pituitary diseases


Summary: Disorders involving either the ADENOHYPOPHYSIS or the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. These diseases usually manifest as hypersecretion or hyposecretion of PITUITARY HORMONES. Neoplastic pituitary masses can also cause compression of the OPTIC CHIASM and other adjacent structures.

Top Publications

  1. Caturegli P, Newschaffer C, Olivi A, Pomper M, Burger P, Rose N. Autoimmune hypophysitis. Endocr Rev. 2005;26:599-614 pubmed
    ..The present review synthesizes the clinical and research data reported in this body of scientific literature. ..
  2. Lupi I, Broman K, Tzou S, Gutenberg A, Martino E, Caturegli P. Novel autoantigens in autoimmune hypophysitis. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2008;69:269-78 pubmed publisher
    ..The study reports two novel proteins that could act as autoantigens in autoimmune hypophysitis. Further studies are needed to validate their pathogenic role and diagnostic utility. ..
  3. Gellner V, Kurschel S, Scarpatetti M, Mokry M. Lymphocytic hypophysitis in the pediatric population. Childs Nerv Syst. 2008;24:785-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The efficacy of medical treatment is still controversial; a close follow-up is necessary to control and correct the endocrinological function, if required. ..
  4. Fernandez Rodriguez E, Quinteiro C, Barreiro J, Marazuela M, Pereiro I, Peino R, et al. Pituitary stalk dysgenesis-induced hypopituitarism in adult patients: prevalence, evolution of hormone dysfunction and genetic analysis. Neuroendocrinology. 2011;93:181-8 pubmed publisher
  5. Mehndiratta M, Phul P, Singh A, Garg S, Bali R. Granulomatous hypophysitis--an interesting and rare cause mimicking pituitary mass. J Assoc Physicians India. 2007;55:653-4 pubmed
    ..The usual clinical presentation is that of an expanding mass lesion with varying degree of hypopituitarism. This patient described presented to us with severe headache along with panhypopituitarism and post-operative diabetes insipidus. ..
  6. Cavallo L, Dal Fabbro M, Jalalod din H, Messina A, Esposito I, Esposito F, et al. Endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery. Before scrubbing in: tips and tricks. Surg Neurol. 2007;67:342-7 pubmed
  7. Caturegli P, Lupi I, Landek Salgado M, Kimura H, Rose N. Pituitary autoimmunity: 30 years later. Autoimmun Rev. 2008;7:631-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This review summarizes the advances made in the field since the publication of the first review on pituitary autoimmunity, and the challenges that await clarification. ..
  8. Bondanelli M, Ambrosio M, Cavazzini L, Bertocchi A, Zatelli M, Carli A, et al. Anterior pituitary function may predict functional and cognitive outcome in patients with traumatic brain injury undergoing rehabilitation. J Neurotrauma. 2007;24:1687-97 pubmed
    ..The GH peak value is an independent predictor of outcome, indicating that recovery during an intensive rehabilitation program after TBI may be positively influenced by normal GH secretion. ..
  9. Leong K, Walker A, Martin I, Wile D, Wilding J, MacFarlane I. An audit of 500 subcutaneous glucagon stimulation tests to assess growth hormone and ACTH secretion in patients with hypothalamic-pituitary disease. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2001;54:463-8 pubmed
    ..The 240 minute sample added little additional information and could be omitted. ..

More Information


  1. Tauber M, Chevrel J, Diene G, Moulin P, Jouret B, Oliver I, et al. Long-term evolution of endocrine disorders and effect of GH therapy in 35 patients with pituitary stalk interruption syndrome. Horm Res. 2005;64:266-73 pubmed
    ..002). GH treatment is very effective: in 13 patients, final height was -0.4 +/- 1.0, total height gain 3.2 +/- 1.2 and distance to target height -0.3 +/- 1.6 SDS. ..
  2. Houdouin L, Polivka M, Henegar C, Blanquet A, Delalande O, Mikol J. [Pituitary germinoma and lymphocytic hypophysitis: a pitfall. Report of two cases]. Ann Pathol. 2003;23:349-54 pubmed
  3. Stott V, Manning P, Hung N. Idiopathic granulomatous hypophysitis. N Z Med J. 2005;118:U1355 pubmed
  4. van Dam P. Neurocognitive function in adults with growth hormone deficiency. Horm Res. 2005;64 Suppl 3:109-14 pubmed
  5. Mikami Terao Y, Akiyama M, Yanagisawa T, Takahashi Fujigasaki J, Yokoi K, Fukuoka K, et al. Lymphocytic hypophysitis with central diabetes insipidus and subsequent hypopituitarism masking a suprasellar germinoma in a 13-year-old girl. Childs Nerv Syst. 2006;22:1338-43 pubmed
    ..Despite prednisolone therapy, 1 year later an enlarged, irregular cystic mass lesion had developed; in the pituitary stalk and inferior hypothalamus, a endoscopic biopsy revealed germinoma...
  6. Bettendorf M, Fehn M, Grulich Henn J, Selle B, Darge K, Lüdecke D, et al. Lymphocytic hypophysitis with central diabetes insipidus and consequent panhypopituitarism preceding a multifocal, intracranial germinoma in a prepubertal girl. Eur J Pediatr. 1999;158:288-92 pubmed
    ..However, the subsequent MRI showed multiple intracranial lesions identified histologically as a germinoma and a standard chemotherapy and radiation was performed...
  7. Ozbey N, Sencer A, Tanyolac S, Kurt R, Sencer S, Bilgic B, et al. An intrasellar germinoma with normal cerebrospinal fluid beta-HCG concentrations misdiagnosed as hypophysitis. Hormones (Athens). 2006;5:67-71 pubmed
    ..Histopathological examination is essential in equivocal cases in order to reach accurate diagnosis and apply the most appropriate therapy...
  8. Gutenberg A, Buslei R, Fahlbusch R, Buchfelder M, Bruck W. Immunopathology of primary hypophysitis: implications for pathogenesis. Am J Surg Pathol. 2005;29:329-38 pubmed
  9. Endo T, Kumabe T, Ikeda H, Shirane R, Yoshimoto T. Neurohypophyseal germinoma histologically misidentified as granulomatous hypophysitis. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2002;144:1233-7 pubmed
    ..We must consider the possibility of neurohypophyseal germinoma in patients with granulomatous hypophysitis which does not respond to corticosteroid therapy, and perform re-exploration for more specimens to achieve the correct diagnosis. ..
  10. de Divitiis E, Cappabianca P. Endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery. Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg. 2002;27:137-77 pubmed
  11. Cheung C, Ezzat S, Smyth H, Asa S. The spectrum and significance of primary hypophysitis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86:1048-53 pubmed
    ..Histological confirmation of the diagnosis of hypophysitis can be obtained by performing a biopsy or by requesting an intraoperative frozen section consultation...
  12. Valassi E, Brick D, Johnson J, Biller B, Klibanski A, Miller K. Effect of growth hormone replacement therapy on the quality of life in women with growth hormone deficiency who have a history of acromegaly versus other disorders. Endocr Pract. 2012;18:209-18 pubmed publisher
    ..To compare the response in quality of life (QoL) to growth hormone (GH) replacement in women with GH deficiency (GHD) and a history of acromegaly with that in women with GHD of other causes...
  13. Gutenberg A, Bell J, Lupi I, Tzou S, Landek Salgado M, Kimura H, et al. Pituitary and systemic autoimmunity in a case of intrasellar germinoma. Pituitary. 2011;14:388-94 pubmed publisher
  14. Rao S, Rajkumar A, Kuruvilla S. Sellar lesion: not always a pituitary adenoma. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2008;51:269-70 pubmed
  15. Rittierodt M, Hori A. Pre-morbid morphological conditions of the human pituitary. Neuropathology. 2007;27:43-8 pubmed
    ..g., pituitary tumor transforming gene, hormonal stimuli, etc.) for it to become manifest, although there was no direct morphological evidence in our findings to alter to the lesions. ..
  16. Hattori Y, Tahara S, Ishii Y, Kitamura T, Inomoto C, Osamura R, et al. A case of IgG4-related hypophysitis without pituitary insufficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98:1808-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We described the first case of IgG4-related hypophysitis without pituitary insufficiency. However, further case collection is needed to characterize the pathophysiology of IgG4-related hypophysitis. ..
  17. Bondanelli M, Ambrosio M, Carli A, Bergonzoni A, Bertocchi A, Zatelli M, et al. Predictors of pituitary dysfunction in patients surviving ischemic stroke. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:4660-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified specific risk factors for hypopituitarism after stroke, which may help to select patients needing an accurate endocrine evaluation to improve stroke outcome. ..
  18. Meckler G, Lindemulder S. Fever and neutropenia in pediatric patients with cancer. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2009;27:525-44 pubmed publisher
    ..This article reviews the concepts involved in the evaluation and management of febrile, neutropenic, pediatric cancer patients. ..
  19. Aszalós Z. [Some neurological and psychiatric complications of the disorders of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal system]. Orv Hetil. 2007;148:723-30 pubmed
    ..The most characteristic neurological sign of pituitary adenoma is the visual field defect. Carpal tunnel syndrome, obstructive sleeping apnoe and headache are typical neurological features in somatotrop adenomas. ..
  20. Lin M, Janss A, Wrubel D, Meacham L. Seventeen-year-old adolescent with pituitary abscess. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2011;24:771-3 pubmed
    ..He continues to require thyroid, adrenal and anti-diuretic hormone replacements. As with any pituitary lesion, prompt complete hypothalamic pituitary evaluation is essential to avoid potentially life-threatening consequences. ..
  21. Little M, Guilfoyle M, Bulters D, Scoffings D, O Donovan D, Kirkpatrick P. Neurenteric cyst of the anterior cranial fossa: case report and literature review. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2011;153:1519-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Complete surgical excision is the treatment of choice, with good prognosis. ..
  22. Gutenberg A, Caturegli P, Metz I, Martinez R, Mohr A, Bruck W, et al. Necrotizing infundibulo-hypophysitis: an entity too rare to be true?. Pituitary. 2012;15:202-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The possible pathogenesis of this rare variant of hypophysitis is discussed. ..
  23. Davis S, Ellsworth B, Perez Millan M, Gergics P, Schade V, Foyouzi N, et al. Pituitary gland development and disease: from stem cell to hormone production. Curr Top Dev Biol. 2013;106:1-47 pubmed publisher
  24. Rabasseda X. A report from the endocrine society's 94th annual meeting & expo (June 23-26 - Houston, Texas, USA). Drugs Today (Barc). 2012;48:615-25 pubmed publisher
    ..New and investigational treatments for these conditions are summarized in the following report, based on the oral and poster presentations during the meeting. ..
  25. Malik M, Aberle J, Flitsch J. CSF fistulas after transsphenoidal pituitary surgery--a solved problem?. J Neurol Surg A Cent Eur Neurosurg. 2012;73:275-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The goal of this article is to focus on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistulas after transsphenoidal surgery and discuss possible risk factors and treatment options, including less common procedures in persistent CSF fistulas...
  26. Prieto P, Yang J, Sherry R, Hughes M, Kammula U, White D, et al. CTLA-4 blockade with ipilimumab: long-term follow-up of 177 patients with metastatic melanoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2012;18:2039-47 pubmed publisher
    ..The combination of ipilimumab and interleukin-2 seems to have an increased CR rate, but this needs to be tested in a randomized trial. ..
  27. Beech J, Boston R, Lindborg S. Comparison of cortisol and ACTH responses after administration of thyrotropin releasing hormone in normal horses and those with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction. J Vet Intern Med. 2011;25:1431-8 pubmed publisher
    ..ACTH and cortisol concentrations are disassociated in horses with PPID. Measuring ACTH concentration after TRH administration appears superior to measuring cortisol concentration as a diagnostic test for PPID. ..
  28. Rhee S, Pearce E. Update: Systemic Diseases and the Cardiovascular System (II). The endocrine system and the heart: a review. Rev Esp Cardiol. 2011;64:220-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We also review the cardiovascular benefits of restoring normal endocrine function. ..
  29. Petersenn S, Quabbe H, Schofl C, Stalla G, von Werder K, Buchfelder M. The rational use of pituitary stimulation tests. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2010;107:437-43 pubmed publisher
    ..For some pituitary axes, measurement of basal hormone levels suffices; for others, stimulation tests are required. In general, the performance of combined pituitary tests should be viewed with caution. ..
  30. Baoke H, Shihui W, Maonian Z, Zhaohui L, Zhitong Z, Zhigang S, et al. Bilateral dacryoadenitis complicated by lymphocytic hypophysitis. J Neuroophthalmol. 2009;29:214-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our patients add support to the idea that DA and LyH are manifestations of a systemic autoimmune disease. We suggest that the discovery of DA should prompt imaging and endocrine investigation of LyH...
  31. Janeczko C, McHugh J, Rawluk D, Farrell M, Brennan P, Delanty N. Hypophysitis secondary to ruptured Rathke's cyst mimicking neurosarcoidosis. J Clin Neurosci. 2009;16:599-600 pubmed publisher
    ..The biopsy revealed lymphocytic hypophysitis secondary to a ruptured Rathke's cyst. This report highlights a rare pathology and the importance of a tissue diagnosis before undertaking non-surgical management of a pituitary mass...
  32. Wei Q, Zang L, Li Y, Gu W, Jin N, Guo Q, et al. [An analysis of four cases of misdiagnosed primary lymphocytic hypophysitis]. Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi. 2017;56:512-515 pubmed publisher
  33. Posch B, Dobson J, Herrtage M. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in 15 acromegalic cats. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2011;52:422-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Transtentorial herniation was present in one cat. Histopathology confirmed the presence of a pituitary adenoma in two cases. MRI is a useful modality to establish the diagnosis of acromegaly. ..
  34. Rizzoti K. Adult pituitary progenitors/stem cells: from in vitro characterization to in vivo function. Eur J Neurosci. 2010;32:2053-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Some of these aspects will also be developed in this review. ..
  35. Sundaresan P, Jayamohan J. Stereotactic radiotherapy for the treatment of neurosarcoidosis involving the pituitary gland and hypothalamus. J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol. 2008;52:622-6 pubmed publisher
  36. Hemminki K, Shu X, Li X, Ji J, Sundquist J, Sundquist K. Familial risks for hospitalization with endocrine diseases. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:4755-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The results call for further studies to sort out the challengingly high sibling risk for many individual nonthyroid endocrine diseases, whether they are due to bias or possible recessive effects. ..
  37. Husain N, Husain M, Rao P. Pituitary tuberculosis mimicking idiopathic granulomatous hypophysitis. Pituitary. 2008;11:313-5 pubmed
  38. Essais O, Jomaa R, Bougerra R, Marrakchi Z, Ben Salem L, Ouertani H, et al. [Hypothalamic-pituitary Langerhans cell histiocytosis in adults]. Presse Med. 2006;35:1263-6 pubmed
    ..The clinical polymorphism of Langerhans cell histiocytosis makes this disease difficult and often slow to diagnose. ..
  39. Krarup T, Hagen C. [Autoimmune hypophysitis]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2010;172:875-80 pubmed
    ..The symptoms are caused by enlargement of the pituitary gland and disturbances of the hormone function. Treatment is either immunosuppressive treatment or surgery. ..
  40. Kim H, Kang S, Huh P, Yoo D, Cho K, Kim D. Pituitary abscess in a pregnant woman. J Clin Neurosci. 2007;14:1135-9 pubmed
    ..Although the patient was pregnant, the transsphenoidal approach was safe for the mother and the fetus. Surgical drainage and antibiotic therapy are required for the definitive treatment of this condition. ..
  41. Kinoshita Y, Yamasaki F, Usui S, Amatya V, Tominaga A, Sugiyama K, et al. Solitary Langerhans cell histiocytosis located in the neurohypophysis with a positive titer HCG-β in the cerebrospinal fluid. Childs Nerv Syst. 2016;32:901-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The finding of a slightly positive HCG-β titer in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cannot exclude the possibility of LCH, and we strongly recommend a histological diagnosis for the diagnosis of a solitary neurohypophysial lesion. ..
  42. Suzuki K, Izawa N, Nakamura T, Hashimoto K, Ouchi K, Sakuta H, et al. Lymphocytic hypophysitis accompanied by aseptic meningitis mimics subacute meningoencephalitis. Intern Med. 2011;50:2025-30 pubmed
    ..A diagnosis of lymphocytic hypophysitis with aseptic meningitis was made after the exclusion of secondary hypophysitis. Lymphocytic hypophysitis with aseptic meningitis can mimic subacute meningoencephalitis. ..
  43. Ben Ghorbel I, Ennaifer R, Haouet S, Khanfir M, Lamloum M, Miled M, et al. [Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma revealed by a pituitary gland diffusion]. Rev Med Interne. 2008;29:54-7 pubmed
    ..The extrapulmonary diffusion of the disease is extremely rare, and in our knowledge any case of pituitary diffusion has ever been reported in the literature...
  44. Bansal S, Mandal K, Kamal A. Painful vertical diplopia as a presentation of a pituitary mass. BMC Ophthalmol. 2007;7:4 pubmed
    ..This led to an initial working diagnosis of orbital myositis. Awareness of different modes of presentation of pituitary lesions is important so that appropriate imaging may be requested and delay in diagnosis prevented. ..
  45. McFarlane D, Holbrook T. Cytokine dysregulation in aged horses and horses with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction. J Vet Intern Med. 2008;22:436-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The general decrease in proinflammatory cytokine expression observed in horses with PPID may be the outcome of high plasma concentrations of anti-inflammatory hormones. ..
  46. Rigon F, Tato L, Tonini G, Bernasconi S, Bona G, Bozzola E, et al. Menstrual disorders in adolescence. Minerva Pediatr. 2006;58:227-46 pubmed
    ..The treatment of dysmenorrhea and quantitative alterations of the menstrual cycle is the focus of this article. ..
  47. McFarlane D. Advantages and limitations of the equine disease, pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction as a model of spontaneous dopaminergic neurodegenerative disease. Ageing Res Rev. 2007;6:54-63 pubmed
    ..In this review, the similarities and differences in the pathology of neurodegeneration in PPID and PD are compared. The potential utility of the horse as a model of spontaneous dopaminergic neurodegeneration is discussed. ..
  48. Kumar J, Kumar A, Sharma R, Vashisht S. Magnetic resonance imaging of sellar and suprasellar pathology: a pictorial review. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. 2007;36:227-36 pubmed
    ..Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the modality of choice for evaluating this region. We discuss and illustrate these lesions and discuss the MR imaging features that are helpful in formulating an appropriate differential diagnosis. ..
  49. Darzy K, Pezzoli S, Thorner M, Shalet S. Cranial irradiation and growth hormone neurosecretory dysfunction: a critical appraisal. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:1666-72 pubmed
    ..It is therefore possible that radiation in doses less than 40 Gy causes dual damage to both the pituitary and the hypothalamus. ..
  50. Dubourg J, Messerer M. Sports-related chronic repetitive head trauma as a cause of pituitary dysfunction. Neurosurg Focus. 2011;31:E2 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this paper was to summarize the best evidence for understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms and to discuss the current data and recommendations on sports-related head trauma as a cause of hypopituitarism. ..
  51. Tritos N, Greenspan S, King D, Hamrahian A, Cook D, Jönsson P, et al. Unreplaced sex steroid deficiency, corticotropin deficiency, and lower IGF-I are associated with lower bone mineral density in adults with growth hormone deficiency: a KIMS database analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96:1516-23 pubmed publisher
    ..001) were independently associated with sBMD. Hormone variables associated with lower sBMD in patients with adult-onset GHD include unreplaced sex steroid deficiency and corticotropin deficiency in the LS and lower IGF-I SDS in the FN. ..
  52. Moskowitz S, Hamrahian A, Prayson R, Pineyro M, Lorenz R, Weil R. Concurrent lymphocytic hypophysitis and pituitary adenoma. Case report and review of the literature. J Neurosurg. 2006;105:309-14 pubmed
    ..This is the first documented case of LyH in the setting of a null-cell pituitary adenoma. The authors review the related literature and outline potential mechanisms for the concurrent development of LyH and a pituitary adenoma. ..
  53. Han B, Li L, Wang C, Guo Q, Lv Z, Mu Y, et al. Correlation between Pituitary Stalk Interruption Syndrome and Prokineticin Receptor 2 and Prokineticin 2 Mutations. Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. 2016;38:37-41 pubmed publisher
    ..991G>A), and the remaining one patient exhibited intragenic subsititution of exon 2 (c.1057C>T). No PROK2 mutation was found in these PSIS patients. PROKR2 may be the susceptibility gene of PSIS. ..