reflex epilepsy


Summary: A subtype of epilepsy characterized by seizures that are consistently provoked by a certain specific stimulus. Auditory, visual, and somatosensory stimuli as well as the acts of writing, reading, eating, and decision making are examples of events or activities that may induce seizure activity in affected individuals. (From Neurol Clin 1994 Feb;12(1):57-8)

Top Publications

  1. Capovilla G, Beccaria F, Gambardella A, Montagnini A, Avantaggiato P, Seri S. Photosensitive benign myoclonic epilepsy in infancy. Epilepsia. 2007;48:96-100 pubmed
    ..Among BMEI patients, our cases constitute a subgroup in which myoclonic jerks were always triggered by photostimulation, in particular at onset of their epilepsy. ..
  2. Zifkin B, Kasteleijn Nolst Trenité D. Reflex epilepsy and reflex seizures of the visual system: a clinical review. Epileptic Disord. 2000;2:129-36 pubmed
    b>Reflex epilepsy of the visual system is charecterised by seizures precipitated by visual stimuli...
  3. Verrotti A, Trotta D, Salladini C, di Corcia G, Chiarelli F. Photosensitivity and epilepsy. J Child Neurol. 2004;19:571-8 pubmed
    ..Stimulus avoidance and stimulus modification can be an effective treatment in some patients and can sometimes be combined with antiepileptic drug treatment. ..
  4. Vermeulen J, Kalitzin S, Parra J, Dekker E, Vossepoel A, da Silva F. Non-provocative diagnostics of photosensitivity using visual evoked potentials. Clin Neurophysiol. 2008;119:842-52 pubmed publisher
    Photosensitive epilepsy (PSE) is the most common form of reflex epilepsy. Usually, to find out whether a patient is sensitive, he/she is stimulated visually with, e.g...
  5. Verrotti A, Trotta D, Salladini C, di Corcia G, Latini G, Cutarella R, et al. Photosensitivity and epilepsy: a follow-up study. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2004;46:347-51 pubmed
    ..Thirty-three patients became seizure-free. Our study confirms that photosensitive epilepsy has a good prognosis for seizure control that is independent of the persistence or disappearance of photosensitivity. ..
  6. Rubboli G, Parra J, Seri S, Takahashi T, Thomas P. EEG diagnostic procedures and special investigations in the assessment of photosensitivity. Epilepsia. 2004;45 Suppl 1:35-9 pubmed
  7. Parra J, Kalitzin S, Iriarte J, Blanes W, Velis D, Lopes da Silva F. Gamma-band phase clustering and photosensitivity: is there an underlying mechanism common to photosensitive epilepsy and visual perception?. Brain. 2003;126:1164-72 pubmed
    Photosensitive epilepsy (PSE) is the most common form of human reflex epilepsy, appearing in up to 10% of epileptic children...
  8. Yagi H, Takamura Y, Yoneda T, Konno D, Akagi Y, Yoshida K, et al. Vlgr1 knockout mice show audiogenic seizure susceptibility. J Neurochem. 2005;92:191-202 pubmed
    ..Our monogenic mice, which have a unique genetic background, serve as a useful tool for further studies on seizures. ..
  9. Piccioli M, Parisi P, Tisei P, Villa M, Buttinelli C, Kasteleijn Nolst Trenité D. Ictal headache and visual sensitivity. Cephalalgia. 2009;29:194-203 pubmed publisher
    ..We found evidence that, in specific patients, headache could be an ictal sign of epilepsy. Photic stimulation during EEG recording can contribute to correct diagnosis and lead to the best care and management of the patient. ..

More Information


  1. Skradski S, Clark A, Jiang H, White H, Fu Y, Ptacek L. A novel gene causing a mendelian audiogenic mouse epilepsy. Neuron. 2001;31:537-44 pubmed
    ..Study of the MASS1 protein will lead to new insights into regulation of neuronal excitability and a new pathway through which dysfunction can lead to epilepsy. ..
  2. N GOUEMO P, Yasuda R, Faingold C. Protein expression of small conductance calcium-activated potassium channels is altered in inferior colliculus neurons of the genetically epilepsy-prone rat. Brain Res. 2009;1270:107-11 pubmed publisher
  3. Ng B. Psychiatric aspects of self-induced epileptic seizures. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2002;36:534-43 pubmed
    ..Self-induced epileptic seizures may be an important aspect of poor seizure control in a subgroup of epilepsy sufferers. These seizures might be modifiable by psychiatric intervention or behavioural modification. ..
  4. Mehta A, Ettinger A, Perrine K, Dhawan V, Patil A, Jain S, et al. Seizure propagation in a patient with musicogenic epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav. 2009;14:421-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Right temporal lobectomy resulted in Engel class 1 outcome. ..
  5. Francois J, Boehrer A, Nehlig A. Effects of carisbamate (RWJ-333369) in two models of genetically determined generalized epilepsy, the GAERS and the audiogenic Wistar AS. Epilepsia. 2008;49:393-9 pubmed
    ..The present results support the broad spectrum of antiepileptic activity of carisbamate confirming its efficacy in animal models of primary generalized seizures of both tonic-clonic and of the absence type. ..
  6. Midzyanovskaya I, Shatskova A, Sarkisova K, van Luijtelaar G, Tuomisto L, Kuznetsova G. Convulsive and nonconvulsive epilepsy in rats: effects on behavioral response to novelty stress. Epilepsy Behav. 2005;6:543-51 pubmed
    ..It can be concluded that the behavioral response to novelty stress in epileptic subjects depends on the type and severity of seizures. ..
  7. Okumura A, Watanabe K, Negoro T, Ishikawa T, Ishiguro Y, Takenaka J, et al. Epilepsies after Pocket Monster seizures. Epilepsia. 2005;46:980-2 pubmed
    ..Epilepsies after Pocket Monster seizures were different according to the presence or absence of a history of epilepsy. These results will be useful in order to determine the treatment of a patient with a visually induced seizure. ..
  8. Aydin Ozemir Z, Terzibasioglu E, Altindag E, Sencer S, Baykan B. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy findings in photosensitive idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Clin EEG Neurosci. 2010;41:42-9 pubmed
    ..Our results support previous MR studies suggesting an asymmetrical neuronal dysfunction in favor of the dominant occipital cortex and thalamus in photosensitive IGE patients. ..
  9. Enginar N, Nurten A. Seizures triggered by food intake in antimuscarinic-treated fasted animals: evaluation of the experimental findings in terms of similarities to eating-triggered epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2010;51 Suppl 3:80-4 pubmed publisher triggering factor and manifestations of the seizures in patients with eating-evoked epilepsy, seizures in fasted animals may provide insight into the mechanism(s) of this rare and partially controlled form of reflex epilepsy.
  10. Genç B, Genc E, Guney F, Ilhan N. Pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials in patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2005;46:1219-23 pubmed
    ..Results also indicate different P-VEP features in patients with and without photoparoxysmal responses. The changes might be the result of a disorder of one or more neurotransmitters or subtle morphologic damage such as microdysgenesis. ..
  11. Andrews N, Davis B, Gonzalez M, Oles R, Singh L, McKnight A. Effect of gastrin-releasing peptide on rat hippocampal extracellular GABA levels and seizures in the audiogenic seizure-prone DBA/2 mouse. Brain Res. 2000;859:386-9 pubmed
  12. Semiokhina A, Fedotova I, Poletaeva I. [Rats of Krushinsky-Molodkina strain: studies of audiogenic epilepsy, vascular pathology, and behavior]. Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 2006;56:298-316 pubmed
    ..The EEG correlates of these phenomena are presented. Biochemical features of the strain (neurotransmitter and neuronal membrane biochemistry) are described. ..
  13. Garcia Morales I, Maestu F, Pérez Jiménez M, Elices E, Ortiz T, Alvarez Linera J, et al. A clinical and magnetoencephalography study of MRI-negative startle epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav. 2009;16:166-71 pubmed publisher
    ..MEG adds complementary information to the localization of epileptiform activity and can be useful in planning invasive studies in cases evaluated for epilepsy surgery. ..
  14. Nagashima T, Kato H, Maguchi S, Chuma T, Mano Y, Goto Y, et al. A mitochondrial encephalo-myo-neuropathy with a nucleotide position 3271 (T-C) point mutation in the mitochondrial DNA. Neuromuscul Disord. 2001;11:470-6 pubmed
    ..fibers-like phenotype and had a distinctive peripheral neuropathy, while the detected mtDNA 327l (T-C) mutation has been reported to date only in rare cases of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes ..
  15. Cukiert A. Vagus Nerve Stimulation for Epilepsy: An Evidence-Based Approach. Prog Neurol Surg. 2015;29:39-52 pubmed publisher
    ..of the mechanism of action of VNS increase, more homogeneous patient populations that might respond better to VNS are being recognized, such as children with secondary generalized epilepsy and some types of reflex epilepsy.
  16. Hughes J. The photoparoxysmal response: the probable cause of attacks during video games. Clin EEG Neurosci. 2008;39:1-7 pubmed
    ..Drug therapy has emphasized valproic acid, but Levetiracetam has also been successful in eliminating the PPR. ..
  17. Wills T, Knapp D, Overstreet D, Breese G. Differential dietary ethanol intake and blood ethanol levels in adolescent and adult rats: effects on anxiety-like behavior and seizure thresholds. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2008;32:1350-60 pubmed publisher
    ..While adolescent rats have differential responses to both acute and chronic ethanol treatments, the potential differences in the effects of repeated withdrawals in this population have yet to be determined...
  18. Nakazawa C, Fujimoto S, Watanabe M, Tanaka M, Kageyama M, Ishikawa T, et al. Eating epilepsy characterized by periodic spasms. Neuropediatrics. 2002;33:294-7 pubmed
    Seizures induced by eating are generally considered rare. Eating epilepsy is a kind of reflex epilepsy. We report two patients aged 11 and 16, with seizures provoked by eating...
  19. Salek Haddadi A, Mayer T, Hamandi K, Symms M, Josephs O, Fluegel D, et al. Imaging seizure activity: a combined EEG/EMG-fMRI study in reading epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2009;50:256-64 pubmed publisher
  20. Saito Y, Sugai K, Nakagawa E, Sakuma H, Komaki H, Sasaki M, et al. Non-convulsive status epilepticus and audiogenic seizures complicating a patient with asymmetrical epileptic spasms. Brain Dev. 2010;32:583-7 pubmed publisher
  21. Qin M, Kang J, Smith C. A null mutation for Fmr1 in female mice: effects on regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose and relationship to behavior. Neuroscience. 2005;135:999-1009 pubmed
    ..Whether estrogen affords female Fmr1 null mice some protection from the effects of the mutation remains to be determined. ..
  22. Takao T, Murakami H, Fukuda M, Kawaguchi T, Kakita A, Takahashi H, et al. Transcranial imaging of audiogenic epileptic foci in the cortex of DBA/2J mice. Neuroreport. 2006;17:267-71 pubmed
    ..Focal responses appeared near the somatosensory cortex together with spike activities localized in the response area. These findings indicate that epileptic foci of audiogenic seizure are formed in the cortex of DBA/2J mice. ..
  23. Torniero C, Zuffardi O, Darra F, Dalla Bernardina B. Scotosensitive and photosensitive myoclonic seizures in an infant with trisomy 13. Epilepsia. 2007;48:2177-80 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, a possible association to locus on 13q31.3 has been reported for photosensitivity, while for scotosensitivity there is no previous genetic information. ..
  24. Bruhn K, Kronisch S, Waltz S, Stephani U. Screen sensitivity in photosensitive children and adolescents: patient-dependant and stimulus-dependant factors. Epileptic Disord. 2007;9:57-64 pubmed
    ..Non-photosensitive subjects did not react to any of the stimuli. The results of the present study show that screen-dependant factors are less important than image-dependant factors. ..
  25. Baumer F, Porter B. Clinical and electrographic features of sunflower syndrome. Epilepsy Res. 2018;142:58-63 pubmed publisher
    ..For patients who cannot tolerate valproate, higher doses of lamotrigine or polypharmacy should be considered. Levetiracetam monotherapy, even at high doses, is unlikely to be effective. ..
  26. Gardella E, Tinuper P, Marini C, Guerrini R, Parrini E, Bisulli F, et al. Autosomal dominant early-onset cortical myoclonus, photic-induced myoclonus, and epilepsy in a large pedigree. Epilepsia. 2006;47:1643-9 pubmed
    ..Exclusion of linkage to the two known loci is consistent with genetic heterogeneity of such familial clustering of symptoms. ..
  27. Deransart C, Lê Pham B, Hirsch E, Marescaux C, Depaulis A. Inhibition of the substantia nigra suppresses absences and clonic seizures in audiogenic rats, but not tonic seizures: evidence for seizure specificity of the nigral control. Neuroscience. 2001;105:203-11 pubmed
    ..They suggest that this control mechanism has no inhibitory effect on circuits underlying audiogenic tonic seizures. ..
  28. Voskuil P. Benign early infantile reflex absence seizures. Epileptic Disord. 2002;4:29-33 pubmed
    ..Treatment with antiepileptic agents was not initiated. Six months later the seizures stopped spontaneously and have not recurred. Two years later, psychomotor and behavioural development is normal [published with video- sequences]. ..
  29. Takahashi T, Kamijo K, Takaki Y, Yamazaki T. Suppressive efficacies by adaptive temporal filtering system on photoparoxysmal response elicited by flickering pattern stimulation. Epilepsia. 2002;43:530-4 pubmed
    ..Therefore a series of our studies suggested that ATFS may be useful as a preventive measure for photosensitive seizures triggered by stimulative flickering images from televisions or other displays. ..
  30. Wolf P. From precipitation to inhibition of seizures: rationale of a therapeutic paradigm. Epilepsia. 2005;46 Suppl 1:15-6 pubmed
    ..Understanding these interactions facilitates the development of successful nonpharmaceutical therapeutic interventions for epilepsy. ..
  31. Venediktova N, Gorbacheva O, Belosludtseva N, Fedotova I, Surina N, Poletaeva I, et al. Energetic, oxidative and ionic exchange in rat brain and liver mitochondria at experimental audiogenic epilepsy (Krushinsky-Molodkina model). J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2017;49:149-158 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of the changes in the energetic, oxidative, and ionic exchange in the mechanism of audiogenic epilepsy generation in rats and the possible correction of the epilepsy seizures are discussed. ..
  32. Figurina I, Volkov A, Koshelev V. Decreased tolerance to acoustic stress in late postresuscitation period in Krushinsky-Molodkina rats. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2000;130:627-8 pubmed
  33. Leon Chavez B, Guevara J, Galindo S, Luna J, Ugarte A, Villegas O, et al. Regional and temporal progression of reactive astrocytosis in the brain of the myelin mutant taiep rat. Brain Res. 2001;900:152-5 pubmed
    ..Characteristically, astrocytes were hypertrophic and displayed strong GFAP fluorescence. The pattern of these reactive cells may correlate with the process of dysmyelination in the taiep rat...
  34. Dinnerstein E, McDonald B, Cleavinger H, Thadani V, Jobst B. Mesial temporal sclerosis after status epilepticus due to milk alkali syndrome. Seizure. 2008;17:292-5 pubmed
    ..While this may be a coincidence, there is reason to suspect that the development of persistent epilepsy, possibly due to mesial temporal sclerosis, was caused by prolonged seizures induced by hypercalcemia. ..
  35. Rubens D. Are lethal audiogenic seizures a missing link to the sudden infant death syndrome?. Med Hypotheses. 2004;63:87-91 pubmed
    ..Importantly, there is data to support the likelihood that motor seizure activity may be absent in infants with an AGS syndrome. Rodent AGSs may hold important clues to unraveling the mystery of SIDS. ..
  36. Brinciotti M, Matricardi M, Cantonetti L, Lauretti G, Pugliatti M. Long-term outcome of pattern-sensitive epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2006;47 Suppl 5:36-40 pubmed
    ..At the end of follow up, 28 patients (80%) were seizure-free. The long-term outcome of patients with pattern-sensitive epilepsy indicates a good prognosis with a favorable course for both spontaneous and reflex seizures. ..
  37. Cho J, Seo D, Joo E, Tae W, Lee J, Hong S. Neural correlates of musicogenic epilepsy: SISCOM and FDG-PET. Epilepsy Res. 2007;77:169-73 pubmed
  38. Yechikhov S, Morenkov E, Chulanova T, Godukhin O, Shchipakina T. Involvement of cAMP- and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent neuronal protein phosphorylation in mechanisms underlying genetic predisposition to audiogenic seizures in rats. Epilepsy Res. 2001;46:15-25 pubmed
    ..The present results indicate that modification of 270, 58, 54, and 42 kDa proteins phosphorylation as well as altered CAMKII and PKA activities might be involved in mechanisms of genetic predisposition to audiogenic seizures. ..
  39. Batini C, Teillet M, Naquet R. An avian model of genetic reflex epilepsy. Arch Ital Biol. 2004;142:297-312 pubmed
    ..a recessive autosomal gene mutation in which homozygotes are afflicted with a photogenic and audiogenic reflex epilepsy. Seizures consist of stimulus-locked motor symptoms followed by generalized self sustained convulsions...
  40. Cushman J, Floccare D. Flicker illness: an underrecognized but preventable complication of helicopter transport. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2007;11:85-8 pubmed
    ..Symptoms range from mild discomfort and headache to profound spatial disorientation and seizures and may be an underrecognized but preventable complication of air medical transport. ..
  41. Stanojlovic O, Zivanovic D, Susic V. [The delta-sleep inducing peptide and its effect on the electroencephalogram and power spectrum density in rats with metaphit-induced epilepsy]. Srp Arh Celok Lek. 2001;129:114-8 pubmed
    ..Metaphit induces a generalized, reflex epilepsy thus providing an experimental model of choice for the studies of the mechanism of epilepsy development and ..
  42. Visani E, Varotto G, Binelli S, Fratello L, Franceschetti S, Avanzini G, et al. Photosensitive epilepsy: spectral and coherence analyses of EEG using 14Hz intermittent photic stimulation. Clin Neurophysiol. 2010;121:318-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Both gamma and alpha EEG generators are involved in the PPR generation and in the widespread synchronisation characterising the IGE-associated photosensitivity. ..
  43. Musumeci S, Bosco P, Calabrese G, Bakker C, De Sarro G, Elia M, et al. Audiogenic seizures susceptibility in transgenic mice with fragile X syndrome. Epilepsia. 2000;41:19-23 pubmed
    ..These results support the validity of this animal model also for epilepsy and seizures in the human fragile X syndrome. ..
  44. Termine C, Rubboli G, Veggiotti P. Eye-closure-triggered paroxysmal activity and cognitive impairment: a case report. Epilepsia. 2006;47 Suppl 2:115-8 pubmed
    ..We speculate whether a dysfunction in posterior cortical areas involved in visual processing might be related to the impairment in face recognition and block design tests as well to eye closure sensitivity. ..
  45. Siddiqi Z, VanLandingham K, Husain A. Reflex seizures and non-ketotic hyperglycemia: an unresolved issue. Seizure. 2002;11:63-6 pubmed
    ..We recommend that in such instances a focal lesion such as stroke should be ruled out...
  46. Uzbay T, Kayir H, Celik T, Yuksel N. Acute and chronic tianeptine treatments attenuate ethanol withdrawal syndrome in rats. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2006;30:478-85 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that acute or chronic tianeptine treatment attenuates ethanol withdrawal syndrome in ethanol-dependent rats and this drug may be useful for treatment of ethanol-type dependence. ..
  47. Tayah T, Abou Khalil B, Gilliam F, Knowlton R, Wushensky C, Gallagher M. Musicogenic seizures can arise from multiple temporal lobe foci: intracranial EEG analyses of three patients. Epilepsia. 2006;47:1402-6 pubmed
    ..Patients with medically intractable musicogenic epilepsy and with unilateral ictal onset zones may be considered candidates for resective epilepsy surgery. ..
  48. Vataev S. [The phenomenon of lowering a seizure readiness level after frequent audiogenic seizures in Krushinski?-Molodkina rats]. Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 2006;92:967-74 pubmed
    ..Probable role of reorganized functions of ascending activating brain systems in origination of the long reduction of susceptibility to the sound after frequentative audiogenic convulsions in rats is discussed. ..
  49. Boyarshinova O, Perepelkina O, Markina N, Poletaeva I. Audiogenic epilepsy in young mice of different strains after neonatal semax treatment. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2008;146:86-8 pubmed
  50. van Zyl R, Gieselmann V, Eckhardt M. Elevated sulfatide levels in neurons cause lethal audiogenic seizures in mice. J Neurochem. 2010;112:282-95 pubmed publisher
    ..CGT-transgenic mice will be a useful model to further investigate how sulfatide affects functional properties of neurons. ..
  51. Misawa H, Sherr E, Lee D, Chetkovich D, Tan A, Schreiner C, et al. Identification of a monogenic locus (jams1) causing juvenile audiogenic seizures in mice. J Neurosci. 2002;22:10088-93 pubmed
    ..3 implicated in a familial form of juvenile febrile convulsions. Cloning the gene for audiogenic seizures in these mice may provide important insight into the fundamental mechanisms for developmentally regulated human epilepsy syndromes. ..
  52. Singhi P, Bansal D. Self induced photosensitive epilepsy. Indian J Pediatr. 2004;71:649-51 pubmed
    ..She admitted that she often induced the episode herself and derived pleasure out of it. She responded well to Sodium valproate. ..
  53. Valenti M, Rudolf G, Carré S, Vrielynck P, Thibault A, Szepetowski P, et al. Language-induced epilepsy, acquired stuttering, and idiopathic generalized epilepsy: phenotypic study of one family. Epilepsia. 2006;47:766-72 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that this particular form of reflex epilepsy related to language has more similarities with generalized epilepsies than with focal ones...