primary headache disorders


Summary: Conditions in which the primary symptom is HEADACHE and the headache cannot be attributed to any known causes.

Top Publications

  1. Katsarava Z, Dzagnidze A, Kukava M, Mirvelashvili E, Djibuti M, Janelidze M, et al. Primary headache disorders in the Republic of Georgia: prevalence and risk factors. Neurology. 2009;73:1796-803 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates the importance of socioeconomic factors in a developing country and unmasks the unmet needs of people with headache disorders. ..
  2. Robbins M, Lipton R. The epidemiology of primary headache disorders. Semin Neurol. 2010;30:107-19 pubmed publisher
    b>Primary headache disorders encompass a heterogeneous group of neurologic disorders that cause recurrent or persistent head pain without any clear underlying cause...
  3. Bartsch T, Paemeleire K, Goadsby P. Neurostimulation approaches to primary headache disorders. Curr Opin Neurol. 2009;22:262-8 pubmed
    ..From these, an average of 50-70% did show a significant positive response. These findings will help to further elucidate the clinical potential of neurostimulation in chronic headache. ..
  4. Gaul C, Eismann R, Schmidt T, May A, Leinisch E, Wieser T, et al. Use of complementary and alternative medicine in patients suffering from primary headache disorders. Cephalalgia. 2009;29:1069-78 pubmed publisher
    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is increasingly common in the treatment of primary headache disorders despite lack of evidence for efficacy in most modalities...
  5. Gerretsen P, Kern R. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome: a thunderclap headache-associated condition. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2009;9:108-14 pubmed
    ..RCVS can present in conjunction with hypertensive encephalopathy, preeclampsia, and reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy. This review provides an up-to-date account of RCVS. ..
  6. Holland P. Modulation of trigeminovascular processing: novel insights into primary headache disorders. Cephalalgia. 2009;29 Suppl 3:1-6 pubmed publisher
    Dysfunction of the descending circuitry that modulates nociceptive processing is thought to facilitate primary headache disorders such as migraine and cluster headache, either by reducing inhibition or increasing facilitation of neural ..
  7. Elstner M, Linn J, Muller Schunk S, Straube A. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome: a complicated clinical course treated with intra-arterial application of nimodipine. Cephalalgia. 2009;29:677-82 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss the use of intra-arterial nimodipine application as a potential emergency treatment for a complicated or treatment-refractory course of RCVS. ..
  8. Santinello M, Vieno A, De Vogli R. Primary headache in Italian early adolescents: the role of perceived teacher unfairness. Headache. 2009;49:366-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Longitudinal research is needed to delineate causal relationships between school factors and recurrent headache. ..
  9. Nap L, van den Berg J, de Jong G. [Headache after coughing: consider cough headache]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2009;153:A465 pubmed
    ..Additional investigation is required to differentiate between the two. The diagnosis of primary cough headache is supported by a positive reaction to trial treatment with indomethacin. ..

More Information


  1. Grazzi L, Andrasik F. Headache in young age: classification of primary forms. Neurol Sci. 2010;31 Suppl 1:S77-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The article reviews the most important diagnostic categories of headache in young age and the limitations of the classification criteria for this group of patients. ..
  2. Edvardsson B, Persson S. Cerebral infarct presenting with thunderclap headache. J Headache Pain. 2009;10:207-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A TCH can be the primary clinical feature of a supratentorial cerebral infarct. ..
  3. Grände P, Lundgren A, Bjartmarz H, Cronqvist M. Segmental cerebral vasoconstriction: successful treatment of secondary cerebral ischaemia with intravenous prostacyclin. Cephalalgia. 2010;30:890-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Although not fully compatible, our case had several clinical characteristics and radiological findings reminiscent of those of the 'segmental reversible vasoconstriction syndrome', sometimes called the Call-Fleming syndrome. ..
  4. Cheng P, Sy H, Chen W, Chen Y. Cardiac cephalalgia presented with a thunderclap headache and an isolated exertional headache: report of 2 cases. Acta Neurol Taiwan. 2010;19:57-61 pubmed
    ..Cardiac cephalalgia should be considered one of the differential diagnoses of exertional headache and thunderclap headache when the patient is older or has cardiovascular risk factors. ..
  5. Freilinger T, Schmidt C, Duering M, Linn J, Straube A, Peters N. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome associated with hormone therapy for intrauterine insemination. Cephalalgia. 2010;30:1127-32 pubmed publisher
    ..This case possibly contributes to the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying reversible cerebral vasoconstriction. ..
  6. Evers S, Peikert A, Frese A. Sexual headache in young adolescence: a case report. Headache. 2009;49:1234-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Neurological examination and brain imaging were normal. A family history of migraine existed. The case shows the broad age spectrum of this primary headache disorder. ..
  7. Leone M, Franzini A, Cecchini A, Mea E, Peccarisi C, Tullo V, et al. Drug-resistant primary headache patients undergoing surgical therapies: how should we assess outcomes?. Neurol Sci. 2010;31 Suppl 1:S93-4 pubmed publisher
  8. Field D, Kleinig T, Thompson P, Kimber T. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction, internal carotid artery dissection and renal artery stenosis. Cephalalgia. 2010;30:983-6 pubmed publisher
    ..It has been described in association with multiple disorders, but has only been reported rarely in the setting of carotid artery dissection and, to our knowledge, never before in association with renal artery stenosis. ..
  9. Quesada Vazquez A, Contreras Maure L, Alvarez Aliaga A, Traba Tamayo E. [Prevalence of primary headaches in a rural population in Cuba]. Rev Neurol. 2009;49:131-5 pubmed
    ..To determine the prevalence and the clinical-epidemiological and therapeutic characteristics of primary headaches in a rural population in Cuba...
  10. Kabbouche M, Cleves C. Evaluation and management of children and adolescents presenting with an acute setting. Semin Pediatr Neurol. 2010;17:105-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Most of the presenting headaches are secondary to viral illnesses followed by primary headache and migraine. A detailed initial evaluation is essential to guide toward necessary testing as well as diagnosis. ..
  11. Wong S, Dougan C, Chatterjee K, Fletcher N, White R. Recurrent thunderclap headaches and multilobar intracerebral haemorrhages: two cases of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS). Cephalalgia. 2009;29:791-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These cases demonstrate the spectrum of presentation of RCVS, a clinically under-recognized condition. ..
  12. Schwedt T, Goadsby P. 14th International Headache Congress: basic science highlights. Headache. 2010;50:520-6 pubmed publisher
  13. Donnet A, Lanteri Minet M. A consecutive series of 22 cases of hypnic headache in France. Cephalalgia. 2009;29:928-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Improvements in ICHD-II criteria are suggested, especially to introduce the typical motor behaviour acted out by HH patients. ..
  14. Forget P, Goffette P, Van De Wyngaert F, Raftopoulos C, Hantson P. Possible overlap between reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome and symptomatic vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Headache Pain. 2009;10:299-302 pubmed publisher
    ..She was discharged on day 38 after full recovery. The clinical and TCD/radiological findings were consistent with a reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome overlapping SAH related symptomatic vasospasm. ..
  15. Chik Y, Hoesch R, Lazaridis C, Weisman C, Llinas R. A case of postpartum cerebral angiopathy with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Nat Rev Neurol. 2009;5:512-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The patient also received a 3-day course of intravenous magnesium sulfate. ..
  16. Wang S, Fuh J. The "other" headaches: primary cough, exertion, sex, and primary stabbing headaches. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2010;14:41-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Further revisions for the ICHD-II criteria are required based on these results of the evidence-based studies. ..
  17. Hajj Ali R. Primary angiitis of the central nervous system: differential diagnosis and treatment. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2010;24:413-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The scope of this article focusses on the work-up, differential diagnosis and evaluation of PACNS, as well as a discussion of the secondary CNS vasculitides with emphasis on their clinical findings, diagnoses and treatment. ..
  18. Zabel T, Reesman J, Wodka E, Gray R, Suskauer S, Turin E, et al. Neuropsychological features and risk factors in children with Sturge-Weber syndrome: four case reports. Clin Neuropsychol. 2010;24:841-59 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss the need for broad-based assessment in this medical population, as various impairment combinations (e.g., perceptual, language, executive) create unique presentations as well as the need for individualized intervention. ..
  19. Dodick D. Pearls: headache. Semin Neurol. 2010;30:74-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Knowing some simple rules and standard questions will make the process almost fail proof. ..
  20. Piovesan E, Teive H, Kowacs P, Silva L, Werneck L. Botulinum neurotoxin type-A for primary stabbing headache: an open study. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2010;68:212-5 pubmed
    ..In two patients BoNTA showed no therapeutic effect. The BoNTA seems to be an excellent therapeutic option for primary stabbing headache. ..
  21. Tonini M, Bussone G. Headache in the elderly: primary forms. Neurol Sci. 2010;31 Suppl 1:S67-71 pubmed publisher
    ..This study reviews epidemiologic data, clinical characteristics and treatment options for primary headaches in elderly people. ..
  22. Hu C, Lin Y, Fan Y, Chen S, Lai T. Isolated thunderclap headache during sex: Orgasmic headache or reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome?. J Clin Neurosci. 2010;17:1349-51 pubmed publisher
    ..This patient suggests the theory that OH could be a presentation of RCVS. Given that RCVS is potentially treatable, early recognition by clinicians is vital in order to prevent devastating complications. ..
  23. Eghwrudjakpor P, Essien A. Disorders presenting with headache as the sole symptom. Niger J Clin Pract. 2009;12:461-2 pubmed
    ..Recognition of these conditions requires a standardised diagnostic approach to history and examination, wherein the patient's history alerts the physician while the physical examination provides support for the diagnosis. ..
  24. Ducros A, Fiedler U, Porcher R, Boukobza M, Stapf C, Bousser M. Hemorrhagic manifestations of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome: frequency, features, and risk factors. Stroke. 2010;41:2505-11 pubmed publisher
    ..0001). In RCVS, women and migrainers seem to be at higher risk of intracranial hemorrhage. Overall, intracranial hemorrhages are frequent in RCVS and are associated with a more severe clinical spectrum. ..
  25. Gordon N. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2009;51:932-5 pubmed publisher
    ..If this does not heal with bedrest, an epidural blood patch or a percutaneous injection of fibrin glue may be needed. More information is required on long-term follow-up. ..
  26. Crawford C, Huynh M, Kepple A, Jonas W. Systematic assessment of the quality of research studies of conventional and alternative treatment(s) of primary headache. Pain Physician. 2009;12:461-70 pubmed
    ..Each of these possibilities -- and the implications -- is addressed and considered. ..
  27. Montagna P, Pierangeli G, Cortelli P. The primary headaches as a reflection of genetic darwinian adaptive behavioral responses. Headache. 2010;50:273-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Cytokines play an important role in their development. Predictions and limitations of the hypothesis are discussed together with implications for genetic studies on headaches. ..
  28. Schwedt T. Neurostimulation for primary headache disorders. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2009;9:101-7 pubmed
    ..has emerged as a potential treatment option for patients with chronic, disabling, intractable primary headache disorders. Although safety and efficacy data are limited in quantity, there is accumulating experience with the ..
  29. Annoni J, Delémont C, Garin N, Dozier C, Piguet V, Sommer J, et al. [Clinical management of primary headaches: interdisciplinary guidelines]. Rev Med Suisse. 2010;6:1326-30, 1332-5 pubmed
    ..Therapeutic modalities and recommendations concerning the need for specialized assessments are presented to provide a framework in both emergency situation and long-term care. ..
  30. Kash K, Leas B, Clough J, Dodick D, Capobianco D, Nash D, et al. ACGME competencies in neurology: web-based objective simulated computerized clinical encounters. Neurology. 2009;72:893-8 pubmed publisher
  31. Ju Y, Schwedt T. Abrupt-onset severe headaches. Semin Neurol. 2010;30:192-200 pubmed publisher
    ..This review summarizes the diagnostic considerations and clinical approach to thunderclap headache, with particular emphasis on the reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndromes. ..
  32. Cuvellier J, Donnet A, Guegan Massardier E, Nachit Ouinekh F, Parain D, Vallee L. Treatment of primary headache in children: a multicenter hospital-based study in France. J Headache Pain. 2009;10:447-53 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that specific treatments were underused for primary headache. ..
  33. Prakash S. Hyper insulinemia in an hemicrania continua patient with sexual headache: Hypothesizing the basis for this unusual association. Neurol India. 2010;58:642-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Both headache disorders responded to indomethacin. The patient had also in addition persistent elevation of fasting serum insulin. ..
  34. Chen P, Fuh J, Wang S. Cough headache: a study of 83 consecutive patients. Cephalalgia. 2009;29:1079-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinical features, neurological examinations and drug response could not safely differentiate primary from secondary cough headache. Neuroimaging studies are required in each patient. ..
  35. Bonavita V, De Simone R. Redefining primary headaches. Neurol Sci. 2009;30 Suppl 1:S1-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The observations supporting the possibility that allodynia represents the implicit process leading to pain progression, which occurs in some migraineurs, are discussed. ..
  36. Byrum E, McGregor J, Christoforidis G. Thunderclap headache without subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with regrowth of previously coil-occluded aneurysms. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2009;30:1059-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Thunderclap headache after endovascular occlusion of a ruptured intracranial aneurysm may be a symptom of aneurysm regrowth and may warrant angiographic investigation. ..
  37. Liu Y, Broman J, Zhang M, Edvinsson L. Brainstem and thalamic projections from a craniovascular sensory nervous centre in the rostral cervical spinal dorsal horn of rats. Cephalalgia. 2009;29:935-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Some of the above regions are likely to be involved in the central processing of noxious signals of craniovascular origin and therefore putatively involved in mechanisms associated with primary headaches. ..
  38. Mullally W, Hall K. Hypnic headache secondary to haemangioblastoma of the cerebellum. Cephalalgia. 2010;30:887-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The number of secondary cases is steadily increasing in the medical literature and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain should be considered mandatory after arriving at a presumptive diagnosis. ..
  39. Massetto N, Gambini C, Bernardoni P, Ferrante E, Lovati C, Moschiano F, et al. Underdiagnosis of primary headaches: results of a survey on patients attending headache centres. Neurol Sci. 2009;30 Suppl 1:S129-31 pubmed publisher
  40. Ødegård S, Engstrøm M, Sand T, Stovner L, Zwart J, Hagen K. Associations between sleep disturbance and primary headaches: the third Nord-Trøndelag Health Study. J Headache Pain. 2010;11:197-206 pubmed publisher
    ..6-93.0). In conclusion, there was a significant association between severe sleep disturbances and primary headache disorders, most pronounced for those with chronic headache...
  41. Edvardsson B, Persson S. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome associated with autonomic dysreflexia. J Headache Pain. 2010;11:277-80 pubmed publisher
    ..It can occur in the setting of AD in patients with traumatic cervical cord injury. Prompt recognition of RCVS may be of vital importance to avoid further morbidity in patients with spinal cord injury. ..
  42. Tønsaas M, Johnsen S, Seip M, Eldevik P. [Diagnostic challenges in a man with subarachnoidal haemorrhage]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2009;129:2490-2 pubmed publisher
    ..Cerebral angiography was then repeated and found to be normal. This case report highlights a less recognized and probably underdiagnosed cause of subarachnoidal bleeding. ..
  43. Cuadrado M, Valle B, Fernandez de Las Penas C, Barriga F, Pareja J. Bifocal nummular headache: the first three cases. Cephalalgia. 2009;29:583-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding seems to be consistent with bifocal NH and further enlarges the clinical diversity of this headache disorder. The pathogenic mechanisms of NH may be active in multiple cranial areas in some particular patients. ..
  44. Obermann M, Holle D. Hypnic headache. Expert Rev Neurother. 2010;10:1391-7 pubmed
  45. Oz O, Demirkaya S, Bek S, Eroglu E, Ulas U, Odabasi Z. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome: case report. J Headache Pain. 2009;10:295-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinicians should consider the imaging of cerebral arteries, even if computed tomography scan and lumbar puncture are normal in TCH. Potential precipitating factors and triggers should also be known and avoided. ..
  46. Alp R, Alp S, Palanci Y, Sur H, Boru U, Ozge A, et al. Use of the International Classification of Headache Disorders, Second Edition, criteria in the diagnosis of primary headache in schoolchildren: epidemiology study from eastern Turkey. Cephalalgia. 2010;30:868-77 pubmed publisher
    ..6% for pure tension-type headache, 4.6% for migraine plus tension-type headache, and 3.0% for probable migraine plus tension-type headache. The prevalence of migraine was higher in our study than in previous studies. ..
  47. Maggioni F, Marchese Ragona R, Mampreso E, Mainardi F, Zanchin G. Exertional headache as unusual presentation of the syndrome of an elongated styloid process. Headache. 2009;49:776-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A diagnosis of Eagle's syndrome was made. The excision of the elongated styloid process was performed, resulting in complete and lasting pain relief. We focus on Eagle's syndrome and in particular on this atypical presentation. ..
  48. Ferrante E, Rossi P, Tassorelli C, Lisotto C, Nappi G. Focus on therapy of primary stabbing headache. J Headache Pain. 2010;11:157-60 pubmed publisher
    ..In this report, we focus on the therapy of PSH summarizing the information collected from a systematic analysis of the international literature over the period 1980-2009. ..
  49. Tfelt Hansen P, Tfelt Hansen J. Nitroglycerin headache and nitroglycerin-induced primary headaches from 1846 and onwards: a historical overview and an update. Headache. 2009;49:445-56 pubmed publisher
    ..This review traces the evolution of our understanding of NTG headache. ..
  50. Garza I, Oas K. Symptomatic hypnic headache secondary to a nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma. Headache. 2009;49:470-2 pubmed publisher
    ..Until more is known, brain neuroimaging, ideally with magnetic resonance imaging, should be considered when the initial diagnosis of hypnic headache is made. ..
  51. Uterga J, de Garay M, de Luna I, Uribarri J. Recurrent coital headache associated with an unruptured carotid saccular aneurysm. Headache. 2009;49:1232-3 pubmed publisher
    ..We report the case of a 48-year-old woman whose recurrent coital headache ceased following intracranial internal carotid artery aneurysm embolization. ..
  52. Kernick D, Stapley S, Campbell J, Hamilton W. What happens to new-onset headache in children that present to primary care? A case-cohort study using electronic primary care records. Cephalalgia. 2009;29:1311-6 pubmed
    ..General practitioners are likely to be underdiagnosing migraine. This study can inform management guidelines for new presentations of headache in primary care, particularly when a secondary pathology is suspected. ..