hyperprolactinemia

Summary

Summary: Increased levels of PROLACTIN in the BLOOD, which may be associated with AMENORRHEA and GALACTORRHEA. Relatively common etiologies include PROLACTINOMA, medication effect, KIDNEY FAILURE, granulomatous diseases of the PITUITARY GLAND, and disorders which interfere with the hypothalamic inhibition of prolactin release. Ectopic (non-pituitary) production of prolactin may also occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp77-8)

Top Publications

  1. Byerly M, Suppes T, Tran Q, Baker R. Clinical implications of antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia in patients with schizophrenia spectrum or bipolar spectrum disorders: recent developments and current perspectives. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2007;27:639-61 pubmed
    b>Hyperprolactinemia is increasingly studied as a frequent and potentially important consequence of antipsychotic medication treatment...
  2. Stalldecker G, Mallea Gil M, Guitelman M, Alfieri A, Ballarino M, Boero L, et al. Effects of cabergoline on pregnancy and embryo-fetal development: retrospective study on 103 pregnancies and a review of the literature. Pituitary. 2010;13:345-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Observational, retrospective and multicenter study on 103 pregnancies in 90 women with hyperprolactinemia. All patients were under CAB at conception. Serum prolactin at baseline was between 30 and 1921 ng/ml...
  3. Wu L, Huang E, Tao P. Coadministration of dextromethorphan during pregnancy and throughout lactation prevents morphine-induced hyperprolactinemia in female rats. Fertil Steril. 2010;93:1686-94 pubmed publisher
    To investigate whether coadministration of dextromethorphan (DM) could suppress morphine-induced hyperprolactinemia in female rats during pregnancy and throughout lactation. Controlled prospective study. University research laboratory...
  4. Beda Maluga K, Pisarek H, Komorowski J, Pawlikowski M, Swiętosławski J, Winczyk K. The detection of macroprolactin by precipitation and ultrafiltration methods. Endokrynol Pol. 2011;62:529-36 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of MaPRL in hyperprolactinaemic patients and to compare the results obtained by precipitation and ultrafiltration...
  5. Calarge C, Ellingrod V, Acion L, Miller D, Moline J, Tansey M, et al. Variants of the dopamine D2 receptor gene and risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia in children and adolescents. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2009;19:373-82 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the association between hyperprolactinemia and variants of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene in children and adolescents in long-term treatment with risperidone...
  6. Newey P, Gorvin C, Cleland S, Willberg C, Bridge M, Azharuddin M, et al. Mutant prolactin receptor and familial hyperprolactinemia. N Engl J Med. 2013;369:2012-2020 pubmed publisher
    b>Hyperprolactinemia that is not associated with gestation or the puerperium is usually due to tumors in the anterior pituitary gland and occurs occasionally in hereditary multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes...
  7. Shibli Rahhal A, Schlechte J. Hyperprolactinemia and infertility. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2011;40:837-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinically significant tumor enlargement during pregnancy is uncommon and dependent on tumor size and prepregnancy treatment. ..
  8. Dos Santos Nunes V, El Dib R, Boguszewski C, Nogueira C. Cabergoline versus bromocriptine in the treatment of hyperprolactinemia: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials and meta-analysis. Pituitary. 2011;14:259-65 pubmed publisher
    Cabergoline and bromocriptine are the most used drugs in the treatment of hyperprolactinemia, they are able to normalize the prolactin levels, restore gonadal function and promote tumor reduction in the majority of patients...
  9. Sousa G, Oliveira R, Pereira M, Parana R, Sousa Atta M, Atta A. Autoimmunity in hepatitis C virus carriers: involvement of ferritin and prolactin. Autoimmun Rev. 2011;10:210-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Ferritin and prolactin levels were determined by chemiluminescent immunoassays. Hyperprolactinemia was found in 10 (six men and four women) out of 99 (10.1%) hepatitis C patients. Thirty-eight out of 99 (38...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Hattori N, Ishihara T, Saiki Y, Shimatsu A. Macroprolactinaemia in patients with hyperprolactinaemia: composition of macroprolactin and stability during long-term follow-up. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2010;73:792-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This study showed that higher PEG-precipitable PRL ratio in macroprolactinaemic sera might preferentially indicate the presence of anti-PRL autoantibodies and that macroprolactinaemia might be a long-lasting condition. ..
  2. Skopek M, Manoj P. Hyperprolactinaemia during treatment with paliperidone. Australas Psychiatry. 2010;18:261-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Detailed education should accompany the monitoring process and include discussion of the risks of associated adverse effects of antipsychotic medications versus the benefit of significant symptom relief. ..
  3. Saranac L, Zivanovic S, Radovanovic Z, Kostic G, Markovic I, Miljkovic P. Hyperprolactinemia: different clinical expression in childhood. Horm Res Paediatr. 2010;73:187-92 pubmed publisher
    b>Hyperprolactinemia is the most common disturbance in pituitary gland secretion. Functional diversity of prolactin action is responsible for different initial clinical expressions of hyperprolactinemia.
  4. Wang M, Mou C, Jiang M, Han L, Fan S, Huan C, et al. The characteristics of acromegalic patients with hyperprolactinemia and the differences in patients with merely GH-secreting adenomas: clinical analysis of 279 cases. Eur J Endocrinol. 2012;166:797-802 pubmed publisher
    ..aim of this study is to evaluate clinical data from a large cohort of acromegalic patients with and without hyperprolactinemia. Between January 2002 and June 2010, a set of data on 279 acromegalic patients undergoing transsphenoidal ..
  5. Kavanagh Wright L, Smith T, Gibney J, McKenna T. Characterization of macroprolactin and assessment of markers of autoimmunity in macroprolactinaemic patients. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2009;70:599-605 pubmed publisher
    ..Comprehensive analysis of macroprolactin confirmed its composition as an IgG molecule or fragment with a PRL molecule. The occurrence of macroprolactin does not appear to be associated with autoimmunity. ..
  6. Sonigo C, Bouilly J, Carré N, Tolle V, Caraty A, Tello J, et al. Hyperprolactinemia-induced ovarian acyclicity is reversed by kisspeptin administration. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:3791-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Hyperprolactinemia is the most common cause of hypogonadotropic anovulation and is one of the leading causes of infertility in women aged 25-34. Hyperprolactinemia has been proposed to block ovulation through inhibition of GnRH release...
  7. Bahceci M, Sismanoglu A, Ulug U. Comparison of cabergoline and bromocriptine in patients with asymptomatic incidental hyperprolactinemia undergoing ICSI-ET. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2010;26:505-8 pubmed publisher
    ..3% vs. 2.5%; p = 0.0004). In conclusion, we found that cabergoline and bromocriptine showed no differences in IVF outcomes and pregnancy results in patients with AIH. ..
  8. Babey M, Sahli R, Vajtai I, Andres R, Seiler R. Pituitary surgery for small prolactinomas as an alternative to treatment with dopamine agonists. Pituitary. 2011;14:222-30 pubmed publisher
    ..5 months. Patients with small prolactinomas can safely consider pituitary surgery in a specialized centre with good chance of long-term remission as an alternative to long-term DA therapy...
  9. Hattori N, Ishihara T, Saiki Y. Macroprolactinaemia: prevalence and aetiologies in a large group of hospital workers. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2009;71:702-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The major aetiology of macroprolactin in our subjects was complexes of prolactin-IgG comprising mainly anti-prolactin autoantibodies, and other minor complex prolactin species. ..
  10. Orbach H, Zandman Goddard G, Boaz M, Agmon Levin N, Amital H, Szekanecz Z, et al. Prolactin and autoimmunity: hyperprolactinemia correlates with serositis and anemia in SLE patients. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2012;42:189-98 pubmed publisher
    Evidence points to an association of prolactin to autoimmune diseases. We examined the correlation between hyperprolactinemia and disease manifestations and activity in a large patient cohort...
  11. Kuloglu M, Ekinci O, Albayrak Y, Caykoylu A. Benefits of switching women schizophrenic patients to aripiprazole: a case study and brief review of the literature. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2010;13:443-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Hyperprolactinemia, an adverse side-effect of the use of typical and some atypical antipsychotics, has both acute and chronic clinical consequences...
  12. Yasui Furukori N, Furukori H, Sugawara N, Fujii A, Kaneko S. Dose-dependent effects of adjunctive treatment with aripiprazole on hyperprolactinemia induced by risperidone in female patients with schizophrenia. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2010;30:596-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Hyperprolactinemia is a frequent consequence of treatment with risperidone. Recent studies have suggested that aripiprazole, a partial dopamine agonist, reduces the prolactin response to antipsychotics...
  13. Motazedian S, Babakhani L, Fereshtehnejad S, Mojthahedi K. A comparison of bromocriptine & cabergoline on fertility outcome of hyperprolactinemic infertile women undergoing intrauterine insemination. Indian J Med Res. 2010;131:670-4 pubmed
    ..A total of 183 infertile women with hyperprolactinemia undergoing intrauterine insemination (IUI) were randomly divided into two groups...
  14. Valassi E, Klibanski A, Biller B. Clinical Review#: Potential cardiac valve effects of dopamine agonists in hyperprolactinemia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:1025-33 pubmed publisher
    ..quot;bromocriptine," "pergolide," "prolactin," "prolactinoma," or "hyperprolactinemia." All publications from 1950 to August, 2008, were screened for use in this review...
  15. Jerrell J, Bacon J, Burgis J, Menon S. Hyperprolactinemia-related adverse events associated with antipsychotic treatment in children and adolescents. J Adolesc Health. 2009;45:70-6 pubmed publisher
    To characterize factors related to the development of hyperprolactinemia and the ensuing reproductive/sexual adverse events in children and adolescents treated with antipsychotic and other psychotropic agents, and the additional risk ..
  16. Rossi A, Teixeira Gomes R, de Jesus Simões M, Dos Santos Simões R, Oliveira P, Soares J, et al. Effects of metoclopramide-induced hyperprolactinemia on the prolactin receptor of murine endometrium. Fertil Steril. 2010;93:1643-9 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the effects of metoclopramide-induced hyperprolactinemia on the prolactin receptor of murine endometrium.
  17. Praprotnik S, Agmon Levin N, Porat Katz B, Blank M, Meroni P, Cervera R, et al. Prolactin's role in the pathogenesis of the antiphospholipid syndrome. Lupus. 2010;19:1515-9 pubmed publisher
    ..05). The data indirectly imply that prolactin may play a role in the pathogenesis of antiphospholipid syndrome, especially antiphospholipid syndrome-related reproductive failure. ..
  18. Nunes L, Moreira H, Razzouk D, Nunes S, Mari J. Strategies for the treatment of antipsychotic-induced sexual dysfunction and/or hyperprolactinemia among patients of the schizophrenia spectrum: a review. J Sex Marital Ther. 2012;38:281-301 pubmed publisher
    There is limited evidence for the management of sexual dysfunction and/or hyperprolactinemia resulting from use of antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia and spectrum...
  19. Kars M, Souverein P, Herings R, Romijn J, Vandenbroucke J, de Boer A, et al. Estimated age- and sex-specific incidence and prevalence of dopamine agonist-treated hyperprolactinemia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94:2729-34 pubmed publisher
    Few data exist on sex- and age-specific incidence and prevalence of idiopathic hyperprolactinemia and prolactinomas. Our objective was to assess incidence and prevalence of dopamine agonist-treated hyperprolactinemia by age and sex...
  20. Wakil A, Rigby A, Clark A, Kallvikbacka Bennett A, Atkin S. Low dose cabergoline for hyperprolactinaemia is not associated with clinically significant valvular heart disease. Eur J Endocrinol. 2008;159:R11-4 pubmed publisher
    ..6 and 0.8-78.4, P=0.04 and P<0.0001 respectively). Cabergoline at doses sufficient to suppress hyperprolactinaemia for a period of 3-4 years is not associated with an increased risk of clinically significant valvular regurgitation. ..
  21. Ono M, Miki N, Amano K, Kawamata T, Seki T, Makino R, et al. Individualized high-dose cabergoline therapy for hyperprolactinemic infertility in women with micro- and macroprolactinomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:2672-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Cabergoline was withdrawn at the fourth gestational week. Cabergoline normalized hyperprolactinemia and recovered the ovulatory cycle in all patients...
  22. Hong J, Lee M, Kim S, Lee E. Discrimination of prolactinoma from hyperprolactinemic non-functioning adenoma. Endocrine. 2010;37:140-7 pubmed publisher
    ..to evaluate characteristics that discriminate prolactinoma from non-functioning pituitary macroadenoma with hyperprolactinemia. We included 117 patients with hyperprolactinemic pituitary macroadenomas...
  23. Kadmiel M, Fritz Six K, Pacharne S, Richards G, Li M, Skerry T, et al. Research resource: Haploinsufficiency of receptor activity-modifying protein-2 (RAMP2) causes reduced fertility, hyperprolactinemia, skeletal abnormalities, and endocrine dysfunction in mice. Mol Endocrinol. 2011;25:1244-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Ramp2(+/-) female mice also exhibit hyperprolactinemia during pregnancy and in basal conditions...
  24. Tamer G, Telci A, Mert M, Uzum A, Aral F, Tanakol R, et al. Prevalence of pituitary adenomas in macroprolactinemic patients may be higher than it is presumed. Endocrine. 2012;41:138-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Many macroprolactinemic patients have no pituitary adenomas and no clinical symptoms of hyperprolactinemia, it is controversial whether macroprolactinemia is a benign condition that does not need further ..
  25. Rainka M, Capote H, Ross C, Gengo F. Attenuation of risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia with the addition of aripiprazole. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2009;34:595-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Hyperprolactinemia can be a complication of conventional neurolepics as well as risperidone. We report the third case of attenuation of risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia by aripiprazole.
  26. Anaforoglu I, Ertorer M, Kozanoglu I, Unal B, Haydardedeoglu F, Bakiner O, et al. Macroprolactinemia, like hyperprolactinemia, may promote platelet activation. Endocrine. 2010;37:294-300 pubmed publisher
    ..Although it often accompanies hyperprolactinemia, findings conflict concerning its clinical impact in macroprolactinemia...
  27. Gibson C, Karmally W, McMahon D, Wardlaw S, Korner J. Randomized pilot study of cabergoline, a dopamine receptor agonist: effects on body weight and glucose tolerance in obese adults. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2012;14:335-40 pubmed publisher
  28. Henderson D, Doraiswamy P. Prolactin-related and metabolic adverse effects of atypical antipsychotic agents. J Clin Psychiatry. 2008;69 Suppl 1:32-44 pubmed
    ..Increased levels of prolactin (hyperprolactinemia) associated with some antipsychotics raises the risk of sexual side effects...
  29. Yuan H, Wang C, Sze C, Tong Y, Tan Q, Feng X, et al. A randomized, crossover comparison of herbal medicine and bromocriptine against risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia in patients with schizophrenia. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2008;28:264-370 pubmed publisher
    b>Hyperprolactinemia is a common adverse effect that occurs as a result of antipsychotic therapies, which often results in discontinuation...
  30. Berinder K, Akre O, Granath F, Hulting A. Cancer risk in hyperprolactinemia patients: a population-based cohort study. Eur J Endocrinol. 2011;165:209-15 pubmed publisher
    ..that prolactin might play a role in tumorigenesis of several human cancers, but data on cancer risk in hyperprolactinemia patients are sparse. The aim of this study was to investigate cancer risk in hyperprolactinemia patients...
  31. Mancini T, Casanueva F, Giustina A. Hyperprolactinemia and prolactinomas. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2008;37:67-99, viii pubmed publisher
    ..its transport to the pituitary gland, or its action at the level of lactotroph dopamine receptors can cause hyperprolactinemia. As described in this article, considering the complexity of prolactin regulation, many factors could cause ..
  32. Bogazzi F, Manetti L, Raffaelli V, Lombardi M, Rossi G, Martino E. Cabergoline therapy and the risk of cardiac valve regurgitation in patients with hyperprolactinemia: a meta-analysis from clinical studies. J Endocrinol Invest. 2008;31:1119-23 pubmed
    ..Whether these drugs might be harmful for patients with hyperprolactinemia is still unsettled...
  33. Akkaya C, Kaya B, Kotan Z, Sarandol A, Ersoy C, Kirli S. Hyperprolactinemia and possibly related development of prolactinoma during amisulpride treatment; three cases. J Psychopharmacol. 2009;23:723-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Antipsychotic drugs are the mainstay of treatment in schizophrenia. Hyperprolactinemia, which is a common side effect of typical antipsychotics, is also associated with the use of some of the ..
  34. Pugliese Pires P, Tonelli C, Dora J, Silva P, Czepielewski M, Simoni G, et al. A novel STAT5B mutation causing GH insensitivity syndrome associated with hyperprolactinemia and immune dysfunction in two male siblings. Eur J Endocrinol. 2010;163:349-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Both siblings had laboratory findings compatible with GHI associated with hyperprolactinemia. Lymphopenia and reduced number of natural killer cells without immunoglobulin abnormalities were observed...
  35. McCudden C, Sharpless J, Grenache D. Comparison of multiple methods for identification of hyperprolactinemia in the presence of macroprolactin. Clin Chim Acta. 2010;411:155-60 pubmed publisher
    ..for interpreting the prolactin concentration after PEG-precipitation, and correlate the clinical features of hyperprolactinemia with the presence of macroprolactin. PEG-precipitation was performed on 120 hyperprolactinemic specimens...
  36. Anderson G, Kieser D, Steyn F, Grattan D. Hypothalamic prolactin receptor messenger ribonucleic acid levels, prolactin signaling, and hyperprolactinemic inhibition of pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion are dependent on estradiol. Endocrinology. 2008;149:1562-70 pubmed
    b>Hyperprolactinemia can reduce fertility and libido. Although central prolactin actions are thought to contribute to this, the mechanisms are poorly understood...
  37. Byerly M, Marcus R, Tran Q, Eudicone J, Whitehead R, Baker R. Effects of aripiprazole on prolactin levels in subjects with schizophrenia during cross-titration with risperidone or olanzapine: analysis of a randomized, open-label study. Schizophr Res. 2009;107:218-22 pubmed publisher
    b>Hyperprolactinemia, an adverse effect associated with the use of typical antipsychotics and the atypical antipsychotic risperidone, has both acute and chronic clinical consequences...
  38. de Soárez P, Souza S, Vieira J, Ferraz M. The effect of identifying macroprolactinemia on health-care utilization and costs in patients with elevated serum prolactin levels. Value Health. 2009;12:930-4 pubmed
    ..Six hundred fifty-four of 1793 patients (36.5%) had hyperprolactinemia because of macroprolactin. The average number of tests per individual was higher (P = 0...
  39. Hoffer Z, Roth R, Mathews M. Evidence for the partial dopamine-receptor agonist aripiprazole as a first-line treatment of psychosis in patients with iatrogenic or tumorogenic hyperprolactinemia. Psychosomatics. 2009;50:317-24 pubmed publisher
    ..the burgeoning literature suggesting that aripiprazole is efficacious in treating iatrogenic and tumorogenic hyperprolactinemia. The authors conducted a literature search for case studies, reports, and placebo-controlled trials that ..
  40. Kikuchi T, Iwamoto K, Sasada K, Aleksic B, Yoshida K, Ozaki N. Sexual dysfunction and hyperprolactinemia in Japanese schizophrenic patients taking antipsychotics. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2012;37:26-32 pubmed publisher
    ..the prevalence of sexual dysfunction, evaluated by the Nagoya Sexual Function Questionnaire (NSFQ), and hyperprolactinemia in patients with schizophrenia and examine a relationship between sexual dysfunction and serum prolactin ..
  41. Tsigkaropoulou E, Peppa M, Zompola C, Rizos E, Xelioti I, Chatziioannou S, et al. Hypogonadism due to hyperprolactinemia and subsequent first episode of psychosis. Gend Med. 2012;9:56-60 pubmed publisher
    b>Hyperprolactinemia causes hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. Hyperprolactinemia can be pre-existing in some patients with schizophrenia...
  42. Saha S, Gonzalez J, Rosenfeld G, Keiser H, Peeva E. Prolactin alters the mechanisms of B cell tolerance induction. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;60:1743-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of hyperprolactinemia on the mechanisms of B cell tolerance induction...
  43. Wallace I, Satti N, Courtney C, Leslie H, Bell P, Hunter S, et al. Ten-year clinical follow-up of a cohort of 51 patients with macroprolactinemia establishes it as a benign variant. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:3268-71 pubmed publisher
    Macroprolactinemia is a common finding in patients with hyperprolactinemia. There are no published long-term follow-up studies...
  44. Kharlip J, Salvatori R, Yenokyan G, Wand G. Recurrence of hyperprolactinemia after withdrawal of long-term cabergoline therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94:2428-36 pubmed publisher
    Recurrence of hyperprolactinemia after cabergoline withdrawal ranges widely from 36 to 80%. The Pituitary Society recommends withdrawal of cabergoline in selected patients.
  45. Shelly S, Boaz M, Orbach H. Prolactin and autoimmunity. Autoimmun Rev. 2012;11:A465-70 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Hyperprolactinemia (HPRL) in women present with clinical manifestations of galactorrhea, primary or secondary amenorrhea, ..
  46. Maggi M, Buvat J, Corona G, Guay A, Torres L. Hormonal causes of male sexual dysfunctions and their management (hyperprolactinemia, thyroid disorders, GH disorders, and DHEA). J Sex Med. 2013;10:661-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Only severe hyperprolactinemia (>35 ng/mL or 735 mU/L), often related to a pituitary tumor, has a negative impact on sexual function, ..
  47. Can M, Guven B, Atmaca H, Acikgoz S, Mungan G. Clinical characterization of patients with macroprolactinemia and monomeric hyperprolactinemia. Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2011;27:173-6 pubmed publisher
    ..study was to investigate the clinical findings and the concentrations of macroprolactin in patients with hyperprolactinemia in our region. Eighty-four female hyperprolactinemic patients were screened for macroprolactinemia...
  48. Chahal J, Schlechte J. Hyperprolactinemia. Pituitary. 2008;11:141-6 pubmed publisher
    ..primary regulation of prolactin secretion is mediated through hypothalamic inhibition, and the diagnosis of hyperprolactinemia can be established without the use of stimulation or suppression tests...
  49. Buyukbayrak E, Karageyim Karsidag A, Kars B, Balcik O, Pirimoglu M, Unal O, et al. Effectiveness of short-term maintenance treatment with cabergoline in microadenoma-related and idiopathic hyperprolactinemia. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2010;282:561-6 pubmed publisher
    ..dosage of cabergoline during maintenance treatment for patients with microadenoma-related and idiopathic hyperprolactinemia. Cabergoline was administered orally at a dose of 0...
  50. Lee M, Song H, An H, Yang J, Ko Y, Jung I, et al. Effect of bromocriptine on antipsychotic drug-induced hyperprolactinemia: eight-week randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2010;64:19-27 pubmed publisher
    ..to assess the efficacy and safety of bromocriptine treatment for patients with antipsychotic-drug-induced hyperprolactinemia in clinical practice. This was an 8-week randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study...
  51. Dekkers O, Lagro J, Burman P, Jørgensen J, Romijn J, Pereira A. Recurrence of hyperprolactinemia after withdrawal of dopamine agonists: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:43-51 pubmed publisher
    Dopamine agonists are the treatment of choice for prolactinomas and symptomatic idiopathic hyperprolactinemia. However, the optimal treatment strategy and treatment duration is not clear in all details.
  52. Melmed S, Casanueva F, Hoffman A, Kleinberg D, Montori V, Schlechte J, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of hyperprolactinemia: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96:273-88 pubmed publisher
    The aim was to formulate practice guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of hyperprolactinemia.
  53. O Keane V. Antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinaemia, hypogonadism and osteoporosis in the treatment of schizophrenia. J Psychopharmacol. 2008;22:70-5 pubmed publisher