dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus


Summary: An aggregation of cells in the middle hypothalamus dorsal to the ventromedial nucleus and bordering the THIRD VENTRICLE.

Top Publications

  1. Zaretskaia M, Zaretsky D, Shekhar A, DiMicco J. Chemical stimulation of the dorsomedial hypothalamus evokes non-shivering thermogenesis in anesthetized rats. Brain Res. 2002;928:113-25 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that activation of neurons in the DMH provokes increases in body temperature resulting in large part from sympathoadrenally-mediated activation of brown fat. ..
  2. Chou T, Scammell T, Gooley J, Gaus S, Saper C, Lu J. Critical role of dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus in a wide range of behavioral circadian rhythms. J Neurosci. 2003;23:10691-702 pubmed
    ..Previous anatomic evidence has implicated the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH) in circadian control of sleep, but this hypothesis remains untested...
  3. Mieda M, Williams S, Richardson J, Tanaka K, Yanagisawa M. The dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus as a putative food-entrainable circadian pacemaker. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:12150-5 pubmed
    ..We found that the compact part of the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH) demonstrates a robust oscillation of mPer expression only under restricted feeding...
  4. Dampney R, Horiuchi J, McDowall L. Hypothalamic mechanisms coordinating cardiorespiratory function during exercise and defensive behaviour. Auton Neurosci. 2008;142:3-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we discuss the possible role of the DMH in generating circadian rhythms in arterial blood pressure and heart rate, and also in generating longer-term increases in sympathetic activity in some types of hypertension. ..
  5. Gooley J, Schomer A, Saper C. The dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus is critical for the expression of food-entrainable circadian rhythms. Nat Neurosci. 2006;9:398-407 pubmed
    ..The dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH) is critical for the expression of circadian rhythms and receives input from systems that ..
  6. Freitas R, Uribe Mariño A, Castiblanco Urbina M, Elias Filho D, Coimbra N. GABA(A) receptor blockade in dorsomedial and ventromedial nuclei of the hypothalamus evokes panic-like elaborated defensive behaviour followed by innate fear-induced antinociception. Brain Res. 2009;1305:118-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that the GABA(A) receptor of dorsomedial and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei are critically involved in the modulation of panic-like behaviour. ..
  7. Moriya T, Aida R, Kudo T, Akiyama M, Doi M, Hayasaka N, et al. The dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus is not necessary for food-anticipatory circadian rhythms of behavior, temperature or clock gene expression in mice. Eur J Neurosci. 2009;29:1447-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH) has been proposed to be the site of oscillators driving food-anticipatory circadian rhythms, ..
  8. Bellinger L, Bernardis L. The dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus and its role in ingestive behavior and body weight regulation: lessons learned from lesioning studies. Physiol Behav. 2002;76:431-42 pubmed
    This review article discusses the well-established role of the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMN) in feeding, drinking and body weight (BW) regulation...
  9. Landry G, Yamakawa G, Webb I, Mear R, Mistlberger R. The dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus is not necessary for the expression of circadian food-anticipatory activity in rats. J Biol Rhythms. 2007;22:467-78 pubmed
    ..The dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH) has been proposed as the site of food-entrainable oscillators critical for the expression of ..

More Information


  1. Verwey M, Khoja Z, Stewart J, Amir S. Differential regulation of the expression of Period2 protein in the limbic forebrain and dorsomedial hypothalamus by daily limited access to highly palatable food in food-deprived and free-fed rats. Neuroscience. 2007;147:277-85 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that mechanisms leading to changes in the expression of PER2 and those affecting the induction of Fos under RF and RT are, at least in part, dissociable. ..
  2. Fontes M, Xavier C, de Menezes R, DiMicco J. The dorsomedial hypothalamus and the central pathways involved in the cardiovascular response to emotional stress. Neuroscience. 2011;184:64-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The present review will focus specifically on the dorsomedial hypothalamus, a brain region now known to play a primary role in the synaptic integration underlying the cardiovascular response to emotional stress. ..
  3. Lee S, Bookout A, Lee C, Gautron L, Harper M, Elias C, et al. Laser-capture microdissection and transcriptional profiling of the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus. J Comp Neurol. 2012;520:3617-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The genes identified in this article will provide the basis for future gene-targeted approaches for studying DMH function. ..
  4. Deurveilher S, Semba K. Indirect projections from the suprachiasmatic nucleus to major arousal-promoting cell groups in rat: implications for the circadian control of behavioural state. Neuroscience. 2005;130:165-83 pubmed
    ..we recently showed that the medial preoptic area (MPA), subparaventricular zone (SPVZ) and dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH) are well positioned to relay SCN output to two key sleep-promoting nuclei, namely, the ..
  5. Shekhar A, Keim S, Simon J, McBride W. Dorsomedial hypothalamic GABA dysfunction produces physiological arousal following sodium lactate infusions. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1996;55:249-56 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that chronic reduction of GABA function in the DMH leads to the development of panic-like disorder in this animal model. ..
  6. Zhang Y, Kerman I, Laque A, Nguyen P, Faouzi M, Louis G, et al. Leptin-receptor-expressing neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus and median preoptic area regulate sympathetic brown adipose tissue circuits. J Neurosci. 2011;31:1873-84 pubmed publisher
    ..2008). Thus, these data present strong evidence that LepRb neurons in the DMH/DHA and mPOA mediate thermoregulatory leptin action. ..
  7. Acosta Galvan G, Yi C, van der Vliet J, Jhamandas J, Panula P, Angeles Castellanos M, et al. Interaction between hypothalamic dorsomedial nucleus and the suprachiasmatic nucleus determines intensity of food anticipatory behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:5813-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, this study shows that the DMH-SCN interaction may serve as an intrahypothalamic system to gate activity instead of rest overriding circadian predetermined temporal patterns. ..
  8. Verwey M, Lam G, Amir S. Circadian rhythms of PERIOD1 expression in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus in the absence of entrained food-anticipatory activity rhythms in rats. Eur J Neurosci. 2009;29:2217-22 pubmed publisher
    ..rhythms are linked to the induction and entrainment of rhythms in clock gene expression in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH), a putative food-entrained circadian oscillator...
  9. Kobelt P, Paulitsch S, Goebel M, Stengel A, Schmidtmann M, van der Voort I, et al. Peripheral injection of CCK-8S induces Fos expression in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus in rats. Brain Res. 2006;1117:109-17 pubmed
    Peripheral cholecystokinin (CCK) plays a physiological role in the regulation of food intake. The dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH) has been implicated in the brain regulation of food intake and satiety...
  10. Landry G, Simon M, Webb I, Mistlberger R. Persistence of a behavioral food-anticipatory circadian rhythm following dorsomedial hypothalamic ablation in rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2006;290:R1527-34 pubmed
    ..Recent evidence suggests that the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH) may function as a final common output for behavioral rhythms and may be critical for the ..
  11. Nakamura Y, Nakamura K, Matsumura K, Kobayashi S, Kaneko T, Morrison S. Direct pyrogenic input from prostaglandin EP3 receptor-expressing preoptic neurons to the dorsomedial hypothalamus. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;22:3137-46 pubmed
    ..of EP3 receptor-expressing POA neurons with a special focus on rat hypothalamic regions including the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH), which is known as a center for autonomic responses to stress...
  12. Fontes M, Tagawa T, Polson J, Cavanagh S, Dampney R. Descending pathways mediating cardiovascular response from dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2001;280:H2891-901 pubmed
    ..or hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) mediate the cardiovascular response evoked from the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH), which is believed to play a key role in mediating responses to stress...
  13. DiMicco J, Samuels B, Zaretskaia M, Zaretsky D. The dorsomedial hypothalamus and the response to stress: part renaissance, part revolution. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2002;71:469-80 pubmed
    ..Thus, the DMH may represent a higher order hypothalamic center responsible for integrating autonomic, endocrine and even behavioral responses to emotional stress. ..
  14. Lowry C, Plant A, Shanks N, Ingram C, Lightman S. Anatomical and functional evidence for a stress-responsive, monoamine-accumulating area in the dorsomedial hypothalamus of adult rat brain. Horm Behav. 2003;43:254-62 pubmed
    ..These data provide support for the existence of a stress-responsive, amine-accumulating area in the DMH that may play an important role in the differential stress responsiveness of Lewis and Fischer rats. ..
  15. Ciechanowska M, Łapot M, Paruszewska E, Radawiec W, Przekop F. The influence of dopaminergic system inhibition on biosynthesis of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and GnRH receptor in anoestrous sheep; hierarchical role of kisspeptin and RFamide-related peptide-3 (RFRP-3). Reprod Fertil Dev. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..VMH/ARC), and RFamide-related peptide-3 (RFRP-3) mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus. Sulpiride significantly increased plasma LH concentration and the levels of GnRH and GnRHR in the ..
  16. Jarjisian S, Piekarski D, Place N, Driscoll J, Paxton E, Kriegsfeld L, et al. Dorsomedial hypothalamic lesions block Syrian hamster testicular regression in short day lengths without diminishing increased testosterone negative-feedback sensitivity. Biol Reprod. 2013;89:23 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a redundant neural network comprised of multiple structures, each of which contributes to neuroendocrine mechanisms, that determines the effect of short days on gonadal function. ..
  17. Treesukosol Y, Bi S, Moran T. Overexpression of neuropeptide Y in the dorsomedial hypothalamus increases trial initiation but does not significantly alter concentration-dependent licking to sucrose in a brief-access taste test. Physiol Behav. 2013;110-111:109-14 pubmed publisher
  18. Cheung C, Hohmann J, Clifton D, Steiner R. Distribution of galanin messenger RNA-expressing cells in murine brain and their regulation by leptin in regions of the hypothalamus. Neuroscience. 2001;103:423-32 pubmed
  19. Lee H, Park S, Song W, Waterhouse B. Retrograde study of hypocretin-1 (orexin-A) projections to subdivisions of the dorsal raphe nucleus in the rat. Brain Res. 2005;1059:35-45 pubmed
    ..into rostral DR, WG-single-labeled cells were observed at the dorsal half of the LH as well as dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus. The major input to the intermediate DR originates from the ventromedial portion of the LH, PeF, and ..
  20. Herzog E, Muglia L. You are when you eat. Nat Neurosci. 2006;9:300-2 pubmed
  21. Villela D, da Silva L, Fontes M. Activation of 5-HT receptors in the periaqueductal gray attenuates the tachycardia evoked from dorsomedial hypothalamus. Auton Neurosci. 2009;148:36-43 pubmed publisher
  22. Cao W, Fan W, Morrison S. Medullary pathways mediating specific sympathetic responses to activation of dorsomedial hypothalamus. Neuroscience. 2004;126:229-40 pubmed
    ..These data increase our understanding of the central pathways mediating changes in sympathetically mediated thermogenesis that is activated in thermoregulation, stress responses and energy balance. ..
  23. Soga T, Kitahashi T, Clarke I, Parhar I. Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone promoter-driven enhanced green fluorescent protein expression decreases during aging in female rats. Endocrinology. 2014;155:1944-55 pubmed publisher
    ..With these animals, we show that EGFP-GnIH neurons are localized mainly in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMN) and project to the hypothalamus, telencephalon, and diencephalic thalamus, which parallels and ..
  24. Marchant N, Furlong T, McNally G. Medial dorsal hypothalamus mediates the inhibition of reward seeking after extinction. J Neurosci. 2010;30:14102-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings identify a role for MDH and its ilPFC afferents and PVT efferents in inhibiting alcoholic beer seeking during extinction expression...
  25. Leitner C, Bartness T. An intact dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, but not the subzona incerta or reuniens nucleus, is necessary for short-day melatonin signal-induced responses in Siberian hamsters. Neuroendocrinology. 2011;93:29-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Neural components in this circuit include the subzona incerta (subZI), dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH) and thalamic reuniens nucleus (ReN)...
  26. Lowry C, Burke K, Renner K, Moore F, Orchinik M. Rapid changes in monoamine levels following administration of corticotropin-releasing factor or corticosterone are localized in the dorsomedial hypothalamus. Horm Behav. 2001;39:195-205 pubmed
    ..These site-specific neurochemical effects parallel neurochemical changes observed in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus of mammals following exposure to a variety of physical and psychological stress-related stimuli...
  27. Zammaretti F, Panzica G, Eva C. Sex-dependent regulation of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y-Y1 receptor gene expression in moderate/high fat, high-energy diet-fed mice. J Physiol. 2007;583:445-54 pubmed
    ..Overall, these results provide new insights into the mechanism by which diet composition affects the hypothalamic circuit that controls energy homeostasis. ..
  28. Kawaguchi M, Scott K, Moran T, Bi S. Dorsomedial hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor mediation of exercise-induced anorexia. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2005;288:R1800-5 pubmed
    ..Central CRF antagonist injection further increased DMH CRF mRNA expression in exercised rats. Together, these data suggest that DMH CRF play a critical role in the anorexia resulting from increased voluntary exercise. ..
  29. Bodnar I, Bánky Z, Nagy G, Halász B. Non-NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist injected into the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus blocks the suckling stimulus-induced release of prolactin. Brain Res Bull. 2005;65:163-8 pubmed
    ..The findings indicate that the glutamatergic innervation of the paraventricular nucleus is involved in the mediation of the neural signal of the suckling stimulus inducing prolactin release. ..
  30. Krawczuk Robak A, Szteyn S, Szatkowski E. Topography and cytoarchitectonics of small-cell nuclei of the tuber cinereum in Insectivora. Anat Anz. 1990;170:63-71 pubmed
  31. Singru P, Sanchez E, Fekete C, Lechan R. Importance of melanocortin signaling in refeeding-induced neuronal activation and satiety. Endocrinology. 2007;148:638-46 pubmed
    ..We conclude that refeeding activates a subset of neurons in the PVN and DMN as a result of increased melanocortin signaling and propose that one or more of these neuronal populations mediate the potent anorexic actions of alpha-MSH. ..
  32. Evans S, Wilkinson C, Gronbeck P, Bennett J, Zavosh A, Taborsky G, et al. Inactivation of the DMH selectively inhibits the ACTH and corticosterone responses to hypoglycemia. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2004;286:R123-8 pubmed
    ..The epinephrine, norepinephrine, and glucagon responses were not altered by DMH inactivation. Our finding suggests that DMH inactivation may play a specific role in decreasing the HPA axis response after repeated bouts of IIH. ..
  33. Ryu V, Zarebidaki E, Albers H, Xue B, Bartness T. Short photoperiod reverses obesity in Siberian hamsters via sympathetically induced lipolysis and Browning in adipose tissue. Physiol Behav. 2018;190:11-20 pubmed publisher
    ..neurons in discrete brain sites, notably the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, arcuate nucleus, locus coeruleus and dorsal motor nucleus of vagus...
  34. Brailoiu G, Dun S, Ohsawa M, Yin D, Yang J, Chang J, et al. KiSS-1 expression and metastin-like immunoreactivity in the rat brain. J Comp Neurol. 2005;481:314-29 pubmed
    ..In the brain, metastin-like immunoreactivity (irMT) was found mainly in three groups of cells: dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, nucleus of the solitary tract, and caudal ventrolateral medulla...
  35. Enriori P, Sinnayah P, Simonds S, Garcia Rudaz C, Cowley M. Leptin action in the dorsomedial hypothalamus increases sympathetic tone to brown adipose tissue in spite of systemic leptin resistance. J Neurosci. 2011;31:12189-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Because the sympathetic nervous system contributes in regulating blood pressure, heart rate, and hepatic glucose production, selective leptin resistance may be a crucial mechanism linking adiposity and metabolic syndrome. ..
  36. Bellinger L, Evans J, Tillberg C, Gietzen D. Effects of dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei lesions on intake of an imbalanced amino acid diet. Am J Physiol. 1999;277:R250-62 pubmed
    ..Earlier work in which the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMN) was electrolytically lesioned (DMNL) determined that this structure plays a role in the early ..
  37. Maruyama M, Nishi M, Konishi M, Takashige Y, Nagashima K, Kiyohara T, et al. Brain regions expressing Fos during thermoregulatory behavior in rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2003;285:R1116-23 pubmed
    ..The present results suggest that the PS and DMH play an important role in the genesis of thermoregulatory behavior, whereas the MnPO may be important for detecting changes in ambient and/or body temperatures. ..
  38. Horiuchi J, McDowall L, Dampney R. Differential control of cardiac and sympathetic vasomotor activity from the dorsomedial hypothalamus. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2006;33:1265-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, central 5-HT(1A) receptors modulate cardiovascular responses evoked from the DMH in a highly potent but selective fashion. ..
  39. Caba M, Tovar A, Silver R, Mogado E, Meza E, Zavaleta Y, et al. Nature's food anticipatory experiment: entrainment of locomotor behavior, suprachiasmatic and dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei by suckling in rabbit pups. Eur J Neurosci. 2008;27:432-43 pubmed publisher
    ..focussing on the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the locus of the master circadian clock and on the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH), a region implicated in timing of food-entrained behavior...
  40. Yang L, Scott K, Hyun J, Tamashiro K, Tray N, Moran T, et al. Role of dorsomedial hypothalamic neuropeptide Y in modulating food intake and energy balance. J Neurosci. 2009;29:179-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results indicate that DMH NPY plays an important role in modulating food intake and energy balance and its dysregulation causes disordered energy balance leading to obesity. ..
  41. Levin B, Govek E, Dunn Meynell A. Reduced glucose-induced neuronal activation in the hypothalamus of diet-induced obese rats. Brain Res. 1998;808:317-9 pubmed
    ..This suggests that enhanced glucose-induced sympathetic activation in DIO rats is related to a failure of glucose to produce neuronal activation in these areas. ..
  42. Sharp J, Magrum L, Gietzen D. Role of MAP kinase in signaling indispensable amino acid deficiency in the brain. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2002;105:11-8 pubmed
  43. Graham E, Turnbull Y, Fotheringham P, Nilaweera K, Mercer J, Morgan P, et al. Neuromedin U and Neuromedin U receptor-2 expression in the mouse and rat hypothalamus: effects of nutritional status. J Neurochem. 2003;87:1165-73 pubmed
    ..The data from the obese rodent models supports the hypothesis that NMU is involved in the regulation of nutritional status. ..
  44. Gooley J, Saper C. Is food-directed behavior an appropriate measure of circadian entrainment to restricted daytime feeding?. J Biol Rhythms. 2007;22:479-83 pubmed
  45. Sévoz Couche C, Brouillard C, Camus F, Laude D, de Boer S, Becker C, et al. Involvement of the dorsomedial hypothalamus and the nucleus tractus solitarii in chronic cardiovascular changes associated with anxiety in rats. J Physiol. 2013;591:1871-87 pubmed publisher
    ..The DMH and the NTS were responsible for these chronic cardiovascular alterations. These regions may therefore constitute new therapeutic targets for reducing cardiac dysfunction and fibrillation in anxiety disorders. ..
  46. Briski K, Sylvester P. Hypothalamic orexin-A-immunpositive neurons express Fos in response to central glucopenia. Neuroreport. 2001;12:531-4 pubmed
    ..following vehicle administration, dual-labeled ORX-A neurons were observed in the LHA, as well as the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMN) and PHA, in both drug-treated groups...
  47. Beck B. Hypothalamic galanin and early state of hyperphagia in obese Zucker rats. Appetite. 2007;48:206-10 pubmed
    ..In agreement with human observations, these data suggest that GAL is not an early player in the development of overeating. ..
  48. Chen P, Smith M. Regulation of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y messenger ribonucleic acid expression during lactation: role of prolactin. Endocrinology. 2004;145:823-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, the results from the present study demonstrate that NPY neurons in the DMH and ARH are differentially regulated by PRL during lactation. ..
  49. Goren M, Aker R, Yananli H, Onat F. Extracellular concentrations of catecholamines and amino acids in the dorsomedial hypothalamus of kindled rats. A microdialysis study. Pharmacology. 2003;68:190-7 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that the autonomic changes in kindling require further studies. ..
  50. Pinto Ribeiro F, Amorim D, David Pereira A, Monteiro A, Costa P, Pertovaara A, et al. Pronociception from the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus is mediated by the rostral ventromedial medulla in healthy controls but is absent in arthritic animals. Brain Res Bull. 2013;99:100-8 pubmed publisher
  51. Chaar L, Coelho A, Silva N, Festuccia W, Antunes V. High-fat diet-induced hypertension and autonomic imbalance are associated with an upregulation of CART in the dorsomedial hypothalamus of mice. Physiol Rep. 2016;4: pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our main findings indicate that high-fat diet induced-hypertension and autonomic imbalance are associated to an upregulation of CART levels in the DMH of mice. ..
  52. Madden C, Morrison S. Excitatory amino acid receptors in the dorsomedial hypothalamus mediate prostaglandin-evoked thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2004;286:R320-5 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that activation of excitatory amino acid receptors within the DMH is necessary for the thermogenic, metabolic, and cardiovascular responses evoked by microinjection of PGE2 into the medial preoptic area. ..
  53. Wang R, Koganezawa T, Terui N. Differential responses of sympathetic premotor neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla to stimulation of the dorsomedial hypothalamus in rabbits. Brain Res. 2010;1356:44-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicated that regional differences in responses of sympathetic nerves in the defense response are supported by functional differentiation of sympathetic premotor neurons in the RVLM. ..