Summary: Diminution or cessation of secretion of one or more hormones from the anterior pituitary gland (including LH; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; SOMATOTROPIN; and CORTICOTROPIN). This may result from surgical or radiation ablation, non-secretory PITUITARY NEOPLASMS, metastatic tumors, infarction, PITUITARY APOPLEXY, infiltrative or granulomatous processes, and other conditions.

Top Publications

  1. Popovic V, Mattsson A, Gaillard R, Wilton P, Koltowska Haggstrom M, Ranke M. Serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), IGF-binding proteins 2 and 3, and the risk for development of malignancies in adults with growth hormone (GH) deficiency treated with GH: data from KIMS (Pfizer International Metabolic Database). J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:4449-54 pubmed publisher
    ..01)]. IGF-I levels targeted to within normal age-related reference ranges during GH replacement were not associated with the occurrence of malignancies. Higher IGFBP-2 and/or IGFBP-3 SDSs may be associated with increased cancer risk. ..
  2. Marek J, Jezkova J, Hana V, Krsek M, Bandúrová L, Pecen L, et al. Is it possible to avoid hypopituitarism after irradiation of pituitary adenomas by the Leksell gamma knife?. Eur J Endocrinol. 2011;164:169-78 pubmed publisher
    ..The most common side effect associated with Leksell gamma knife (LGK) irradiation is the development of hypopituitarism. The aim of this study was to verify that hypopituitarism does not develop if the maximum mean dose to ..
  3. Schneider H, Schneider M, Kreitschmann Andermahr I, Tuschy U, Wallaschofski H, Fleck S, et al. Structured assessment of hypopituitarism after traumatic brain injury and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in 1242 patients: the German interdisciplinary database. J Neurotrauma. 2011;28:1693-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of post-traumatic hypopituitarism in a large national registry of patients with TBI and SAH...
  4. Norwood K, DeBoer M, Gurka M, Kuperminc M, Rogol A, Blackman J, et al. Traumatic brain injury in children and adolescents: surveillance for pituitary dysfunction. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2010;49:1044-9 pubmed publisher
    Children who sustain traumatic brain injury (TBI) are at risk for developing hypopituitarism, of which growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is the most common manifestation...
  5. Fernandez Rodriguez E, Quinteiro C, Barreiro J, Marazuela M, Pereiro I, Peino R, et al. Pituitary stalk dysgenesis-induced hypopituitarism in adult patients: prevalence, evolution of hormone dysfunction and genetic analysis. Neuroendocrinology. 2011;93:181-8 pubmed publisher
  6. Elbornsson M, Götherström G, Bosæus I, Bengtsson B, Johannsson G, Svensson J. Fifteen years of GH replacement increases bone mineral density in hypopituitary patients with adult-onset GH deficiency. Eur J Endocrinol. 2012;166:787-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Fifteen-year GH replacement in GHD adults induced a sustained increase in total body and lumbar (L2-L4) spine BMC and BMD. In femur neck, BMC and BMD peaked at 7 years and then decreased towards baseline values. ..
  7. McCabe M, Gaston Massuet C, Gregory L, Alatzoglou K, Tziaferi V, Sbai O, et al. Variations in PROKR2, but not PROK2, are associated with hypopituitarism and septo-optic dysplasia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98:E547-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent data suggest overlapping phenotypes/genotypes between KS and congenital hypopituitarism (CH), including septo-optic dysplasia (SOD)...
  8. Xu Z, Lee Vance M, Schlesinger D, Sheehan J. Hypopituitarism after stereotactic radiosurgery for pituitary adenomas. Neurosurgery. 2013;72:630-7; 636-7 pubmed publisher
    Studies of new-onset Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS)-induced hypopituitarism in large cohort of pituitary adenoma patients with long-term follow-up are lacking...
  9. Reynaud R, Jayakody S, Monnier C, Saveanu A, Bouligand J, Guedj A, et al. PROKR2 variants in multiple hypopituitarism with pituitary stalk interruption. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:E1068-73 pubmed publisher
    Pituitary stalk interruption represents a frequent feature of congenital hypopituitarism, but only rare cases have been assigned to a known genetic cause.

More Information


  1. Sathyapalan T, Dixit S. Radiotherapy-induced hypopituitarism: a review. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2012;12:669-83 pubmed publisher
    b>Hypopituitarism is a disorder caused by impaired hormonal secretions from the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Radiotherapy is the most common cause of iatrogenic hypopituitarism...
  2. Hughes J, Piltz S, Rogers N, McAninch D, Rowley L, Thomas P. Mechanistic insight into the pathology of polyalanine expansion disorders revealed by a mouse model for X linked hypopituitarism. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003290 pubmed publisher
    ..to generate mice with a polyalanine expansion mutation in Sox3 (Sox3-26ala) that is associated with X-linked Hypopituitarism (XH) in humans...
  3. Galichet C, Lovell Badge R, Rizzoti K. Nestin-Cre mice are affected by hypopituitarism, which is not due to significant activity of the transgene in the pituitary gland. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11443 pubmed publisher
    ..Pituitary hormonal deficiencies, or hypopituitarism, are associated with a wide range of symptoms and with a significant morbidity...
  4. Tungaria A, Kumar V, Garg P, Jaiswal A, Behari S. Giant, thrombosed, sellar-suprasellar internal carotid artery aneurysm with persistent, primitive trigeminal artery causing hypopituitarism. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2011;153:1129-33 pubmed publisher
    ..paraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm with persistent primitive trigeminal artery (PPTA) causing hypopituitarism that manifested as hypogonadism, hypothyroidism, and hypocortisolism is reported...
  5. Kelesidis T, Tsiodras S. Hypopituitarism caused by neurocysticercosis. Am J Med Sci. 2011;341:414-6 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Hypopituitarism as a complication of neurocysticercosis is exceedingly rare with only 2 cases described in the literature...
  6. Bechtold Dalla Pozza S, Hiedl S, Roeb J, Lohse P, Malik R, Park S, et al. A recessive mutation resulting in a disabling amino acid substitution (T194R) in the LHX3 homeodomain causes combined pituitary hormone deficiency. Horm Res Paediatr. 2012;77:41-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe pediatric patients with combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD) who harbor a novel mutation in LHX3...
  7. Gasco V, Beccuti G, Baldini C, Prencipe N, di Giacomo S, Berton A, et al. Acylated ghrelin as a provocative test for the diagnosis of GH deficiency in adults. Eur J Endocrinol. 2013;168:23-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Obesity strongly reduces GH response to ghrelin, GH weight-related cut-off limit and diagnostic reliability of the test. ..
  8. Burman P, Mattsson A, Johannsson G, Hoybye C, Holmer H, Dahlqvist P, et al. Deaths among adult patients with hypopituitarism: hypocortisolism during acute stress, and de novo malignant brain tumors contribute to an increased mortality. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98:1466-75 pubmed publisher
    Patients with hypopituitarism have an increased standardized mortality rate. The basis for this has not been fully clarified...
  9. Kokshoorn N, Smit J, Nieuwlaat W, Tiemensma J, Bisschop P, Groote Veldman R, et al. Low prevalence of hypopituitarism after traumatic brain injury: a multicenter study. Eur J Endocrinol. 2011;165:225-31 pubmed publisher
    b>Hypopituitarism after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is considered to be a prevalent condition...
  10. Alatzoglou K, Kelberman D, Cowell C, Palmer R, Arnhold I, Melo M, et al. Increased transactivation associated with SOX3 polyalanine tract deletion in a patient with hypopituitarism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96:E685-90 pubmed publisher
    ..function resulting from expansion of the first polyalanine (PA) tract are associated with variable degrees of hypopituitarism, with or without mental retardation...
  11. Gaillard R, Mattsson A, Akerblad A, Bengtsson B, Cara J, Feldt Rasmussen U, et al. Overall and cause-specific mortality in GH-deficient adults on GH replacement. Eur J Endocrinol. 2012;166:1069-77 pubmed publisher
    b>Hypopituitarism is associated with an increased mortality rate but the reasons underlying this have not been fully elucidated...
  12. Bonfig W, Krude H, Schmidt H. A novel mutation of LHX3 is associated with combined pituitary hormone deficiency including ACTH deficiency, sensorineural hearing loss, and short neck-a case report and review of the literature. Eur J Pediatr. 2011;170:1017-21 pubmed publisher
    ..All patients with LHX3 defects should undergo longitudinal screening for ACTH deficiency, since corticotrope function may decline over time. All patients should have auditory testing to allow for regular speech development. ..
  13. Jovanovic V, Pekic S, Stojanovic M, Tasic G, Djurovic B, Soldatovic I, et al. Neuroendocrine dysfunction in patients recovering from subarachnoid hemorrhage. Hormones (Athens). 2010;9:235-44 pubmed
    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a recently identified risk factor for hypopituitarism, particularly growth hormone (GH) and corticotrophins deficiencies...
  14. Raivio T, Avbelj M, McCabe M, Romero C, Dwyer A, Tommiska J, et al. Genetic overlap in Kallmann syndrome, combined pituitary hormone deficiency, and septo-optic dysplasia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:E694-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Kallmann syndrome (KS), combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD), and septo-optic dysplasia (SOD) all result from development defects of the anterior midline in the human forebrain...
  15. Dateki S, Fukami M, Uematsu A, Kaji M, Iso M, Ono M, et al. Mutation and gene copy number analyses of six pituitary transcription factor genes in 71 patients with combined pituitary hormone deficiency: identification of a single patient with LHX4 deletion. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:4043-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The results imply the rarity of abnormalities affecting the six genes in patients with CPHD and the significance of the gene copy number analysis in such patients. ..
  16. Sobrier M, Brachet C, Vie Luton M, Perez C, Copin B, Legendre M, et al. Symptomatic heterozygotes and prenatal diagnoses in a nonconsanguineous family with syndromic combined pituitary hormone deficiency resulting from two novel LHX3 mutations. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:E503-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Isolated limitation of head rotation may exist in heterozygous carriers and would result from a dominant-negative effect. These data allowed the first prenatal diagnoses of this severe condition to be performed. ..
  17. França M, Jorge A, Carvalho L, Costalonga E, Vasques G, Leite C, et al. Novel heterozygous nonsense GLI2 mutations in patients with hypopituitarism and ectopic posterior pituitary lobe without holoprosencephaly. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:E384-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Magnetic resonance imaging of four patients with GLI2 mutations and hypopituitarism showed a hypoplastic anterior pituitary and an ectopic posterior pituitary lobe without HPE...
  18. Gardner C, Javadpour M, Stoneley C, Purthuran M, Biswas S, Daousi C, et al. Low prevalence of hypopituitarism after subarachnoid haemorrhage using confirmatory testing and with BMI-specific GH cut-off levels. Eur J Endocrinol. 2013;168:473-81 pubmed publisher
    b>Hypopituitarism following subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) has been reported to be a frequent occurrence...
  19. Zaben M, El Ghoul W, Belli A. Post-traumatic head injury pituitary dysfunction. Disabil Rehabil. 2013;35:522-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Post-traumatic hypopituitarism (PTHP) can affect all grades of severity of injury and is often difficult to diagnose, as its features ..
  20. Attanasio A, Jung H, Mo D, Chanson P, Bouillon R, Ho K, et al. Prevalence and incidence of diabetes mellitus in adult patients on growth hormone replacement for growth hormone deficiency: a surveillance database analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96:2255-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The present analysis showed no evidence for increased DM incidence in GH-treated adult hypopituitary patients. However, those more prone to develop DM exhibited a higher than normal prevalence of obesity. ..
  21. Kozlowski Moreau O, Yollin E, Merlen E, Daveluy W, Rousseaux M. Lasting pituitary hormone deficiency after traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma. 2012;29:81-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, TBI patients with cognitive sequelae must undergo pituitary screening because growth hormone, corticotropin, and thyrotropin deficits are particularly common and can adversely affect ADL and reduce QoL. ..
  22. Gascoin Lachambre G, Brauner R, Duche L, Chalumeau M. Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome: diagnostic delay and sensitivity of the auxological criteria of the growth hormone research society. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16367 pubmed publisher
    ..5 SDS below the target height. The specificity of such a strategy needs to be tested in healthy populations. ..
  23. Böttner A, Keller E, Kratzsch J, Stobbe H, Weigel J, Keller A, et al. PROP1 mutations cause progressive deterioration of anterior pituitary function including adrenal insufficiency: a longitudinal analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:5256-65 pubmed
  24. Woods K, Cundall M, Turton J, Rizotti K, Mehta A, Palmer R, et al. Over- and underdosage of SOX3 is associated with infundibular hypoplasia and hypopituitarism. Am J Hum Genet. 2005;76:833-49 pubmed
    Duplications of Xq26-27 have been implicated in the etiology of X-linked hypopituitarism associated with mental retardation (MR)...
  25. Darzy K, Shalet S. Hypopituitarism as a consequence of brain tumours and radiotherapy. Pituitary. 2005;8:203-11 pubmed
  26. Rottembourg D, Linglart A, Adamsbaum C, Lahlou N, Teinturier C, Bougneres P, et al. Gonadotrophic status in adolescents with pituitary stalk interruption syndrome. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2008;69:105-11 pubmed
    ..The occurrence of gonadotrophin deficiency in 33% of children with apparently isolated GHD and PSIS has important implications for the counselling and follow-up of these patients. ..
  27. Schneider H, Kreitschmann Andermahr I, Ghigo E, Stalla G, Agha A. Hypothalamopituitary dysfunction following traumatic brain injury and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a systematic review. JAMA. 2007;298:1429-38 pubmed
    ..history of this complication, and the potential clinical and public health implications of posttraumatic hypopituitarism. The MEDLINE database was searched for articles published between 2000 and 2007 using any combination of the ..
  28. Agha A, Monson J. Modulation of glucocorticoid metabolism by the growth hormone - IGF-1 axis. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2007;66:459-65 pubmed
  29. Alatzoglou K, Dattani M. Genetic forms of hypopituitarism and their manifestation in the neonatal period. Early Hum Dev. 2009;85:705-12 pubmed publisher
    ..transgenic murine models have demonstrated a role for many of these molecules in the aetiology of congenital hypopituitarism. These include the transcription factors HESX1, PROP1, POU1F1, LHX3, LHX4, PITX1, PITX2, OTX2, SOX2 and SOX3...
  30. Aimaretti G, Ambrosio M, Di Somma C, Fusco A, Cannavo S, Gasperi M, et al. Traumatic brain injury and subarachnoid haemorrhage are conditions at high risk for hypopituitarism: screening study at 3 months after the brain injury. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2004;61:320-6 pubmed
    Acquired hypopituitarism in adults is obviously suspected in patients with primary hypothalamic-pituitary diseases, particularly after neurosurgery and/or radiotherapy...
  31. Kelestimur F. Sheehan's syndrome. Pituitary. 2003;6:181-8 pubmed
    ..It is one of the most common causes of hypopituitarism in underdeveloped or developing countries...
  32. Dziurzynski K, Delashaw J, Gultekin S, Yedinak C, Fleseriu M. Diabetes insipidus, panhypopituitarism, and severe mental status deterioration in a patient with chordoid glioma: case report and literature review. Endocr Pract. 2009;15:240-5 pubmed
    ..To describe a rare progressive case of chordoid glioma clinically masquerading as idiopathic diabetes insipidus (DI)...
  33. Voges J, Kocher M, Runge M, Poggenborg J, Lehrke R, Lenartz D, et al. Linear accelerator radiosurgery for pituitary macroadenomas: a 7-year follow-up study. Cancer. 2006;107:1355-64 pubmed
    ..However, the lower therapeutic radiation dose did not prevent radiation-induced damage of pituitary function completely. ..
  34. Abs R, Feldt Rasmussen U, Mattsson A, Monson J, Bengtsson B, Goth M, et al. Determinants of cardiovascular risk in 2589 hypopituitary GH-deficient adults - a KIMS database analysis. Eur J Endocrinol. 2006;155:79-90 pubmed
  35. Koltowska Haggstrom M, Mattsson A, Monson J, Kind P, Badia X, Casanueva F, et al. Does long-term GH replacement therapy in hypopituitary adults with GH deficiency normalise quality of life?. Eur J Endocrinol. 2006;155:109-19 pubmed
    ..The lasting improvement and almost identical pattern of response in each patient subgroup and independent of the level of QoL impairment support the hypothesis that GHD may cause these patients' psychological problems. ..
  36. Xue Fei S, Yong Fei W, Shi Qi L, Jing Song W, Yao Z, Ying M, et al. Microsurgical treatment for giant and irregular pituitary adenomas in a series of 54 consecutive patients. Br J Neurosurg. 2008;22:636-48 pubmed publisher
    ..The tumour removal rate can be increased with the help of neuro-endoscope, neuronavigation techniques and intraoperative MRI. ..
  37. Kokshoorn N, Wassenaar M, Biermasz N, Roelfsema F, Smit J, Romijn J, et al. Hypopituitarism following traumatic brain injury: prevalence is affected by the use of different dynamic tests and different normal values. Eur J Endocrinol. 2010;162:11-8 pubmed publisher
    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has emerged as an important cause of hypopituitarism. However, considerable variations in the prevalence of hypopituitarism are reported...
  38. De Bellis A, Kelestimur F, Sinisi A, Ruocco G, Tirelli G, Battaglia M, et al. Anti-hypothalamus and anti-pituitary antibodies may contribute to perpetuate the hypopituitarism in patients with Sheehan's syndrome. Eur J Endocrinol. 2008;158:147-52 pubmed publisher
    ..with Sheehan's syndrome (SS) suggesting an autoimmune pituitary involvement in the development of their hypopituitarism, hypothalamic cell anti-hypothalamus antibodies (AHAs) have not been investigated so far...
  39. Mikami Terao Y, Akiyama M, Yanagisawa T, Takahashi Fujigasaki J, Yokoi K, Fukuoka K, et al. Lymphocytic hypophysitis with central diabetes insipidus and subsequent hypopituitarism masking a suprasellar germinoma in a 13-year-old girl. Childs Nerv Syst. 2006;22:1338-43 pubmed
    We report a case of central diabetes insipidus, hypothyroidism, and subsequent hypopituitarism due to lymphocytic hypophysitis masking a germinoma in a 13-year-old pubertal girl...
  40. Feldt Rasmussen U, Wilton P, Jonsson P. Aspects of growth hormone deficiency and replacement in elderly hypopituitary adults. Growth Horm IGF Res. 2004;14 Suppl A:S51-8 pubmed
    ..001), but there was no difference between groups in the degree of hypopituitarism (number of additional hormone deficiencies)...
  41. Monson J, Jonsson P, Koltowska Haggstrom M, Kourides I. Growth hormone (GH) replacement decreases serum total and LDL-cholesterol in hypopituitary patients on maintenance HMG CoA reductase inhibitor (statin) therapy. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2007;67:623-8 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that GH replacement exerts additional beneficial effects on lipoprotein profiles in patients on maintenance statin therapy, confirming that the effects of these interventions are complementary rather than exclusive. ..
  42. Jenkins P, Bates P, Carson M, Stewart P, Wass J. Conventional pituitary irradiation is effective in lowering serum growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I in patients with acromegaly. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91:1239-45 pubmed
    ..5 ng/ml and a normal age-corrected IGF-I and the time taken to achieve this, and 3) the incidence of hypopituitarism and other adverse effects...
  43. Pekic S, Cvijovic G, Stojanovic M, Kendereski A, Micic D, Popovic V. Hypopituitarism as a late complication of hemorrhagic fever. Endocrine. 2005;26:79-82 pubmed
    We report three patients who developed hypopituitarism as a late complication of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). Their past history, physical examination, and endocrine investigation confirmed hypopituitarism...
  44. McMillan C, Bradley C, Gibney J, Russell Jones D, Sonksen P. Preliminary development of the new individualized HDQoL questionnaire measuring quality of life in adult hypopituitarism. J Eval Clin Pract. 2006;12:501-14 pubmed
    ..of hormonal deficiency and its treatment; (2) to evaluate the HDQoL's psychometric properties for adults with hypopituitarism including growth hormone deficiency (GHD)...
  45. Gauna C, Meyler F, Janssen J, Delhanty P, Abribat T, van Koetsveld P, et al. Administration of acylated ghrelin reduces insulin sensitivity, whereas the combination of acylated plus unacylated ghrelin strongly improves insulin sensitivity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:5035-42 pubmed
  46. de Graaff L, Argente J, Veenma D, Drent M, Uitterlinden A, Hokken Koelega A. PROP1, HESX1, POU1F1, LHX3 and LHX4 mutation and deletion screening and GH1 P89L and IVS3+1/+2 mutation screening in a Dutch nationwide cohort of patients with combined pituitary hormone deficiency. Horm Res Paediatr. 2010;73:363-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Future research should focus on alternative explanations for CPHD, like other genes or environmental factors. ..
  47. Franco C, Johannsson G, Bengtsson B, Svensson J. Baseline characteristics and effects of growth hormone therapy over two years in younger and elderly adults with adult onset GH deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91:4408-14 pubmed
    ..Duration of hypopituitarism was, however, longer in the elderly patients. The mean maintenance dose of GH was 0.31 (sem, 0...
  48. Murray P, Hague C, Fafoula O, Patel L, Raabe A, Cusick C, et al. Associations with multiple pituitary hormone deficiency in patients with an ectopic posterior pituitary gland. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2008;69:597-602 pubmed publisher
    ..presence of an ectopic posterior pituitary gland (EPP) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is associated with hypopituitarism with one or more hormone deficiencies...
  49. Holmer H, Svensson J, Rylander L, Johannsson G, Rosen T, Bengtsson B, et al. Nonfatal stroke, cardiac disease, and diabetes mellitus in hypopituitary patients on hormone replacement including growth hormone. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:3560-7 pubmed
    ..GHD women had an increased prevalence of T2D, partly attributed to higher body mass index and lower physical activity. ..
  50. Rahman N, Davenport M, Buchanan C. Galactocele in a male infant with congenital hypopituitarism. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2004;17:1451-3 pubmed
    ..It is a rare cause of breast enlargement in children. We report a galactocele in a male child with congenital hypopituitarism and propose an association between the two conditions.
  51. Klose M, Brennum J, Poulsgaard L, Kosteljanetz M, Wagner A, Feldt Rasmussen U. Hypopituitarism is uncommon after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2010;73:95-101 pubmed publisher
    Aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) has recently been reported as a common cause of chronic hypopituitarism, and introduction of routine neuroendocrine screening has been advocated...
  52. Leal Cerro A, Flores J, Rincon M, Murillo F, Pujol M, Garcia Pesquera F, et al. Prevalence of hypopituitarism and growth hormone deficiency in adults long-term after severe traumatic brain injury. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2005;62:525-32 pubmed
    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been associated with hypopituitarism and GH deficiency. However, TBI-mediated hypopituitarism may be more frequent than previously thought...
  53. Van Esch H, Poirier K, de Zegher F, Holvoet M, Bienvenu T, Chelly J, et al. ARX mutation in a boy with transsphenoidal encephalocele and hypopituitarism. Clin Genet. 2004;65:503-5 pubmed