frontal lobe epilepsy

Summary

Summary: A localization-related (focal) form of epilepsy characterized by seizures which arise in the FRONTAL LOBE.

Top Publications

  1. Diaz Otero F, Quesada M, Morales Corraliza J, Martínez Parra C, Gomez Garre P, Serratosa J. Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy with a mutation in the CHRNB2 gene. Epilepsia. 2008;49:516-20 pubmed
    Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE; MIM 600513) has been associated with mutations in the genes coding for the alfa-4 (CHRNA4), beta-2 (CHRNB2), and alpha-2 (CHRNA2) subunits of the neuronal nicotinic ..
  2. Combi R, Dalprà L, Ferini Strambi L, Tenchini M. Frontal lobe epilepsy and mutations of the corticotropin-releasing hormone gene. Ann Neurol. 2005;58:899-904 pubmed
    Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy up to now has been considered a channelopathy caused by mutations in the alpha(4) and beta(2) subunits of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor...
  3. Vignatelli L, Bisulli F, Naldi I, Ferioli S, Pittau F, Provini F, et al. Excessive daytime sleepiness and subjective sleep quality in patients with nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy: a case-control study. Epilepsia. 2006;47 Suppl 5:73-7 pubmed
    Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) may be associated with sleep fragmentation and reduced sleep efficiency. Daytime sleepiness and disturbed sleep quality have been reported in some patients...
  4. Nobili L. Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy and non-rapid eye movement sleep parasomnias: differences and similarities. Sleep Med Rev. 2007;11:251-4 pubmed
  5. McDonald C, Delis D, Kramer J, Tecoma E, Iragui V. A componential analysis of proverb interpretation in patients with frontal lobe epilepsy and temporal lobe epilepsy: relationships with disease-related factors. Clin Neuropsychol. 2008;22:480-96 pubmed
    The ability to interpret nonliteral, metaphoric language was explored in patients with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), and matched control participants, to determine (1) if patients with FLE were impaired in ..
  6. Zhu G, Okada M, Yoshida S, Ueno S, Mori F, Takahara T, et al. Rats harboring S284L Chrna4 mutation show attenuation of synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAergic transmission and exhibit the nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy phenotype. J Neurosci. 2008;28:12465-76 pubmed publisher
    ..or CHRNA2, respectively) of nAChR [neuronal nicotinic ACh (acetylcholine) receptor] cause nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) in human...
  7. Fedi M, Berkovic S, Scheffer I, O KEEFE G, Marini C, Mulligan R, et al. Reduced striatal D1 receptor binding in autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. Neurology. 2008;71:795-8 pubmed publisher
    ..neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptor identified in patients with autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) lead to increased sensitivity to ACh...
  8. Teper Y, Whyte D, Cahir E, Lester H, Grady S, Marks M, et al. Nicotine-induced dystonic arousal complex in a mouse line harboring a human autosomal-dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy mutation. J Neurosci. 2007;27:10128-42 pubmed
    We generated a mouse line harboring an autosomal-dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) mutation: the alpha4 nicotinic receptor S248F knock-in strain...
  9. Bisulli F, Vignatelli L, Naldi I, Licchetta L, Provini F, Plazzi G, et al. Increased frequency of arousal parasomnias in families with nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy: a common mechanism?. Epilepsia. 2010;51:1852-60 pubmed publisher
    Retrospective observations disclosed an overlap between parasomnias and nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) not only in patients but also in their relatives, suggesting a possible common pathogenetic mechanism...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Klaassen A, Glykys J, Maguire J, Labarca C, Mody I, Boulter J. Seizures and enhanced cortical GABAergic inhibition in two mouse models of human autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:19152-7 pubmed
    ..receptor subunit genes cosegregate with a partial epilepsy syndrome known as autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE)...
  2. McLellan A, Phillips H, Rittey C, Kirkpatrick M, Mulley J, Goudie D, et al. Phenotypic comparison of two Scottish families with mutations in different genes causing autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2003;44:613-7 pubmed
    ..neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor receptor (CHRN) are known to cause autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE)...
  3. Derry C, Harvey A, Walker M, Duncan J, Berkovic S. NREM arousal parasomnias and their distinction from nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy: a video EEG analysis. Sleep. 2009;32:1637-44 pubmed
    ..in detail and identify features that can be used to reliably distinguish parasomnias from nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE)...
  4. Ossenblok P, de Munck J, Colon A, Drolsbach W, Boon P. Magnetoencephalography is more successful for screening and localizing frontal lobe epilepsy than electroencephalography. Epilepsia. 2007;48:2139-49 pubmed
    The diagnosis of frontal lobe epilepsy may be compounded by poor electroclinical localization, due to distributed or rapidly propagating epileptiform activity...
  5. Tinuper P, Provini F, Bisulli F, Lugaresi E. Hyperkinetic manifestations in nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. Semeiological features and physiopathological hypothesis. Neurol Sci. 2005;26 Suppl 3:s210-4 pubmed
    Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy is a syndromic entity that includes paroxysmal episodes with variable semeiology, intensity and duration, representing different aspects of the same epileptic condition...
  6. Phillips H, Favre I, Kirkpatrick M, Zuberi S, Goudie D, Heron S, et al. CHRNB2 is the second acetylcholine receptor subunit associated with autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. Am J Hum Genet. 2001;68:225-31 pubmed
    Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) is an uncommon, idiopathic partial epilepsy characterized by clusters of motor seizures occurring in sleep...
  7. Yamazaki Y, Sudo A, Ito T, Sano H, Fukushima N. [Case of frontal lobe epilepsy with gelastic seizures induced by emotion]. Brain Nerve. 2009;61:989-93 pubmed
    ..The seizures responded favorably to oral administration of carbamazepine. The induction of the seizures could be related to theophylline administration and emotional excitation. ..
  8. Manni R, Terzaghi M, Repetto A. The FLEP scale in diagnosing nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy, NREM and REM parasomnias: data from a tertiary sleep and epilepsy unit. Epilepsia. 2008;49:1581-5 pubmed publisher
    To test the usefulness of the FLEP scale in diagnosing nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE), arousal parasomnias, and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD).
  9. Lopez C, Heydrich L, Seeck M, Blanke O. Abnormal self-location and vestibular vertigo in a patient with right frontal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav. 2010;17:289-92 pubmed publisher
    ..of "mind and self from body" (disembodiment), followed by vestibular vertigo due to right frontal lobe epilepsy caused by an oligodendroglioma...
  10. Phillips H, Scheffer I, Berkovic S, Hollway G, Sutherland G, Mulley J. Localization of a gene for autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy to chromosome 20q 13.2. Nat Genet. 1995;10:117-8 pubmed
    ..Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) was recently described in five families. We now report the chromosomal assignment, to 20q13...
  11. Cho Y, Motamedi G, Laufenberg I, Sohn S, Lim J, Lee H, et al. A Korean kindred with autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy and mental retardation. Arch Neurol. 2003;60:1625-32 pubmed
    ..mutation that was found in a previously described Japanese kindred with autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. To describe the first Korean family with autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy...
  12. Bonati M, Combi R, Asselta R, Duga S, Malcovati M, Oldani A, et al. Exclusion of linkage of nine neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit genes expressed in brain in autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy in four unrelated families. J Neurol. 2002;249:967-74 pubmed
    ..coding for the alpha4 and beta2 subunits, respectively) are involved in autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE)...
  13. Ryvlin P, Minotti L, Demarquay G, Hirsch E, Arzimanoglou A, Hoffman D, et al. Nocturnal hypermotor seizures, suggesting frontal lobe epilepsy, can originate in the insula. Epilepsia. 2006;47:755-65 pubmed
    ..nocturnal hypermotor seizures (NHSs), no detectable brain lesion, and clinically defined nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) or autosomal dominant NLFE (ADNFLE), whose intracerebral EEG ictal onset primarily involved the ..
  14. Steinlein O, Mulley J, Propping P, Wallace R, Phillips H, Sutherland G, et al. A missense mutation in the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha 4 subunit is associated with autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. Nat Genet. 1995;11:201-3 pubmed
    ..Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) is a partial epilepsy causing frequent, violent, brief seizures at night, usually beginning in ..
  15. Hirose S, Iwata H, Akiyoshi H, Kobayashi K, Ito M, Wada K, et al. A novel mutation of CHRNA4 responsible for autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. Neurology. 1999;53:1749-53 pubmed
    To identify the mutation responsible for autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) in a nonwhite family. ADNFLE is newly recognized as an entity of idiopathic partial epilepsy...
  16. Combi R, Dalprà L, Tenchini M, Ferini Strambi L. Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy--a critical overview. J Neurol. 2004;251:923-34 pubmed
    Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) is an idiopathic epilepsy, with a spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from brief, stereotyped, sudden arousals to more complex dystonic-dyskinetic seizures...
  17. Leniger T, Kananura C, Hufnagel A, Bertrand S, Bertrand D, Steinlein O. A new Chrna4 mutation with low penetrance in nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2003;44:981-5 pubmed
    To identify and characterize the mutation(s) causing nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy in a German extended family. Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit genes were screened by direct sequencing...
  18. Ito M, Adachi N, Nakamura F, Koyama T, Okamura T, Kato M, et al. Multi-center study on post-ictal headache in patients with localization-related epilepsy. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2003;57:385-9 pubmed
    ..The subjects consisted of 97 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), 65 patients with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) and 37 patients with occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE)...
  19. Janszky J, Fogarasi A, Magalova V, Tuxhorn I, Ebner A. Hyperorality in epileptic seizures: periictal incomplete Klüver-Bucy syndrome. Epilepsia. 2005;46:1235-40 pubmed
    ..Seven patients had TLE, and one patient had frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE)...
  20. Asadi Pooya A, Wyeth D, Sperling M. Ictal crying. Epilepsy Behav. 2016;59:1-3 pubmed publisher
    ..with epileptic ictal crying, four patients had focal epilepsy (two had definite, and two had probable frontal lobe epilepsy), while one patient had Lennox-Gastaut syndrome...
  21. Eisenman L, Attarian H. Sleep epilepsy. Neurologist. 2003;9:200-6 pubmed
    ..This review summarizes the epidemiology of sleep epilepsy and reviews a number of epilepsies that can manifest as sleep epilepsy as well as some nonepileptic sleep disorders from which sleep epilepsy must be differentiated. ..
  22. Picard F, Pegna A, Arntsberg V, Lucas N, Kaczmarek I, Todica O, et al. Neuropsychological disturbances in frontal lobe epilepsy due to mutated nicotinic receptors. Epilepsy Behav. 2009;14:354-9 pubmed publisher
    ..in nicotinic receptor subunits have been identified in some families with autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE)...
  23. Nobili L, Sartori I, Terzaghi M, Stefano F, Mai R, Tassi L, et al. Relationship of epileptic discharges to arousal instability and periodic leg movements in a case of nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy: a stereo-EEG study. Sleep. 2006;29:701-4 pubmed
    We describe the case of a patient with nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy, presenting with periodic leg movements during sleep and complaining of excessive daytime sleepiness...
  24. Raju G, Sarco D, Poduri A, Riviello J, Bergin A, Takeoka M. Oxcarbazepine in children with nocturnal frontal-lobe epilepsy. Pediatr Neurol. 2007;37:345-9 pubmed
    ..Our patients demonstrate the efficacy of oxcarbazepine for nocturnal hyperkinetic seizures in children with nocturnal frontal-lobe epilepsy...
  25. Hoda J, Wanischeck M, Bertrand D, Steinlein O. Pleiotropic functional effects of the first epilepsy-associated mutation in the human CHRNA2 gene. FEBS Lett. 2009;583:1599-604 pubmed publisher
    Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) can be caused by mutations in the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit genes CHRNA4 and CHRNB2...
  26. Chen B, Detyniecki K, Choi H, Hirsch L, Katz A, Legge A, et al. Psychiatric and behavioral side effects of anti-epileptic drugs in adolescents and children with epilepsy. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2017;21:441-449 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, a history of psychiatric condition, absence seizures, intractable epilepsy, and frontal lobe epilepsy were significantly associated with increased PBSE rates...
  27. Moeller F, Tyvaert L, Nguyen D, Levan P, Bouthillier A, Kobayashi E, et al. EEG-fMRI: adding to standard evaluations of patients with nonlesional frontal lobe epilepsy. Neurology. 2009;73:2023-30 pubmed publisher
    In patients with nonlesional frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), the delineation of the epileptogenic zone is difficult. Therefore these patients are often not considered for surgery due to an unclear seizure focus...
  28. Gold J, Sher Y, Maldonado J. Frontal Lobe Epilepsy: A Primer for Psychiatrists and a Systematic Review of Psychiatric Manifestations. Psychosomatics. 2016;57:445-64 pubmed publisher
    b>Frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) can masquerade as a primary psychiatric condition, be misdiagnosed in-lieu of a true psychiatric disorder, or may be comorbid with psychiatric illness...
  29. Hirose S, Mitsudome A, Okada M, Kaneko S. Genetics of idiopathic epilepsies. Epilepsia. 2005;46 Suppl 1:38-43 pubmed
    ..two subunits of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor were found in autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. Mutations of two K(+)-channel genes were identified in benign familial neonatal convulsions...
  30. Leiguarda R, Nouzeilles M, Ugarnes G, Amengual A, Roldan E, Fridman E, et al. Ictal non-forced grasping behaviour. Eur J Neurol. 2008;15:169-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Four of the 30 patients with frontal lobe epilepsy (13%) showed unilateral grasping behaviour, three of whom had whole hand prehension (one with manipulation ..
  31. Kallay C, Mayor Dubois C, Maeder Ingvar M, Seeck M, Debatisse D, Deonna T, et al. Reversible acquired epileptic frontal syndrome and CSWS suppression in a child with congenital hemiparesis treated by hemispherotomy. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2009;13:430-8 pubmed publisher
  32. McGonigal A, Gavaret M, Da Fonseca A, Guye M, Scavarda D, Villeneuve N, et al. MRI-negative prefrontal epilepsy due to cortical dysplasia explored by stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG). Epileptic Disord. 2008;10:330-8 pubmed publisher
    ..There was no visible lesion on MRI, but following localisation using stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG), surgery revealed an underlying dysplastic lesion. ..
  33. Bortolato M, Barberini L, Puligheddu M, Muroni A, Maleci A, Ennas F, et al. Involvement of GABA in mirror focus: a case report. Epilepsy Res. 2010;90:300-3 pubmed publisher
    ..These results extend previous evidence on the involvement of GABAergic signaling in MF pathophysiology. ..
  34. Lee S, Kim J, Hong K, Nam H, Park S, Chung C. The clinical usefulness of ictal surface EEG in neocortical epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2000;41:1450-5 pubmed
    ..The percentage of discrete or regional EEGs was 23% in frontal lobe epilepsy, 52% in lateral temporal lobe epilepsy, 70% in occipital lobe epilepsy, and 10% in parietal lobe epilepsy...
  35. Lemieux L, Krakow K, Fish D. Comparison of spike-triggered functional MRI BOLD activation and EEG dipole model localization. Neuroimage. 2001;14:1097-104 pubmed
  36. Verrotti A, Sofia V, Franzoni E, Coppola G, Manco R, Ciambra G, et al. Topiramate in frontal lobe epilepsy. Acta Neurol Scand. 2007;115:132-5 pubmed
    b>Frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) is a type of epilepsy that is difficult to treat and there are few studies about the use of topiramate (TPM). To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of TPM monotherapy in FLE...
  37. Ozlen F, Asan Z, Tanriverdi T, Kafadar A, Ozkara C, Ozyurt E, et al. Surgical morbidity of invasive monitoring in epilepsy surgery: an experience from a single institution. Turk Neurosurg. 2010;20:364-72 pubmed publisher
    ..2% (n=3). Based on our experience, intracranial electrode implantation is an effective and safe method with extremely low morbidity rate, especially in experienced hands. ..
  38. Mirandola L, Badawy R, Saunders A, McIntosh A, Berkovic S, Jackson G. Clinical features of seizures associated with parahippocampal/inferior temporal lesions compared to those with hippocampal sclerosis. Epilepsia. 2010;51:1906-9 pubmed publisher
    ..hypermotor and bilateral features and a lower frequency of behavioral arrest at the onset of seizure compared to cases with HS, suggesting that TLE originating in the PIT area can mimic frontal lobe epilepsy or contralateral mesial TLE.
  39. Stewart E, Catroppa C, Lah S. Theory of Mind in Patients with Epilepsy: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Neuropsychol Rev. 2016;26:3-24 pubmed publisher
    ..adults with focal seizures emanating from core brain regions underpinning ToM: temporal and frontal lobes (frontal lobe epilepsy, FLE; temporal lobe epilepsy, TLE), but not in adults with focal seizures outside the temporal and frontal ..
  40. Culhane Shelburne K, Chapieski L, Hiscock M, Glaze D. Executive functions in children with frontal and temporal lobe epilepsy. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2002;8:623-32 pubmed
    Even though frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) is a relatively common seizure type, no formal psychometric studies of children with FLE have been reported...
  41. Nakazawa C, Fujimoto S, Watanabe M, Tanaka M, Kageyama M, Ishikawa T, et al. Eating epilepsy characterized by periodic spasms. Neuropediatrics. 2002;33:294-7 pubmed
    ..The ECD were widely distributed in both patients, although that of Patient 1 was partially clustered in the right frontal region. This is the first report of patients with periodic spasms induced by eating. ..
  42. Yalcin A, Toydemir H, Celebi L, Forta H. Panayiotopoulos syndrome with coincidental brain lesions. Epileptic Disord. 2009;11:270-6 pubmed publisher
    ..None of our patients had seizures under antiepileptic treatment. Children with Panayiotopoulos syndrome may have static MRI brain findings which are likely to be coincidental and do not affect prognosis. ..
  43. Schurr J, Coras R, Rössler K, Pieper T, Kudernatsch M, Holthausen H, et al. Mild Malformation of Cortical Development with Oligodendroglial Hyperplasia in Frontal Lobe Epilepsy: A New Clinico-Pathological Entity. Brain Pathol. 2017;27:26-35 pubmed publisher
    ..All patients suffered from frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) with a median age of epilepsy onset at 4 years and 16 years at epilepsy surgery...
  44. Yu Q, Yang W, Wang Z, Gao S, Xue J, Chen Z, et al. [Localization of epileptic foci in frontal lobe epilepsy and its surgical therapy]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2010;90:462-5 pubmed
    To analyze the clinical data and pre-operative examination results of frontal lobe epilepsy and combine with intra-operative intracranial electrical record in order to localize epileptic foci and to direct surgical therapy...
  45. Bruggemann J, Som S, Lawson J, Haindl W, Cunningham A, Bye A. Application of statistical parametric mapping to SPET in the assessment of intractable childhood epilepsy. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2004;31:369-77 pubmed
    ..tomography (SPET) imaging in presurgical assessment of children with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE). The patient sample consisted of 24 children (15 males) aged 2.1-17.8 years (9.8+/-4...
  46. Beauvais K, Biraben A, Seigneuret E, Saikali S, Scarabin J. Subjective signs in premotor epilepsy: confirmation by stereo-electroencephalography. Epileptic Disord. 2005;7:347-54 pubmed
    ..This illustrates the complexity of analyzing subjective signs, as well as the complexity of the neuronal networks participating in the propagation of discharges arising in the premotor frontal area. ..
  47. Evely K, Pryce K, Bhattacharjee A. The Phe932Ile mutation in KCNT1 channels associated with severe epilepsy, delayed myelination and leukoencephalopathy produces a loss-of-function channel phenotype. Neuroscience. 2017;351:65-70 pubmed publisher
    ..To date, such mutations identified in patients with autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE), epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures (EIMFS) and Ohtahara syndrome (OS) have been ..
  48. Seo W, Park M, Eun S, Rhie S, Song D, Chae K. My child cannot breathe while sleeping: a report of three cases and review. BMC Pediatr. 2017;17:169 pubmed publisher
    ..paroxysmal nocturnal waking events associated with choking that had different etiologies (nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy, nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux disease, and parasomnia, respectively)...
  49. Blanchette N, Smith M. Language after temporal or frontal lobe surgery in children with epilepsy. Brain Cogn. 2002;48:280-4 pubmed
    ..reading, spelling, phonemic fluency, and category fluency) were administered to 9 children with frontal lobe epilepsy (mean age: 10.8 +/- 2.7 years) and 10 children with temporal lobe epilepsy (11.5 +/- 2.6 years)...
  50. Torniero C, Zuffardi O, Darra F, Dalla Bernardina B. Scotosensitive and photosensitive myoclonic seizures in an infant with trisomy 13. Epilepsia. 2007;48:2177-80 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, a possible association to locus on 13q31.3 has been reported for photosensitivity, while for scotosensitivity there is no previous genetic information. ..
  51. Chahine L, Mikati M. Benign pediatric localization-related epilepsies. Epileptic Disord. 2006;8:243-58 pubmed
    ..In addition, we discuss their occasional overlap with or progression into other syndromes. ..
  52. Steinlein O. Neuronal nicotinic receptors in human epilepsy. Eur J Pharmacol. 2000;393:243-7 pubmed
    Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) is a rare monogenic idiopathic partial epilepsy characterized by clusters of frontal lobe motor seizures during sleep...
  53. Combi R, Ferini Strambi L, Montruccoli A, Bianchi V, Malcovati M, Zucconi M, et al. Two new putative susceptibility loci for ADNFLE. Brain Res Bull. 2005;67:257-63 pubmed
    Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) has been up to now considered a simple Mendelian trait caused by mutations in neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit genes...