arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus


Summary: A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the THIRD VENTRICLE near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the EPENDYMA.

Top Publications

  1. Frederick A, Goldsmith J, de Zavalía N, Amir S. Mapping the co-localization of the circadian proteins PER2 and BMAL1 with enkephalin and substance P throughout the rodent forebrain. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0176279 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that clock genes are not unique to specific cell types, and further studies will be required to determine the factors that contribute to the regulation of clock gene expression throughout the brain. ..
  2. Zhang H, Taya K, Nagaoka K, Yoshida M, Watanabe G. Neonatal exposure to 17?-ethynyl estradiol (EE) disrupts follicle development and reproductive hormone profiles in female rats. Toxicol Lett. 2017;276:92-99 pubmed publisher
  3. Rathjen T, Yan X, Kononenko N, Ku M, Song K, Ferrarese L, et al. Regulation of body weight and energy homeostasis by neuronal cell adhesion molecule 1. Nat Neurosci. 2017;20:1096-1103 pubmed publisher
    ..These data identify essential roles for Cadm1-mediated neuronal input in weight regulation and provide insight into the central pathways contributing to human obesity. ..
  4. Sominsky L, Ziko I, Nguyen T, Quach J, Spencer S. Hypothalamic effects of neonatal diet: reversible and only partially leptin dependent. J Endocrinol. 2017;234:41-56 pubmed publisher
  5. Hussain S, Richardson E, Ma Y, Holton C, De Backer I, Buckley N, et al. Glucokinase activity in the arcuate nucleus regulates glucose intake. J Clin Invest. 2015;125:337-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Arcuate nucleus glucokinase activation may represent a CNS mechanism that underlies the oft-described phenomena of the "sweet tooth" and carbohydrate craving. ..
  6. Kamegai J, Hasegawa O, Minami S, Sugihara H, Wakabayashi I. The growth hormone-releasing peptide KP-102 induces c-fos expression in the arcuate nucleus. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1996;39:153-9 pubmed
    ..The remaining c-fos mRNA containing cells were unidentified. KP-102 thus appears to act on a subpopulation of GRF neurons and unidentified cells in the ARC to stimulate GH secretion. ..
  7. Chan Y, Steiner R, Clifton D. Regulation of hypothalamic neuropeptide-Y neurons by growth hormone in the rat. Endocrinology. 1996;137:1319-25 pubmed
    ..Whether the action of GH on NPY neurons in the ARC is related to the feedback control of GH secretion or some other physiological function remains to be determined. ..
  8. Andermann M, Lowell B. Toward a Wiring Diagram Understanding of Appetite Control. Neuron. 2017;95:757-778 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this review is to cover the major underpinnings of appetite regulation, describe recent advances resulting from new technologies, and synthesize these findings into an updated view of appetite regulation. ..
  9. Vargas V, Gurung S, Grant B, Hyatt K, Singleton K, Myers S, et al. Gestational hypoxia disrupts the neonatal leptin surge and programs hyperphagia and obesity in male offspring in the Sprague-Dawley rat. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0185272 pubmed publisher
    ..HPX offspring had fewer ?MSH fibers in the PVN vs. NMX offspring on PN16. In conclusion, gestational hypoxia impacts the developing ARH resulting in hyperphagia contributing to adult obesity on a control diet and exacerbated by a HFD. ..

More Information


  1. Matsumoto A, Okada R, Arai Y. Synaptic changes in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of old male rats. Exp Neurol. 1982;78:583-90 pubmed
  2. Nyberg C, Hiney J, Minks J, Dees W. Ethanol alters N-methyl-DL-aspartic acid-induced secretion of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone and the onset of puberty in the female rat. Neuroendocrinology. 1993;57:863-8 pubmed
    ..The mean (+/- SEM) age at VO for animals in the non-ETOH group, which received NMA, was 31.7 +/- 0.40 days. Vaginal smears revealed that D1 occurred at a mean (+/- SEM) age of 33.0 +/- 0.42 days.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  3. Yuan J, Gilbert E, Cline M. The central anorexigenic mechanism of amylin in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) involves pro-opiomelanocortin, calcitonin receptor, and the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2017;210:28-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data provide novel insights on the hypothalamic-specific molecular mechanisms of amylin-induced food intake. ..
  4. Peruzzo B, Pastor F, Blazquez J, Schöbitz K, Pelaez B, Amat P, et al. A second look at the barriers of the medial basal hypothalamus. Exp Brain Res. 2000;132:10-26 pubmed
    ..An explanation is offered for the selective destruction of the arcuate neurons by the parenteral administration of monosodium glutamate to infant rats. ..
  5. Spanswick D, Smith M, Mirshamsi S, Routh V, Ashford M. Insulin activates ATP-sensitive K+ channels in hypothalamic neurons of lean, but not obese rats. Nat Neurosci. 2000;3:757-8 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest hypothalamic K ATP channel function is crucial to physiological regulation of food intake and body weight. ..
  6. Okamura H, Kitahama K, Nagatsu I, Geffard M. Comparative topography of dopamine- and tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons in the rat arcuate nucleus. Neurosci Lett. 1988;95:347-53 pubmed
    ..This study reveals, for the first time, the differences in the respective topography of those neurons which actually contain detectable DA and those which contain TH, the initial synthesizing enzyme of catecholamine. ..
  7. Laplante C, Catanese M, Bansal R, Vandenberg L. Bisphenol S Alters the Lactating Mammary Gland and Nursing Behaviors in Mice Exposed During Pregnancy and Lactation. Endocrinology. 2017;158:3448-3461 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that low doses of BPS can alter lactational behaviors and the maternal mammary gland. Together, they support the hypothesis that pregnancy and lactation are sensitive to low-dose xenoestrogen exposures...
  8. Steculorum S, Colldén G, Coupé B, Croizier S, Lockie S, Andrews Z, et al. Neonatal ghrelin programs development of hypothalamic feeding circuits. J Clin Invest. 2015;125:846-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data reveal that ghrelin plays an inhibitory role in the development of hypothalamic neural circuits and suggest that proper expression of ghrelin during neonatal life is pivotal for lifelong metabolic regulation. ..
  9. Chen S, Chen H, Zhou J, Pradhan G, Sun Y, Pan H, et al. Ghrelin receptors mediate ghrelin-induced excitation of agouti-related protein/neuropeptide Y but not pro-opiomelanocortin neurons. J Neurochem. 2017;142:512-520 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide unequivocal evidence that Ghsr is essential for ghrelin-induced excitation of AgRP/NPY neurons. However, ghrelin excites POMC neurons through an unidentified mechanism that is distinct from conventional Ghsr. ..
  10. Sweeney P, Yang Y. Neural Circuit Mechanisms Underlying Emotional Regulation of Homeostatic Feeding. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2017;28:437-448 pubmed publisher
    ..Together these circuits will provide a template for future studies to examine functional interactions between feeding and emotion. ..
  11. Sahu A, White J, Kalra P, Kalra S. Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y gene expression in rats on scheduled feeding regimen. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1992;15:15-8 pubmed
  12. Lynch R, Tompkins L, Brooks H, Dunn Meynell A, Levin B. Localization of glucokinase gene expression in the rat brain. Diabetes. 2000;49:693-700 pubmed
    ..2 and NPY in GK+ neurons support a role for GK as a primary determinant of glucosensing in neuropeptide neurons that integrate multiple signals relating to peripheral energy metabolism. ..
  13. Jhanwar Uniyal M, Beck B, Jhanwar Y, Burlet C, Leibowitz S. Neuropeptide Y projection from arcuate nucleus to parvocellular division of paraventricular nucleus: specific relation to the ingestion of carbohydrate. Brain Res. 1993;631:97-106 pubmed
    ..These results, together with other findings, provide support for a role of endogenous NPY and its projection from the ARC to the pPVN, perhaps via the DMN, in controlling natural appetite for carbohydrate. ..
  14. Gruenewald D, Naai M, Marck B, Matsumoto A. Age-related decrease in neuropeptide-Y gene expression in the arcuate nucleus of the male rat brain is independent of testicular feedback. Endocrinology. 1994;134:2383-9 pubmed
    ..This reduction in NPY synthetic capacity may contribute to altered reproductive function and food intake with aging. ..
  15. Cieslak M, Ingham R, Ingham J, Grafton S. Anomalous white matter morphology in adults who stutter. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2015;58:268-77 pubmed publisher
    ..These previously unseen structural differences of WM morphology in classical speech-language circuits may underlie developmental stuttering. ..
  16. Jing Y, Zhang L, Gao L, Qi C, Lv D, Song Y, et al. Autophagy plays beneficial effect on diabetic encephalopathy in type 2 diabetes: studies in vivo and in vitro. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2017;38:27-37 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that autophagy activation confers protection to neurons under aberrant metabolism and that autophagy dysfunction in the hypothalamus occurs in the chronic metabolic disorder such as T2DM. ..
  17. Secher A, Jelsing J, Baquero A, Hecksher Sørensen J, Cowley M, Dalbøge L, et al. The arcuate nucleus mediates GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide-dependent weight loss. J Clin Invest. 2014;124:4473-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our findings indicate that the GLP-1R on POMC/CART-expressing ARC neurons likely mediates liraglutide-induced weight loss. ..
  18. Sun L, Miller R. Multiple neuropeptide Y receptors regulate K+ and Ca2+ channels in acutely isolated neurons from the rat arcuate nucleus. J Neurophysiol. 1999;81:1391-403 pubmed
    ..Thus activation of multiple types NPY receptors on arcuate neurons can regulate both Ca2+ and K+ conductances leading to a reduction in neuronal excitability and a suppression of neurotransmitter release. ..
  19. Shi Z, Madden C, Brooks V. Arcuate neuropeptide Y inhibits sympathetic nerve activity via multiple neuropathways. J Clin Invest. 2017;127:2868-2880 pubmed publisher
    ..Considering that chronic obesity decreases ArcN NPY content, we propose that the ArcN NPY neuropathway to the PVN and DMH is pivotal in obesity-induced elevations in SNA. ..
  20. Brady L, Smith M, Gold P, Herkenham M. Altered expression of hypothalamic neuropeptide mRNAs in food-restricted and food-deprived rats. Neuroendocrinology. 1990;52:441-7 pubmed
  21. Yu W, Walczewska A, Karanth S, McCann S. Nitric oxide mediates leptin-induced luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) and LHRH and leptin-induced LH release from the pituitary gland. Endocrinology. 1997;138:5055-8 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, LH release induced by LHRH is also mediated by NO. ..
  22. Adekunbi D, Li X, Li S, Adegoke O, Iranloye B, Morakinyo A, et al. Role of amygdala kisspeptin in pubertal timing in female rats. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0183596 pubmed publisher
    ..These data show that the MePD plays a key role in pubertal timing and ovulation and that maternal obesity may act via amygdala kisspeptin signaling to influence reproductive function in the offspring. ..
  23. Vanacker C, Moya M, DeFazio R, Johnson M, Moenter S. Long-Term Recordings of Arcuate Nucleus Kisspeptin Neurons Reveal Patterned Activity That Is Modulated by Gonadal Steroids in Male Mice. Endocrinology. 2017;158:3553-3564 pubmed publisher
    ..The observation that KNDy neurons fire in an episodic manner that is regulated by steroid feedback is consistent with a role for these neurons in GnRH pulse generation and regulation. ..
  24. Foradori C, Whitlock B, Daniel J, Zimmerman A, Jones M, Read C, et al. Kisspeptin Stimulates Growth Hormone Release by Utilizing Neuropeptide Y Pathways and Is Dependent on the Presence of Ghrelin in the Ewe. Endocrinology. 2017;158:3526-3539 pubmed publisher
    ..In turn, NPY stimulates GHRH cells and inhibits SS cells, resulting in GH release. We propose a mechanism by which kisspeptin conveys reproductive and hormone status onto the somatotropic axis, resulting in alterations in GH release. ..