headache disorders


Summary: Various conditions with the symptom of HEADACHE. Headache disorders are classified into major groups, such as PRIMARY HEADACHE DISORDERS (based on characteristics of their headache symptoms) and SECONDARY HEADACHE DISORDERS (based on their etiologies). (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)

Top Publications

  1. Mehlsteibl D, Schankin C, Hering P, Sostak P, Straube A. Anxiety disorders in headache patients in a specialised clinic: prevalence and symptoms in comparison to patients in a general neurological clinic. J Headache Pain. 2011;12:323-9 pubmed publisher
    ..005). The BSQ significantly correlated with the number of medication days (p < 0.005). The results confirm the increased prevalence of GAD in headache patients. PD seems to increase the risk of medication overuse. ..
  2. Mack K. New daily persistent headache in children and adults. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2009;13:47-51 pubmed
    ..This headache syndrome is difficult to treat and may persist for years. This review discusses the epidemiology, comorbid symptoms, evaluation, and treatment of this disorder. ..
  3. Grande R, Aaseth K, Saltyte Benth J, Gulbrandsen P, Russell M, Lundqvist C. The Severity of Dependence Scale detects people with medication overuse: the Akershus study of chronic headache. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2009;80:784-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The International Classification of Headache Disorders was used. Split file methodology was employed for data analysis. Akershus University Hospital, Oslo, Norway...
  4. Robbins M, Grosberg B, Napchan U, Crystal S, Lipton R. Clinical and prognostic subforms of new daily-persistent headache. Neurology. 2010;74:1358-64 pubmed publisher
    According to the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD)-2, primary daily headaches unremitting from onset are classified as new daily-persistent headache (NDPH) only if migraine features are absent...
  5. Manzoni G, Bonavita V, Bussone G, Cortelli P, Narbone M, Cevoli S, et al. Chronic migraine classification: current knowledge and future perspectives. J Headache Pain. 2011;12:585-92 pubmed publisher
    ..In line with the 2006 revision of the second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-2R), the current prevailing opinion is that this headache type should be named chronic migraine (CM) ..
  6. Kristoffersen E, Grande R, Aaseth K, Lundqvist C, Russell M. Management of primary chronic headache in the general population: the Akershus study of chronic headache. J Headache Pain. 2012;13:113-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The International Classification of Headache Disorders was used...
  7. Kasteleijn Nolst Trenité D, Verrotti A, Di Fonzo A, Cantonetti L, Bruschi R, Chiarelli F, et al. Headache, epilepsy and photosensitivity: how are they connected?. J Headache Pain. 2010;11:469-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Lastly, studies designed to investigate the triggering role of photosensitivity in both headache and epilepsy are warranted. ..
  8. Seshia S, Wöber Bingöl C, Guidetti V. The classification of chronic headache: room for further improvement?. Cephalalgia. 2010;30:1268-70 pubmed publisher
    ..consideration and further debate include the acceptance of chronic daily headache as the umbrella term for this group of headache disorders, a more consistent definition of 'chronic' and the use of a multi-axial classification approach.
  9. Bøe M, Salvesen R, Mygland A. Chronic daily headache with medication overuse: predictors of outcome 1 year after withdrawal therapy. Eur J Neurol. 2009;16:705-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Before suggesting withdrawal therapy, one should probably pay more close attention to sleep problems. ..

More Information


  1. Milde Busch A, Boneberger A, Heinrich S, Thomas S, Kühnlein A, Radon K, et al. Higher prevalence of psychopathological symptoms in adolescents with headache. A population-based cross-sectional study. Headache. 2010;50:738-48 pubmed publisher
    ..As psychopathological symptoms may be a precursor for manifest psychiatric disorders, adolescents particularly with migraine and miscellaneous headache appear to be a vulnerable population. ..
  2. Toldo I, Perissinotto E, Menegazzo F, Boniver C, Sartori S, Salviati L, et al. Comorbidity between headache and epilepsy in a pediatric headache center. J Headache Pain. 2010;11:235-40 pubmed publisher
    ..003). In migraine with aura, epilepsy preceded migraine in 71% of cases. Photosensitivity (7/56, 12.5%) and positive family history for epilepsy (22/56, 39%) were frequent in cases with comorbidity. ..
  3. Serafini G, Pompili M, Innamorati M, Negro A, Fiorillo M, Lamis D, et al. White matter hyperintensities and self-reported depression in a sample of patients with chronic headache. J Headache Pain. 2012;13:661-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In multivariate analyses, patients with PWMHs were 1.06 times more likely to report fewer depressive symptoms than patients without PWMHs. WMH lesions in patients with chronic headache were associated with less depression severity. ..
  4. Prakash S, Shah N. Chronic tension-type headache with vitamin D deficiency: casual or causal association?. Headache. 2009;49:1214-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The improvement in the headache was much earlier than the improvements in the symptom complex of osteomalacia. We also speculate on the possible mechanisms for headache in the patients with vitamin D deficiency. ..
  5. Robbins M, Lipton R. The epidemiology of primary headache disorders. Semin Neurol. 2010;30:107-19 pubmed publisher
    Primary headache disorders encompass a heterogeneous group of neurologic disorders that cause recurrent or persistent head pain without any clear underlying cause...
  6. Bartsch T, Paemeleire K, Goadsby P. Neurostimulation approaches to primary headache disorders. Curr Opin Neurol. 2009;22:262-8 pubmed
    ..From these, an average of 50-70% did show a significant positive response. These findings will help to further elucidate the clinical potential of neurostimulation in chronic headache. ..
  7. Oterino A, Ramon C, Pascual J. Experience with onabotulinumtoxinA (BOTOX) in chronic refractory migraine: focus on severe attacks. J Headache Pain. 2011;12:235-8 pubmed publisher
  8. Valguarnera F, Tanganelli P. The efficacy of withdrawal therapy in subjects with chronic daily headache and medication overuse following prophylaxis with topiramate and amitriptyline. Neurol Sci. 2010;31 Suppl 1:S175-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This combination seems a good pharmacological solution to reduce the risk of relapse. ..
  9. Manzoni G, Torelli P. Proposal for a new classification of chronic headache. Neurol Sci. 2010;31 Suppl 1:S9-13 pubmed publisher
    Since the publication of the second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-2) in 2004, a fiery debate has been raging about chronic daily headache in general and about chronic migraine and medication ..
  10. Trentman T, Mueller J, Shah D, Zimmerman R, Noble B. Occipital nerve stimulator lead pathway length changes with volunteer movement: an in vitro study. Pain Pract. 2010;10:42-8 pubmed publisher
    Occipital nerve stimulation is a modality reserved for refractory headache disorders. Leads (wires) are inserted subcutaneously in the occipital region to stimulate the distal C1-3 nerves; lead migration may result from repeated ..
  11. Cevoli S, Sancisi E, Grimaldi D, Pierangeli G, Zanigni S, Nicodemo M, et al. Family history for chronic headache and drug overuse as a risk factor for headache chronification. Headache. 2009;49:412-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Among factors investigated as risk factors for chronification of headache disorders, familial liability for CH and drug overuse has been rarely investigated...
  12. Rossi P, Jensen R, Nappi G, Allena M. A narrative review on the management of medication overuse headache: the steep road from experience to evidence. J Headache Pain. 2009;10:407-17 pubmed publisher
  13. Stovner L, Andree C. Prevalence of headache in Europe: a review for the Eurolight project. J Headache Pain. 2010;11:289-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Studies using personal interviews seem to give somewhat higher prevalences than those using questionnaires. ..
  14. Manzoni G, Torelli P. Epidemiological classification and social impact of chronic headache. Intern Emerg Med. 2010;5 Suppl 1:S1-5 pubmed publisher
    ..included in the group "Other primary headaches" of the 2004 International Classification of Headache Disorders, second edition (ICHD-II)--chronic tension-type headache, and chronic migraine...
  15. Schankin C, Rémi J, Klaus I, Sostak P, Reinisch V, Noachtar S, et al. Headache in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. J Headache Pain. 2011;12:227-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Together with its strong genetic background, JME appears to be an attractive homogenous subtype of epilepsy for genetic research on migraine. ..
  16. Gipponi S, Venturelli E, Rao R, Liberini P, Padovani A. Hypertension is a factor associated with chronic daily headache. Neurol Sci. 2010;31 Suppl 1:S171-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Considering the other somatic conditions we did not find any correlation. The potential role of somatic comorbidity in CDH has to be studied in further clinical trials. ..
  17. Mercante J, Peres M, Bernik M. Primary headaches in patients with generalized anxiety disorder. J Headache Pain. 2011;12:331-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In anxiety disorder patients, particularly those with GAD, accurate diagnosis of primary headache can improve patient management and clinical outcomes. ..
  18. Bartsch T, Goadsby P. Central mechanisms of peripheral nerve stimulation in headache disorders. Prog Neurol Surg. 2011;24:16-26 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we focus on the functional anatomy, pathophysiological mechanisms and neurophysiological and pharmacological findings elucidating the central mechanisms of peripheral nerve stimulation. ..
  19. Lanteri Minet M, Duru G, Mudge M, Cottrell S. Quality of life impairment, disability and economic burden associated with chronic daily headache, focusing on chronic migraine with or without medication overuse: a systematic review. Cephalalgia. 2011;31:837-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings of this review underline the detriment to QoL and the disabling nature of CDH, and in particular CM and CDH with MOH, and negative impact on workplace productivity compared to other types of headache. ..
  20. Perry J, Stiell I, Sivilotti M, Bullard M, Lee J, Eisenhauer M, et al. High risk clinical characteristics for subarachnoid haemorrhage in patients with acute headache: prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2010;341:c5204 pubmed publisher
    ..Further study of these proposed decision rules, including prospective validation, could allow clinicians to be more selective and accurate when investigating patients with headache. ..
  21. Magis D, Schoenen J. Advances and challenges in neurostimulation for headaches. Lancet Neurol. 2012;11:708-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Trial data for other techniques are scarce, but external and minimally invasive approaches should be privileged in future studies. ..
  22. Stark R, Ravishankar K, Siow H, Lee K, Pepperle R, Wang S. Chronic migraine and chronic daily headache in the Asia-Pacific region: a systematic review. Cephalalgia. 2013;33:266-83 pubmed publisher
  23. Kristoffersen E, Lundqvist C, Aaseth K, Grande R, Russell M. Management of secondary chronic headache in the general population: the Akershus study of chronic headache. J Headache Pain. 2013;14:5 pubmed publisher
    ..Diagnoses were interview-based. The International Classification of Headache Disorders 2nd ed...
  24. Sances G, Guaschino E, Perucca P, Allena M, Ghiotto N, Manni R. Migralepsy: a call for a revision of the definition. Epilepsia. 2009;50:2487-96 pubmed publisher
    ..In the 2004 International Classification for Headache Disorders (ICHD-II), the International Headache Society proposed that the following diagnostic criteria should be met: ..
  25. Franzini A, Messina G, Leone M, Broggi G. Occipital nerve stimulation (ONS). Surgical technique and prevention of late electrode migration. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2009;151:861-5; discussion 865 pubmed publisher
    ..The careful description of the surgical steps may contribute to a standardization of the procedure and make the interpretation of results easier even if obtained in series of patients operated on by different authors. ..
  26. Pompili M, Di Cosimo D, Innamorati M, Lester D, Tatarelli R, Martelletti P. Psychiatric comorbidity in patients with chronic daily headache and migraine: a selective overview including personality traits and suicide risk. J Headache Pain. 2009;10:283-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The increase in self-efficacy and mental health associated with pharmaceutical care may be instrumental in improving the long-term pharmacotherapy of patients with migraine and headache. ..
  27. Rossi P, Tassorelli C, Allena M, Ferrante E, Lisotto C, Nappi G. Focus on therapy: hemicrania continua and new daily persistent headache. J Headache Pain. 2010;11:259-65 pubmed publisher
    ..IV "Other Primary Headaches" of the second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. HC and NDPH are rare and poorly defined from a pathophysiological point of view; as a consequence, their ..
  28. Aaseth K, Grande R, Kvaerner K, Lundqvist C, Russell M. Chronic rhinosinusitis gives a ninefold increased risk of chronic headache. The Akershus study of chronic headache. Cephalalgia. 2010;30:152-60 pubmed publisher
    ..headache attributed to chronic rhinosinusitis (HACRS), otherwise the International Classification of Headache Disorders was used. The questionnaire response rate was 71%, and the participation rate of the interview was 74%...
  29. Manack A, Turkel C, Silberstein S. The evolution of chronic migraine: classification and nomenclature. Headache. 2009;49:1206-13 pubmed publisher
    ..It is our view that of the currently established classifications, the Silberstein and Lipton revised criteria for transformed migraine are the most applicable to daily clinical practice and field research. ..
  30. Prakash S, Mehta N, Dabhi A, Lakhani O, Khilari M, Shah N. The prevalence of headache may be related with the latitude: a possible role of Vitamin D insufficiency?. J Headache Pain. 2010;11:301-7 pubmed publisher
    ..A few case reports have shown a beneficial effect of vitamin D therapy in patients with headache disorders. Serum vitamin D level shows a strong correlation with the latitude...
  31. Prakash S, Shah N. Post-infectious new daily persistent headache may respond to intravenous methylprednisolone. J Headache Pain. 2010;11:59-66 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that NDPH-like headache may occur as a post infectious process following a recent infection. We also speculate on the possible mechanisms of headache in our patients. ..
  32. Scher A, Lipton R, Stewart W, Bigal M. Patterns of medication use by chronic and episodic headache sufferers in the general population: results from the frequent headache epidemiology study. Cephalalgia. 2010;30:321-8 pubmed publisher
    ..4-0.9)]. After adjusting for demographic factors, primary headache type and number of medications taken, CDH sufferers are more likely to use opioid-combination analgesics, and less likely to use aspirin or ibuprofen, than EH sufferers. ..
  33. Autret A, Roux S, Rimbaux Lepage S, Valade D, Debiais S. Psychopathology and quality of life burden in chronic daily headache: influence of migraine symptoms. J Headache Pain. 2010;11:247-53 pubmed publisher
  34. Mathew N, Frishberg B, Gawel M, Dimitrova R, Gibson J, Turkel C. Botulinum toxin type A (BOTOX) for the prophylactic treatment of chronic daily headache: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Headache. 2005;45:293-307 pubmed
    ..BoNT-A was also well tolerated in patients with CDH. ..
  35. Nampiaparampil D. Prevalence of chronic pain after traumatic brain injury: a systematic review. JAMA. 2008;300:711-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Chronic pain is a common complication of TBI. It is independent of psychologic disorders such as PTSD and depression and is common even among patients with apparently minor injuries to the brain. ..
  36. Bigal M, Rapoport A, Tepper S, Sheftell F, Lipton R. The classification of chronic daily headache in adolescents--a comparison between the second edition of the international classification of headache disorders and alternative diagnostic criteria. Headache. 2005;45:582-9 pubmed
    To compare the second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-2) and the Silberstein-Lipton (S-L) criteria in the classification of adolescents with chronic daily headache (CDH)...
  37. Oksanen A, Metsahonkala L, Anttila P, Aromaa M, Jäppilä E, Viander S, et al. Leisure activities in adolescents with headache. Acta Paediatr. 2005;94:609-15 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that frequent computer use is associated with both tension-type headache and migraine, and intensive overall sports activities are characteristic of adolescents with migraine. ..
  38. Ashina S, Bendtsen L, Ashina M, Magerl W, Jensen R. Generalized hyperalgesia in patients with chronic tension-type headache. Cephalalgia. 2006;26:940-8 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, it indicates that suprathreshold stimulation is more sensitive than recording of pain thresholds for evaluation of generalized pain perception. ..
  39. Hamelsky S, Lipton R. Psychiatric comorbidity of migraine. Headache. 2006;46:1327-33 pubmed
    ..Similarly, a diagnosis of one of these psychiatric disorders should increase vigilance for migraine. Treatment plans for migraine should be mindful of the comorbid conditions. ..
  40. Dodick D. Clinical practice. Chronic daily headache. N Engl J Med. 2006;354:158-65 pubmed
  41. Goadsby P, Schoenen J, Ferrari M, Silberstein S, Dodick D. Towards a definition of intractable headache for use in clinical practice and trials. Cephalalgia. 2006;26:1168-70 pubmed
  42. Maizels M, Burchette R. Somatic symptoms in headache patients: the influence of headache diagnosis, frequency, and comorbidity. Headache. 2004;44:983-93 pubmed
    Mood disorders of anxiety and depression are well known to be comorbid with primary headache disorders. Less is known of the comorbidity of other somatic symptoms with headache...
  43. Balottin U, Termine C, Nicoli F, Quadrelli M, Ferrari Ginevra O, Lanzi G. Idiopathic headache in children under six years of age: a follow-up study. Headache. 2005;45:705-15 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that environmental and psychological factors play an important role in idiopathic headache with onset in preschool age, and thus that the diagnostic-therapeutic approach must take these factors into account. ..
  44. Sancisi E, Cevoli S, Pierangeli G, Zanigni S, Grimaldi D, Nicodemo M, et al. Application of ICHD-II and revised diagnostic criteria to patients with chronic daily headache. Neurol Sci. 2007;28:2-8 pubmed
    ..of this study was to evaluate how the criteria of the second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-II) and the revised criteria fit a sample of patients with chronic daily headache (CDH)...
  45. Dodick D, Mauskop A, Elkind A, DeGryse R, Brin M, Silberstein S. Botulinum toxin type a for the prophylaxis of chronic daily headache: subgroup analysis of patients not receiving other prophylactic medications: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Headache. 2005;45:315-24 pubmed
    ..BoNT-A is an effective and well-tolerated prophylactic treatment in migraine patients with CDH who are not using other prophylactic medications. ..
  46. Meineri P, Torre E, Rota E, Grasso E. New daily persistent headache: clinical and serological characteristics in a retrospective study. Neurol Sci. 2004;25 Suppl 3:S281-2 pubmed
    ..However, our laboratory tests show a recent herpes simplex virus infection in 42% and cytomegalovirus in 11% of cases; moreover we could not find any EBV infection. Our data suggest that viruses other than EBV can play a role in NDPH. ..
  47. Unalp A, Dirik E, Kurul S. Prevalence and characteristics of recurrent headaches in Turkish adolescents. Pediatr Neurol. 2006;34:110-5 pubmed
    ..5% was a common problem among the students with headaches. These results indicate that approximately one half of Turkish high school students have recurrent headaches which reduce the quality of their lives. ..
  48. Steiner T. Lifting The Burden: the global campaign to reduce the burden of headache worldwide. J Headache Pain. 2005;6:373-7 pubmed
    Lifting The Burden envisions a future world in which headache disorders are recognized everywhere as real, disabling and deserving of medical care to which all who need it have access without artificial barriers.
  49. Silberstein S, Stark S, Lucas S, Christie S, Degryse R, Turkel C. Botulinum toxin type A for the prophylactic treatment of chronic daily headache: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Mayo Clin Proc. 2005;80:1126-37 pubmed
    ..The placebo response was higher than expected. BoNTA was safe and well tolerated. Further study of BoNTA prophylactic treatment of CDH appears warranted. ..
  50. Queiroz L, Peres M, Kowacs F, Piovesan E, Ciciarelli M, Souza J, et al. Chronic daily headache in Brazil: a nationwide population-based study. Cephalalgia. 2008;28:1264-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The overall prevalence of CDH in Brazil is high. CDH is significantly more prevalent in women, the unemployed, subjects with higher income, and in those who do not exercise. ..
  51. Rozen T, Roth J, Denenberg N. Cervical spine joint hypermobility: a possible predisposing factor for new daily persistent headache. Cephalalgia. 2006;26:1182-5 pubmed
    ..Based on our findings we suggest that joint hypermobility, specifically of the cervical spine, may be a predisposing factor for the development of NDPH. ..
  52. Farinelli I, Coloprisco G, de Filippis S, Martelletti P. Long-term benefits of botulinum toxin type A (BOTOX) in chronic daily headache: a five-year long experience. J Headache Pain. 2006;7:407-12 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, BoNT-A therapy appears to be an efficacious new therapeutic choice in the prophylaxis of CDH, especially for patients not responding to previous prophylactic treatments. ..
  53. Abu Arafeh I, Macleod S. Serious neurological disorders in children with chronic headache. Arch Dis Child. 2005;90:937-40 pubmed
    ..Careful history and thorough clinical examination will identify most patients with serious underlying brain abnormalities. Change in headache symptomatology or personality change should lower the threshold for imaging. ..