migraine without aura


Summary: Recurrent unilateral pulsatile headaches, not preceded or accompanied by an aura, in attacks lasting 4-72 hours. It is characterized by PAIN of moderate to severe intensity; aggravated by physical activity; and associated with NAUSEA and / or PHOTOPHOBIA and PHONOPHOBIA. (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)

Top Publications

  1. Siniatchkin M, Reich A, Shepherd A, van Baalen A, Siebner H, Stephani U. Peri-ictal changes of cortical excitability in children suffering from migraine without aura. Pain. 2009;147:132-40 pubmed publisher
    ..and motor (resting motor threshold and cortical silent period) cortex in ten children suffering from migraine without aura and ten healthy age-matched controls...
  2. Kirchmann M, Seven E, Bjornsson A, Björnssdóttir G, Gulcher J, Stefansson K, et al. Validation of the deCODE Migraine Questionnaire (DMQ3) for use in genetic studies. Eur J Neurol. 2006;13:1239-44 pubmed
    We assessed the reliability of the diagnosis of migraine with aura (MA) and migraine without aura (MO) based on the third edition of the deCODE Migraine Questionnaire (DMQ3) using a physician-conducted interview as an empirical index of ..
  3. Reyngoudt H, Paemeleire K, Dierickx A, Descamps B, Vandemaele P, De Deene Y, et al. Does visual cortex lactate increase following photic stimulation in migraine without aura patients? A functional (1)H-MRS study. J Headache Pain. 2011;12:295-302 pubmed publisher
    ..the high-energy phosphates adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and phosphocreatine (PCr) in the occipital lobe of migraine without aura (MwoA) patients, at least in a subgroup, in a phosphorus MRS ((31)P-MRS) study...
  4. Benedek K, Tajti J, Janaky M, Vecsei L, Benedek G. Spatial contrast sensitivity of migraine patients without aura. Cephalalgia. 2002;22:142-5 pubmed
    ..including the measurement of static and dynamic spatial contrast sensitivity on 15 patients suffering from migraine without aura under photopic and scotopic conditions...
  5. Soragna D, Vettori A, Carraro G, Marchioni E, Vazza G, Bellini S, et al. A locus for migraine without aura maps on chromosome 14q21.2-q22.3. Am J Hum Genet. 2003;72:161-7 pubmed
    ..We report clinical and molecular data from a large Italian pedigree in which migraine without aura (MO) segregates as an autosomal dominant trait...
  6. Schuh Hofer S, Meisel A, Reuter U, Arnold G. Monozygotic twin sisters suffering from cluster headache and migraine without aura. Neurology. 2003;60:1864-5 pubmed
  7. Vieira R, Vieira D, Gomes W, Gauer G. Alexithymia and its impact on quality of life in a group of Brazilian women with migraine without aura. J Headache Pain. 2013;14:18 pubmed publisher
    ..The results highlight the relevance of considering psychological variables in the routine healthcare practices for migraine patients in general, while keeping steady attention to individual case features. ..
  8. Schytz H, Birk S, Wienecke T, Kruuse C, Olesen J, Ashina M. PACAP38 induces migraine-like attacks in patients with migraine without aura. Brain. 2009;132:16-25 pubmed publisher
    ..In migraine sufferers, PACAP38 caused delayed migraine-like attacks. The findings stimulate further investigation of the neuronal and vascular mechanisms of PACAP38. ..
  9. Bjornsson A, Gudmundsson G, Gudfinnsson E, Hrafnsdóttir M, Benedikz J, Skúladóttir S, et al. Localization of a gene for migraine without aura to chromosome 4q21. Am J Hum Genet. 2003;73:986-93 pubmed
    ..Here, we report linkage results from a study in Iceland of migraine without aura (MO)...

More Information


  1. Amin F, Asghar M, Hougaard A, Hansen A, Larsen V, de Koning P, et al. Magnetic resonance angiography of intracranial and extracranial arteries in patients with spontaneous migraine without aura: a cross-sectional study. Lancet Neurol. 2013;12:454-61 pubmed publisher
    Extracranial arterial dilatation has been hypothesised to be the cause of pain in patients who have migraine without aura. To test that hypothesis, we aimed to measure extracranial and intracranial arteries during attacks of migraine ..
  2. Lothe A, Merlet I, Demarquay G, Costes N, Ryvlin P, Mauguiere F. Interictal brain 5-HT1A receptors binding in migraine without aura: a 18F-MPPF-PET study. Cephalalgia. 2008;28:1282-91 pubmed publisher
  3. Freilinger T, Anttila V, de Vries B, Malik R, Kallela M, Terwindt G, et al. Genome-wide association analysis identifies susceptibility loci for migraine without aura. Nat Genet. 2012;44:777-82 pubmed publisher
    b>Migraine without aura is the most common form of migraine, characterized by recurrent disabling headache and associated autonomic symptoms...
  4. Xue T, Yuan K, Cheng P, Zhao L, Zhao L, Yu D, et al. Alterations of regional spontaneous neuronal activity and corresponding brain circuit changes during resting state in migraine without aura. NMR Biomed. 2013;26:1051-8 pubmed publisher
    Although previous resting-state studies have reported abnormal functional cerebral changes in patients with migraine without aura (MwoA), few have focused on alterations in both regional spontaneous neuronal activity and corresponding ..
  5. Denuelle M, Fabre N, Payoux P, Chollet F, Geraud G. Posterior cerebral hypoperfusion in migraine without aura. Cephalalgia. 2008;28:856-62 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, only rare and mild changes in brain perfusion have been demonstrated in migraine without aura, suggesting two different haemodynamic patterns in migraine with and without aura...
  6. Manzoni G, Torelli P. Migraine with and without aura: a single entity?. Neurol Sci. 2008;29 Suppl 1:S40-3 pubmed publisher
    A debate has been going on for many years about whether migraine with aura and migraine without aura are part of the same disorder or should instead be considered as two separate disorders...
  7. Sjaastad O, Bakketeig L. Tension-type headache: comparison with migraine without aura and cervicogenic headache. The Vågå study of headache epidemiology. Funct Neurol. 2008;23:71-6 pubmed
    ..Features indicating neck involvement were also looked for. T-TH was compared with migraine without aura and with cervicogenic headache (CEH) considering both these features and typical migraine traits...
  8. Koseoglu E, Talaslioglu A, Gonul A, Kula M. The effects of magnesium prophylaxis in migraine without aura. Magnes Res. 2008;21:101-8 pubmed
    ..The results of 30 patients with migraine without aura (20-55 years old with 2-5 migraine attacks per month) on magnesium treatment were compared with those of ..
  9. Sarchielli P, Alberti A, Vaianella L, Pierguidi L, Floridi A, Mazzotta G, et al. Chemokine levels in the jugular venous blood of migraine without aura patients during attacks. Headache. 2004;44:961-8 pubmed
    ..These chemokines were never investigated in migraine. Eight migraine without aura patients were admitted to the hospital during the attacks...
  10. Schytz H, Wienecke T, Olesen J, Ashina M. Carbachol induces headache, but not migraine-like attacks, in patients with migraine without aura. Cephalalgia. 2010;30:337-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Carbachol (3?µg/kg) or placebo was randomly infused into 18 patients with migraine without aura in a double-blind crossover study. Headache was scored on a verbal rating scale from 0 to 10...
  11. Bigal M, Bordini C, Tepper S, Speciali J. Intravenous dipyrone in the acute treatment of migraine without aura and migraine with aura: a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study. Headache. 2002;42:862-71 pubmed
    ..controlled, double blind study to assess the effect of dipyrone on the pain and symptoms associated with migraine without aura or with aura and the adverse effect profile of this medication...
  12. Allais G, De Lorenzo C, Quirico P, Airola G, Tolardo G, Mana O, et al. Acupuncture in the prophylactic treatment of migraine without aura: a comparison with flunarizine. Headache. 2002;42:855-61 pubmed
    ..months, we evaluated the effectiveness of acupuncture versus flunarizine in the prophylactic treatment of migraine without aura. One hundred sixty women with migraines were randomly assigned to acupuncture treatment (group A, n = 80) ..
  13. Kurth T, Diener H. Current views of the risk of stroke for migraine with and migraine without aura. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2006;10:214-20 pubmed
    ..However, a distinction should be made between migraine with and migraine without aura. The migraine-stroke association is mostly apparent for young women with migraine with aura...
  14. Lemos C, Neto J, Pereira Monteiro J, Mendonca D, Barros J, Sequeiros J, et al. A role for endothelin receptor type A in migraine without aura susceptibility? A study in Portuguese patients. Eur J Neurol. 2011;18:649-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study also emphasizes the need for replication of association findings in different populations. ..
  15. Abbate Daga G, Fassino S, Lo Giudice R, Rainero I, Gramaglia C, Marech L, et al. Anger, depression and personality dimensions in patients with migraine without aura. Psychother Psychosom. 2007;76:122-8 pubmed
    b>Migraine without aura causes acute and chronic pain and partially compromises patients' social functioning and work performance...
  16. De Leo V, Scolaro V, Musacchio M, Di Sabatino A, Morgante G, Cianci A. Combined oral contraceptives in women with menstrual migraine without aura. Fertil Steril. 2011;96:917-20 pubmed publisher
    ..containing 20 ?g of ethinyl E(2) and 3 mg of drospirenone, in improving the severity of pure menstrual migraine without aura. Prospective randomized study...
  17. Karthik N, Kulkarni G, Taly A, Rao S, Sinha S. Sleep disturbances in 'migraine without aura'--a questionnaire based study. J Neurol Sci. 2012;321:73-6 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the sleep abnormalities in patients with 'migraine without aura' in comparison to an age and gender matched control population...
  18. Cassidy E, Tomkins E, Dinan T, Hardiman O, O Keane V. Central 5-HT receptor hypersensitivity in migraine without aura. Cephalalgia. 2003;23:29-34 pubmed
    ..In this study we examined the hypothesis that migraine without aura is associated with hypersensitivity of central 5-HT1A receptors, using a 5-HT1A neuroendocrine challenge ..
  19. de Tommaso M, Valeriani M, Guido M, Libro G, Specchio L, Tonali P, et al. Abnormal brain processing of cutaneous pain in patients with chronic migraine. Pain. 2003;101:25-32 pubmed
    ..The results were compared with findings from normal control subjects and from subjects who suffer from migraine without aura. The effects of stimulus intensity, subjective pain perception and attention were monitored and compared ..
  20. Stochino M, Asuni C, Congiu D, Del Zompo M, Severino G. Association study between the phenotype migraine without aura-panic disorder and dopaminergic receptor genes. Pharmacol Res. 2003;48:531-4 pubmed
    ..We assessed the presence of panic disorder in 100 probands suffering from migraine without aura and the present study was designed to analyse the possible association of the migraine-panic phenotype ..
  21. Sarchielli P, Tarducci R, Presciutti O, Gobbi G, Pelliccioli G, Stipa G, et al. Functional 1H-MRS findings in migraine patients with and without aura assessed interictally. Neuroimage. 2005;24:1025-31 pubmed
    ..The above findings support little differences in brain metabolites between the two patient groups assessed in interictal periods, which suggests a less efficient mitochondrial functioning in migraine with aura patients. ..
  22. Russo A, Tessitore A, Giordano A, Corbo D, Marcuccio L, De Stefano M, et al. Executive resting-state network connectivity in migraine without aura. Cephalalgia. 2012;32:1041-8 pubmed publisher
    ..the functional connectivity of the fronto-parietal networks (FPN) known to be associated with EF, in migraine without aura (MwoA) patients, in the interictal period, in comparison to healthy controls (HC)...
  23. Schytz H, Ciftci K, Akin A, Ashina M, Bolay H. Intact neurovascular coupling during executive function in migraine without aura: interictal near-infrared spectroscopy study. Cephalalgia. 2010;30:457-66 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to investigate neurovascular coupling during a mental task interictally in patients with migraine without aura (MO) by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Twelve migraineurs and 12 healthy controls were included...
  24. Reyngoudt H, Paemeleire K, Descamps B, De Deene Y, Achten E. 31P-MRS demonstrates a reduction in high-energy phosphates in the occipital lobe of migraine without aura patients. Cephalalgia. 2011;31:1243-53 pubmed publisher
    ..of this study was to verify potential changes in resting-state brain energy metabolism in patients with migraine without aura (MwoA) compared to control subjects by (31)P-MRS at 3 tesla...
  25. Kelman L. Validation of the classification of migraine without aura (IHS A1.1) proposed in ICHD-2. Headache. 2005;45:1339-44 pubmed
    This study attempts to validate the alternative criteria for classification of migraine without aura (International Headache Society [IHS] A1...
  26. Sarchielli P, Alberti A, Baldi A, Coppola F, Rossi C, Pierguidi L, et al. Proinflammatory cytokines, adhesion molecules, and lymphocyte integrin expression in the internal jugular blood of migraine patients without aura assessed ictally. Headache. 2006;46:200-7 pubmed
  27. Dora B, Balkan S. Exaggerated interictal cerebrovascular reactivity but normal blood flow velocities in migraine without aura. Cephalalgia. 2002;22:288-90 pubmed
    Interictal cerebrovascular reactivity and blood flow velocities were tested in 23 patients with migraine without aura and 10 age- and sex-matched healthy controls by using the breath holding index (BHI)...
  28. Cao Y, Aurora S, Nagesh V, Patel S, Welch K. Functional MRI-BOLD of brainstem structures during visually triggered migraine. Neurology. 2002;59:72-8 pubmed
    ..with aura developed both visual symptoms and headaches, and six who had migraine with aura and two who had migraine without aura had headaches only...
  29. Nyholt D, Gillespie N, Heath A, Merikangas K, Duffy D, Martin N. Latent class and genetic analysis does not support migraine with aura and migraine without aura as separate entities. Genet Epidemiol. 2004;26:231-44 pubmed
    ..other population-based studies, 703 (20%) female and 250 (9%) male twins satisfied the IHS criteria for migraine without aura (MO), and of these, 432 (13%) female and 166 (6%) male twins satisfied the criteria for migraine with aura ..
  30. Xue T, Yuan K, Zhao L, Yu D, Zhao L, Dong T, et al. Intrinsic brain network abnormalities in migraines without aura revealed in resting-state fMRI. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e52927 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the abnormalities may be the consequence of a persistent central neural system dysfunction, reflecting cumulative brain insults due to frequent ongoing migraine attacks. ..
  31. Lo Y, Lum S, Fook Chong S, Cui S, Siow H. Clinical correlates of phosphene perception in migraine without aura: an Asian study. J Neurol Sci. 2008;264:93-6 pubmed
    ..In this study, we hypothesize that P- patients classified as migraine without aura (MO) have distinct clinical features...
  32. Manzoni G, Grisendi I, Torelli P. ICHD-3: what changes do we need regarding migraine?. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2011;15:170-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To be more relevant to actual clinical practice, the classification should discriminate between forms of migraine without aura depending on low, medium, or high frequency of attacks...
  33. Coppola G, Vandenheede M, Di Clemente L, Ambrosini A, Fumal A, De Pasqua V, et al. Somatosensory evoked high-frequency oscillations reflecting thalamo-cortical activity are decreased in migraine patients between attacks. Brain. 2005;128:98-103 pubmed
    ..This supports the hypothesis that the habituation deficit in migraineurs is due to a reduced pre-activation level of sensory cortices and not to increased cortical excitability or reduced intracortical inhibition. ..
  34. de Sousa S, Karwautz A, Wöber C, Wagner G, Breen G, Zesch H, et al. A dopamine D4 receptor exon 3 VNTR allele protecting against migraine without aura. Ann Neurol. 2007;61:574-8 pubmed
    ..06; for the 7-repeat allele: chi(2) = 5.1, p = 0.02). This effect came only from migraine without aura (145 trios), with the common 7-repeat allele transmitted 45 times and not transmitted 69 times (global LRS ..
  35. Karthik N, Sinha S, Taly A, Kulkarni G, Ramachandraiah C, Rao S. Alteration in polysomnographic profile in 'migraine without aura' compared to healthy controls. Sleep Med. 2013;14:211-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We studied the polysomnographic (PSG) abnormalities in subjects of 'migraine without aura' as compared to healthy controls. Thirty patients of 'migraine without aura' were prospectively recruited...
  36. Park J, Han S, Yang D, Kim Y, Lee K. Serotonin transporter protein polymorphism and harm avoidance personality in migraine without aura. Headache. 2006;46:991-6 pubmed
    ..in the serotonin transporter protein gene and harm avoidance personality dimension in patients with migraine without aura (MWOA). The serotonin transporter protein is a key modulator of serotonergic synaptic neurotransmission...
  37. Mazaheri S, Hajilooi M, Rafiei A. The G-308A promoter variant of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene is associated with migraine without aura. J Neurol. 2006;253:1589-93 pubmed
    ..The hypothesis of this study was that migraine without aura (MWA) might be associated with TNF-alpha (-308) polymorphism, resulting in increased TNF-alpha production...
  38. Mochi M, Cevoli S, Cortelli P, Pierangeli G, Scapoli C, Soriani S, et al. Investigation of an LDLR gene polymorphism (19p13.2) in susceptibility to migraine without aura. J Neurol Sci. 2003;213:7-10 pubmed
    ..2 in 360 migraine patients, 220 with migraine without aura (MO) and 140 with migraine with aura (MA), and 200 controls, by analysing two polymorphic markers, a G142A ..
  39. Chalaupka F. Reversible imaging abnormalities consistent with CSD during migraine without aura attack. Headache. 2008;48:1229-32 pubmed
    An 18-year-old man with a history of migraine without aura and normal neurological examination carried out a cerebral CT scan during a spontaneous typical migraine attack...
  40. D Amico D, Grazzi L, Usai S, Rigamonti A, Curone M, Bussone G. Disability pattern in chronic migraine with medication overuse: a comparison with migraine without aura. Headache. 2005;45:553-60 pubmed
    ..overuse (CMO), as defined by Silberstein and Lipton (1996, 2001) in comparison to that caused by migraine without aura, investigating similarities and differences in disability patterns in these two conditions...
  41. Yu D, Yuan K, Zhao L, Dong M, Liu P, Yang X, et al. White matter integrity affected by depressive symptoms in migraine without aura: a tract-based spatial statistics study. NMR Biomed. 2013;26:1103-12 pubmed publisher
    ..have investigated white matter (WM) integrity affected by depressive symptoms in patients suffering from migraine without aura (MWoA)...
  42. Carotenuto M, Esposito M. Nutraceuticals safety and efficacy in migraine without aura in a population of children affected by neurofibromatosis type I. Neurol Sci. 2013;34:1905-9 pubmed publisher
    ..B/Coenzyme Q10/Riboflavin/Magnesium for prophylaxis in a sample of children affected by NF1 presenting migraine without aura. Ginkgolide B/Coenzyme Q10/Riboflavin/Magnesium complex was orally administered twice a day for 6 months, ..
  43. Vollono C, Gnoni V, Testani E, Dittoni S, Losurdo A, Colicchio S, et al. Heart rate variability in sleep-related migraine without aura. J Clin Sleep Med. 2013;9:707-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The simultaneous involvement of the autonomic, arousal, and pain systems might suggest involvement of the hypothalamic pathways. ..
  44. Sjaastad O, Bakketeig L. Migraine without aura: comparison with cervicogenic headache. Vågå study of headache epidemiology. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008;117:377-83 pubmed
    To study migraine without aura (MwoA) prevalence in the commune of Vågå, Norway; 1838 (18- to 65-year-old) individuals were included...
  45. Sjaastad O. Cervicogenic headache: comparison with migraine without aura; Vågå study. Cephalalgia. 2008;28 Suppl 1:18-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, it is a common belief that in migraine without aura (MwoA), neck symptoms frequently occur and that MwoA and CEH may pathogenetically be intimately related...
  46. Della Marca G, Vollono C, Rubino M, Di Trapani G, Mariotti P, Tonali P. Dysfunction of arousal systems in sleep-related migraine without aura. Cephalalgia. 2006;26:857-64 pubmed
    ..patients, three males and seven females, aged between 20 and 62 years, who presented frequent attacks of migraine without aura (more than five per month), closely related to sleep (more than one-half of the attacks occurred during ..
  47. Dalla Volta G, Guindani M, Zavarise P, Griffini S, Pezzini A, Padovani A. Prevalence of patent foramen ovale in a large series of patients with migraine with aura, migraine without aura and cluster headache, and relationship with clinical phenotype. J Headache Pain. 2005;6:328-30 pubmed
    ..transcranial Doppler (TCD) in a group of 260 patients with migraine with aura (MA+), 74 patients with migraine without aura (MA-), and 38 patients with cluster headache (CH). One-hundred-sixty-one MA+subjects (61...
  48. Ertsey C, Hantos M, Bozsik G, Tekes K. Plasma nociceptin levels are reduced in migraine without aura. Cephalalgia. 2005;25:261-6 pubmed
    ..To test this hypothesis, we studied circulating nociceptin levels in 18 patients suffering from migraine without aura and in 24 controls. Headache-free migraineurs had significantly lower nociceptin levels than controls (5...
  49. Ghosh J, Joshi G, Pradhan S, Mittal B. Investigation of TNFA 308G > A and TNFB 252G > A polymorphisms in genetic susceptibility to migraine. J Neurol. 2010;257:898-904 pubmed publisher
  50. Schurks M, Zee R, Buring J, Kurth T. MTHFR 677C->T and ACE D/I polymorphisms and migraine attack frequency in women. Cephalalgia. 2010;30:447-56 pubmed publisher
    ..attack frequency 76 ? weekly; 219 monthly; 123 every other month; 852 fewer than six times/year) and 1916 migraine without aura (MoA) (attack frequency: 85 ? weekly; 414 monthly; 208 every other month; 1209 fewer than six times/year)...
  51. Bender S, Weisbrod M, Resch F, Oelkers Ax R. Stereotyped topography of different elevated contingent negative variation components in children with migraine without aura points towards a subcortical dysfunction. Pain. 2007;127:221-33 pubmed
  52. Muller M, Marziniak M. The linear behavior of the system middle cerebral artery flow velocity and blood pressure in patients with migraine: lack of autonomic control?. Stroke. 2005;36:1886-90 pubmed
    ..Insofar, this can be interpreted as a lack of sympathetic and parasympathetic control of cerebral blood flow. ..
  53. Russell M, Ulrich V, Gervil M, Olesen J. Migraine without aura and migraine with aura are distinct disorders. A population-based twin survey. Headache. 2002;42:332-6 pubmed
    To investigate the co-occurrence of migraine without aura (MWOA) and migraine with aura (MWA) in a population-based twin survey. Migraine without aura and MWA are multifactorial disorders...