nishimura T, et al. Glucokinase is a critical regulator of ventromedial hypothalamic neuronal glucosensing. Diabetes. 2006;55:412-20 pubmed
    ..drug, or decreased, using RNA interference combined with calcium imaging in freshly dissociated ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN) neurons or primary ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH; VMN plus arcuate nucleus) cultures...
  7. McClellan K, Parker K, Tobet S. Development of the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus. Front Neuroendocrinol. 2006;27:193-209 pubmed
    ..We review the processes involved in forming a functional nuclear group and some of the factors known to be involved particularly focusing on the positioning of identified neurons within the VMH. ..
  8. McCrimmon R, Song Z, Cheng H, McNay E, Weikart Yeckel C, Fan X, et al. Corticotrophin-releasing factor receptors within the ventromedial hypothalamus regulate hypoglycemia-induced hormonal counterregulation. J Clin Invest. 2006;116:1723-30 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that regulation of the CRR is largely determined by the interaction between CRFR2-mediated suppression and CRFR1-mediated activation in the VMH. ..
  9. Chan O, Cheng H, HERZOG R, Czyzyk D, Zhu W, Wang A, et al. Increased GABAergic tone in the ventromedial hypothalamus contributes to suppression of counterregulatory responses after antecedent hypoglycemia. Diabetes. 2008;57:1363-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure may be due in part to a relative excess of the inhibitory neurotransmitter, GABA, within the VMH. ..
  10. Kim K, Jo Y, Zhao L, Stallings N, Chua S, Parker K. Steroidogenic factor 1 regulates expression of the cannabinoid receptor 1 in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus. Mol Endocrinol. 2008;22:1950-61 pubmed publisher
    ..receptor steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) plays essential roles in the development and function of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH). Considerable evidence links the VMH and SF-1 with the regulation of energy homeostasis...
  11. Paranjape S, Chan O, Zhu W, Horblitt A, McNay E, Cresswell J, et al. Influence of insulin in the ventromedial hypothalamus on pancreatic glucagon secretion in vivo. Diabetes. 2010;59:1521-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data suggest that insulin's inhibitory effect on alpha-cell glucagon release is in part mediated at the level of the VMH under both normoglycemic and hypoglycemic conditions. ..
  12. Szepietowska B, Zhu W, Czyzyk J, Eid T, Sherwin R. EphA5-EphrinA5 interactions within the ventromedial hypothalamus influence counterregulatory hormone release and local glutamine/glutamate balance during hypoglycemia. Diabetes. 2013;62:1282-8 pubmed publisher
  13. Irani B, Le Foll C, Dunn Meynell A, Levin B. Effects of leptin on rat ventromedial hypothalamic neurons. Endocrinology. 2008;149:5146-54 pubmed publisher
    ..ARC neurons, and acts on both glucosensing and non-glucosensing VMN neurons in a glucose-independent fashion with inhibition primarily dependent upon activation of the ATP-sensitive K+ channel. ..
  14. Bingham N, Anderson K, Reuter A, Stallings N, Parker K. Selective loss of leptin receptors in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus results in increased adiposity and a metabolic syndrome. Endocrinology. 2008;149:2138-48 pubmed publisher
    ..hypothalamic nuclei known to play a role in energy homeostasis, including the arcuate nucleus, the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH), and the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus...
  15. McCrimmon R, Shaw M, Fan X, Cheng H, Ding Y, Vella M, et al. Key role for AMP-activated protein kinase in the ventromedial hypothalamus in regulating counterregulatory hormone responses to acute hypoglycemia. Diabetes. 2008;57:444-50 pubmed
    ..We conclude that AMPK in the VMH plays a key role in the detection of acute hypoglycemia and initiation of the glucose counterregulatory response. ..
  16. Canabal D, Potian J, Duran R, McArdle J, Routh V. Hyperglycemia impairs glucose and insulin regulation of nitric oxide production in glucose-inhibited neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007;293:R592-600 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that hyperglycemia impairs glucose and insulin regulation of NO production through AMPK inhibition. Furthermore, glucose and insulin signaling pathways interact via the mTOR pathway. ..
  17. Kang L, Routh V, Kuzhikandathil E, Gaspers L, Levin B. Physiological and molecular characteristics of rat hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus glucosensing neurons. Diabetes. 2004;53:549-59 pubmed
    ..neuronal glucosensing, fura-2 Ca(2+) imaging and single-cell RT-PCR were carried out in dissociated ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN) neurons...
  18. McCrimmon R, Fan X, Ding Y, Zhu W, Jacob R, Sherwin R. Potential role for AMP-activated protein kinase in hypoglycemia sensing in the ventromedial hypothalamus. Diabetes. 2004;53:1953-8 pubmed
    ..The combination of hypoglycemia- and AICAR-induced AMPK activity appears to result in a marked stimulus to hepatic glucose counterregulation. ..
  19. Evans M, McCrimmon R, Flanagan D, Keshavarz T, Fan X, McNay E, et al. Hypothalamic ATP-sensitive K + channels play a key role in sensing hypoglycemia and triggering counterregulatory epinephrine and glucagon responses. Diabetes. 2004;53:2542-51 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that closing of K(ATP) channels in the VMH (much like the beta-cell) impairs defense mechanisms against glucose deprivation and therefore could contribute to defects in glucose counterregulation. ..
  20. Spiteri T, Musatov S, Ogawa S, Ribeiro A, Pfaff D, Agmo A. The role of the estrogen receptor alpha in the medial amygdala and ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus in social recognition, anxiety and aggression. Behav Brain Res. 2010;210:211-20 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, social recognition and anxiety in female rats are modulated by the ERalpha in the amygdala. Moreover, aggression against juveniles but not against adults could, at least partly, depend on the ERalpha in the VMN. ..
  21. Cotero V, Zhang B, Routh V. The response of glucose-excited neurones in the ventromedial hypothalamus to decreased glucose is enhanced in a murine model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Neuroendocrinol. 2010;22:65-74 pubmed publisher
    ..These data are consistent with our hypothesis that impaired insulin signalling in T2DM sensitises VMH GE neurones to decreased glucose. ..
  22. Song Z, Routh V. Recurrent hypoglycemia reduces the glucose sensitivity of glucose-inhibited neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus nucleus. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2006;291:R1283-7 pubmed
    ..Thus our findings suggest that decreases in glucose sensitivity of VMN GI neurons may contribute to the impairments in central glucose-sensing mechanisms after recurrent hypoglycemia. ..
  23. Shiuchi T, Haque M, Okamoto S, Inoue T, Kageyama H, Lee S, et al. Hypothalamic orexin stimulates feeding-associated glucose utilization in skeletal muscle via sympathetic nervous system. Cell Metab. 2009;10:466-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Orexin and its receptor in VMH thus play a key role in the regulation of muscle glucose metabolism associated with highly motivated behavior by activating muscle sympathetic nerves and beta(2)-adrenergic signaling. ..
  24. Zhu W, Czyzyk D, Paranjape S, Zhou L, Horblitt A, Szabo G, et al. Glucose prevents the fall in ventromedial hypothalamic GABA that is required for full activation of glucose counterregulatory responses during hypoglycemia. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2010;298:E971-7 pubmed publisher
  25. Xu Y, Hill J, Fukuda M, Gautron L, Sohn J, Kim K, et al. PI3K signaling in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus is required for normal energy homeostasis. Cell Metab. 2010;12:88-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that mice with reduced PI3K activity in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) are more sensitive to high-fat diet-induced obesity due to reduced energy expenditure...
  26. Lin D, Boyle M, Dollar P, Lee H, Lein E, Perona P, et al. Functional identification of an aggression locus in the mouse hypothalamus. Nature. 2011;470:221-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Neurons activated during attack are inhibited during mating, suggesting a potential neural substrate for competition between these opponent social behaviours. ..
  27. Murphy B, Fakira K, Song Z, Beuve A, Routh V. AMP-activated protein kinase and nitric oxide regulate the glucose sensitivity of ventromedial hypothalamic glucose-inhibited neurons. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2009;297:C750-8 pubmed publisher
  28. Jamshidi N, Taylor D. Anandamide administration into the ventromedial hypothalamus stimulates appetite in rats. Br J Pharmacol. 2001;134:1151-4 pubmed
    ..001). This study demonstrates that intrahypothalamic anandamide initiates appetite by stimulation of CB1 receptors, thus providing evidence on the involvement of hypothalamic endocannabinoids in appetite initiation. ..
  29. Levin B, Becker T, Eiki J, Zhang B, Dunn Meynell A. Ventromedial hypothalamic glucokinase is an important mediator of the counterregulatory response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Diabetes. 2008;57:1371-9 pubmed publisher
  30. Fu L, van den Pol A. Agouti-related peptide and MC3/4 receptor agonists both inhibit excitatory hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus neurons. J Neurosci. 2008;28:5433-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data suggest that the mechanism of AgRP actions on these excitatory VMH cells appears to be independent of the actions of melanocortins on MC receptors. ..
  31. Canabal D, Song Z, Potian J, Beuve A, McArdle J, Routh V. Glucose, insulin, and leptin signaling pathways modulate nitric oxide synthesis in glucose-inhibited neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007;292:R1418-28 pubmed
    ..Finally, VMH neurons express soluble guanylyl cyclase, a downstream mediator of NO signaling. Thus NO may mediate, in part, glucose, leptin, and insulin signaling in VMH glucose-sensing neurons. ..
  32. King B. The rise, fall, and resurrection of the ventromedial hypothalamus in the regulation of feeding behavior and body weight. Physiol Behav. 2006;87:221-44 pubmed
  33. de Vries M, Lawson M, Beverly J. Hypoglycemia-induced noradrenergic activation in the VMH is a result of decreased ambient glucose. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2005;289:R977-81 pubmed
    ..These data provide additional support for the importance of increased noradrenergic activity in the VMH in the counterregulatory hormonal responses to hypoglycemia. ..
  34. Song Z, Routh V. Differential effects of glucose and lactate on glucosensing neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus. Diabetes. 2005;54:15-22 pubmed
    Glucose directly alters the action potential frequency of glucosensing neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN)...
  35. Hrabovszky E, Halasz J, Meelis W, Kruk M, Liposits Z, Haller J. Neurochemical characterization of hypothalamic neurons involved in attack behavior: glutamatergic dominance and co-expression of thyrotropin-releasing hormone in a subset of glutamatergic neurons. Neuroscience. 2005;133:657-66 pubmed
    ..except for that part of the hypothalamic attack area extending into the ventro-lateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus. Earlier data on the projections of hypothalamic thyrotropin releasing hormone neurons suggest that ..
  36. Meek T, Matsen M, Dorfman M, Guyenet S, Damian V, Nguyen H, et al. Leptin action in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus is sufficient, but not necessary, to normalize diabetic hyperglycemia. Endocrinology. 2013;154:3067-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Leptin action within a distributed neuronal network may mediate its effects on glucose homeostasis. ..
  37. Davidowa H, Plagemann A. Inhibition by insulin of hypothalamic VMN neurons in rats overweight due to postnatal overfeeding. Neuroreport. 2001;12:3201-4 pubmed
    ..Significantly fewer neurons of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN) were activated by insulin in overweight SL rats than in normal (NL) rats (chi2 p < 0.01)...
  38. Song Z, Levin B, McArdle J, Bakhos N, Routh V. Convergence of pre- and postsynaptic influences on glucosensing neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus. Diabetes. 2001;50:2673-81 pubmed
    Glucosensing neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN) were studied using visually guided slice-patch recording techniques in brain slices from 14- to 21-day-old male Sprague-Dawley rats...
  39. Pompolo S, Pereira A, Scott C, Fujiyma F, Clarke I. Evidence for estrogenic regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons by glutamatergic neurons in the ewe brain: An immunohistochemical study using an antibody against vesicular glutamate transporter-2. J Comp Neurol. 2003;465:136-44 pubmed
    ..VGluT2-immunoreactive cells were observed in the arcuate nucleus (ARC)/ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) complex, POA, bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BnST), and A1 and A2 cell groups in the ..
  40. de Vries M, Arseneau L, Lawson M, Beverly J. Extracellular glucose in rat ventromedial hypothalamus during acute and recurrent hypoglycemia. Diabetes. 2003;52:2767-73 pubmed
    ..From these results, we conclude that interstitial glucose concentrations in the VMH are not maintained at a constant level and are more dynamic than previously proposed. ..
  41. Chee M, Myers M, Price C, Colmers W. Neuropeptide Y suppresses anorexigenic output from the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus. J Neurosci. 2010;30:3380-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The results further suggest a dynamic interplay between anorexigenic and orexigenic neuromodulators within the VMN to directly affect energy balance. ..
  42. Fioramonti X, Marsollier N, Song Z, Fakira K, Patel R, Brown S, et al. Ventromedial hypothalamic nitric oxide production is necessary for hypoglycemia detection and counterregulation. Diabetes. 2010;59:519-28 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that potentiating NO signaling may improve the defective CRR resulting from recurrent hypoglycemia in patients using intensive insulin therapy. ..
  43. McCrimmon R, Evans M, Fan X, McNay E, Chan O, Ding Y, et al. Activation of ATP-sensitive K+ channels in the ventromedial hypothalamus amplifies counterregulatory hormone responses to hypoglycemia in normal and recurrently hypoglycemic rats. Diabetes. 2005;54:3169-74 pubmed
    ..We also conclude that KCOs may offer a future potential therapeutic option for individuals with insulin-treated diabetes who develop defective counterregulation. ..
  44. LaBelle D, Cox J, Dunn Meynell A, Levin B, Flanagan Cato L. Genetic and dietary effects on dendrites in the rat hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus. Physiol Behav. 2009;98:511-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding implicates the connectivity of the long primary dendrites on VMH neurons in the control of energy balance. The functional significance of these shortened dendrites and their afferents warrants further study. ..
  45. Chan O, Zhu W, Ding Y, McCrimmon R, Sherwin R. Blockade of GABA(A) receptors in the ventromedial hypothalamus further stimulates glucagon and sympathoadrenal but not the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal response to hypoglycemia. Diabetes. 2006;55:1080-7 pubmed
    ..Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that GABAergic inhibitory tone within the VMH can modulate glucose counterregulatory responses. ..
  46. Musatov S, Chen W, Pfaff D, Mobbs C, Yang X, Clegg D, et al. Silencing of estrogen receptor alpha in the ventromedial nucleus of hypothalamus leads to metabolic syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:2501-6 pubmed
    ..Together, these findings indicate that ERalpha in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus neurons plays an essential role in the control of energy balance and the maintenance of normal body weight. ..
  47. Yu Y, Wang Q, Huang X. Energy-restricted pair-feeding normalizes low levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor/tyrosine kinase B mRNA expression in the hippocampus, but not ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, in diet-induced obese mice. Neuroscience. 2009;160:295-306 pubmed publisher
    ..In the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH), BDNF expression was decreased in DIO mice on HF (-23%) and energy-restricted pair-feeding (-..
  48. Segal J, Stallings N, Lee C, Zhao L, Socci N, Viale A, et al. Use of laser-capture microdissection for the identification of marker genes for the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus. J Neurosci. 2005;25:4181-8 pubmed
    The ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) plays an important role in the control of feeding and energy homeostasis...
  49. Spiteri T, Musatov S, Ogawa S, Ribeiro A, Pfaff D, Agmo A. Estrogen-induced sexual incentive motivation, proceptivity and receptivity depend on a functional estrogen receptor alpha in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus but not in the amygdala. Neuroendocrinology. 2010;91:142-54 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that ERalpha in the VMN is crucial for the entire sequence of behavioral events from the processes leading to the establishment of sexual contact until the accomplishment of copulatory behaviors. ..
  50. Kiss J, Csaki A, Halasz B. Location of glutamatergic/aspartatergic neurons projecting to the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus studied by autoradiography of retrogradely transported [³H]D-aspartate. Neuroscience. 2011;176:210-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations are the first data on the location of glutamatergic neurons terminating in the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus. The findings indicate that glutamatergic innervation of the ventromedial nucleus is very complex. ..
  51. COTERO V, Routh V. Insulin blunts the response of glucose-excited neurons in the ventrolateral-ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus to decreased glucose. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009;296:E1101-9 pubmed publisher
    ..That is, in the presence of insulin, glucose levels must decline further before GE neurons respond. Thus, the set point for detection of glucose deficit and initiation of compensatory mechanisms would be lowered. ..
  52. Chan O, Paranjape S, Czyzyk D, Horblitt A, Zhu W, Ding Y, et al. Increased GABAergic output in the ventromedial hypothalamus contributes to impaired hypoglycemic counterregulation in diabetic rats. Diabetes. 2011;60:1582-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that increased VMH GABAergic inhibition is an important contributor to the absent glucagon response to hypoglycemia and the development of counterregulatory failure in type 1 diabetes. ..
  53. Beverly J, De Vries M, Bouman S, Arseneau L. Noradrenergic and GABAergic systems in the medial hypothalamus are activated during hypoglycemia. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2001;280:R563-9 pubmed