generalized epilepsy

Summary

Summary: Recurrent conditions characterized by epileptic seizures which arise diffusely and simultaneously from both hemispheres of the brain. Classification is generally based upon motor manifestations of the seizure (e.g., convulsive, nonconvulsive, akinetic, atonic, etc.) or etiology (e.g., idiopathic, cryptogenic, and symptomatic). (From Mayo Clin Proc, 1996 Apr;71(4):405-14)

Top Publications

  1. Tyvaert L, Chassagnon S, Sadikot A, Levan P, Dubeau F, Gotman J. Thalamic nuclei activity in idiopathic generalized epilepsy: an EEG-fMRI study. Neurology. 2009;73:2018-22 pubmed publisher
    ..These results may help to understand the clinical effect of deep brain stimulation within thalamic nuclei in intractable idiopathic generalized epilepsy patients.
  2. Stogmann E, Lichtner P, Baumgartner C, Bonelli S, Assem Hilger E, Leutmezer F, et al. Idiopathic generalized epilepsy phenotypes associated with different EFHC1 mutations. Neurology. 2006;67:2029-31 pubmed
    We sequenced 61 patients with various idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) syndromes for mutations in the EFHC1 gene...
  3. Hempelmann A, Cobilanschi J, Heils A, Muhle H, Stephani U, Weber Y, et al. Lack of evidence of an allelic association of a functional GABRB3 exon 1a promoter polymorphism with idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Epilepsy Res. 2007;74:28-32 pubmed
    ..whether the C-allele of rs4906902 confers susceptibility to CAE or other common syndromes of idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) in a German sample...
  4. Xu R, Thomas E, Gazina E, Richards K, Quick M, Wallace R, et al. Generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus-associated sodium channel beta1 subunit mutations severely reduce beta subunit-mediated modulation of sodium channel function. Neuroscience. 2007;148:164-74 pubmed
    ..domain of the sodium channel beta1 subunit have been identified in individuals from two families with generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+)...
  5. Tang B, Dutt K, Papale L, Rusconi R, Shankar A, Hunter J, et al. A BAC transgenic mouse model reveals neuron subtype-specific effects of a Generalized Epilepsy with Febrile Seizures Plus (GEFS+) mutation. Neurobiol Dis. 2009;35:91-102 pubmed publisher
    ..in the voltage-gated sodium channel SCN1A are responsible for a number of seizure disorders including Generalized Epilepsy with Febrile Seizures Plus (GEFS+) and Severe Myoclonic Epilepsy of Infancy (SMEI)...
  6. Lorenz S, Heils A, Kasper J, Sander T. Allelic association of a truncation mutation of the KCNMB3 gene with idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2007;144B:10-3 pubmed
    ..potassium (BK) channels represents a positional and functional candidate gene for idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE)...
  7. Roulet Perez E, Ballhausen D, Bonafe L, Cronel Ohayon S, Maeder Ingvar M. Glut-1 deficiency syndrome masquerading as idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2008;49:1955-8 pubmed publisher
    ..with short absences and occasional myoclonias since infancy who was first diagnosed with an idiopathic generalized epilepsy, but was documented at follow-up to have a mild phenotype of glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome...
  8. Tang B, Sander T, Craven K, Hempelmann A, Escayg A. Mutation analysis of the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels HCN1 and HCN2 in idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Neurobiol Dis. 2008;29:59-70 pubmed
    ..present study we describe the mutation analysis of HCN1 and HCN2 in 84 unrelated patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE)...
  9. Mikati M, Shamseddine A. Refractory calculation-induced idiopathic generalized epilepsy: a case report and review of the literature. Epilepsia. 2005;46 Suppl 10:48-50 pubmed
    We report a case with calculation-induced idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) that, unlike most patients with IGE, was refractory to medications...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Ertekin B, Kulaksizoglu I, Ertekin E, Gurses C, Bebek N, Gokyigit A, et al. A comparative study of obsessive-compulsive disorder and other psychiatric comorbidities in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav. 2009;14:634-9 pubmed publisher
    Our aim was to assess the associations of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) with comorbid psychiatric conditions, especially obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), in a comparative design...
  2. Fedi M, Berkovic S, Marini C, Mulligan R, Tochon Danguy H, Reutens D. A GABAA receptor mutation causing generalized epilepsy reduces benzodiazepine receptor binding. Neuroimage. 2006;32:995-1000 pubmed
    ..receptor, which substitutes glutamine for arginine at position 43 (R43Q) has been found in a familial generalized epilepsy. We tested the hypothesis that individuals affected by the GABRG2(R43Q) mutation have reduced binding to ..
  3. Noachtar S, Andermann E, Meyvisch P, Andermann F, Gough W, Schiemann Delgado J. Levetiracetam for the treatment of idiopathic generalized epilepsy with myoclonic seizures. Neurology. 2008;70:607-16 pubmed publisher
    ..controlled trials evaluating the efficacy and safety of adjunctive antiepileptic therapy in idiopathic generalized epilepsy with myoclonic seizures...
  4. Basic S, Hajnsek S, Bozina N, Filipcic I, Sporis D, Mislov D, et al. The influence of C3435T polymorphism of ABCB1 gene on penetration of phenobarbital across the blood-brain barrier in patients with generalized epilepsy. Seizure. 2008;17:524-30 pubmed publisher
    ..P-glycoprotein (Pgp), a transmembrane transporter encoded by ABCB1 gene and located at the endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), has been associated with epilepsy pharmacoresistance...
  5. Stogmann E, Lichtner P, Baumgartner C, Schmied M, Hotzy C, Asmus F, et al. Mutations in the CLCN2 gene are a rare cause of idiopathic generalized epilepsy syndromes. Neurogenetics. 2006;7:265-8 pubmed
    ..No definite mutations were found in our study population. We conclude that mutations in the CLCN2 gene are only a rare cause of idiopathic generalized epilepsy.
  6. Sun H, Zhang Y, Liang J, Liu X, Ma X, Wu H, et al. SCN1A, SCN1B, and GABRG2 gene mutation analysis in Chinese families with generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus. J Hum Genet. 2008;53:769-74 pubmed publisher
    b>Generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+; MIM#604233) is a familial epilepsy syndrome characterized by phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity...
  7. Livingston J, Cross J, McLellan A, Birch R, Zuberi S. A novel inherited mutation in the voltage sensor region of SCN1A is associated with Panayiotopoulos syndrome in siblings and generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus. J Child Neurol. 2009;24:503-8 pubmed publisher
    ..a novel SCN1A mutation, one of whom had Panayiotopoulos syndrome and the other a phenotype consistent with generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus...
  8. Jeha L, Morris H, Burgess R. Coexistence of focal and idiopathic generalized epilepsy in the same patient population. Seizure. 2006;15:28-34 pubmed
    ..unit (EMU) between 1992 and 2002 who fulfilled clinical and EEG criteria of coexistent partial and generalized epilepsy syndromes. Seven patients were identified. Two (29%) were men with a mean age of 26 years...
  9. Camfield C, Camfield P. Management guidelines for children with idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2005;46 Suppl 9:112-6 pubmed
    Most idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) begins in childhood. Clinicians face many important management decisions for these children; however the existing literature provides little scientific guidance...
  10. Scheffer I, Harkin L, Dibbens L, Mulley J, Berkovic S. Neonatal epilepsy syndromes and generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+). Epilepsia. 2005;46 Suppl 10:41-7 pubmed
  11. Baulac S, Gourfinkel An I, Couarch P, Depienne C, Kaminska A, Dulac O, et al. A novel locus for generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus in French families. Arch Neurol. 2008;65:943-51 pubmed publisher
    b>Generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS(+)) is a familial autosomal dominant entity characterized by the association of febrile and afebrile seizures...
  12. Helbig I, Mefford H, Sharp A, Guipponi M, Fichera M, Franke A, et al. 15q13.3 microdeletions increase risk of idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Nat Genet. 2009;41:160-2 pubmed publisher
    We identified 15q13.3 microdeletions encompassing the CHRNA7 gene in 12 of 1,223 individuals with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE), which were not detected in 3,699 controls (joint P = 5.32 x 10(-8))...
  13. Badawy R, Macdonell R, Jackson G, Berkovic S. Why do seizures in generalized epilepsy often occur in the morning?. Neurology. 2009;73:218-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Thirty drug-naive patients with epilepsy (20 idiopathic generalized epilepsy [IGE], including 10 juvenile myoclonic epilepsy [JME], and 10 focal epilepsy) and 10 control subjects ..
  14. Kaminski R, Matagne A, Leclercq K, Gillard M, Michel P, Kenda B, et al. SV2A protein is a broad-spectrum anticonvulsant target: functional correlation between protein binding and seizure protection in models of both partial and generalized epilepsy. Neuropharmacology. 2008;54:715-20 pubmed publisher
  15. Kang J, Shen W, Macdonald R. The GABRG2 mutation, Q351X, associated with generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus, has both loss of function and dominant-negative suppression. J Neurosci. 2009;29:2845-56 pubmed publisher
    The GABA(A) receptor gamma2 subunit mutation, Q351X, associated with generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+), created a loss of function with homozygous expression...
  16. Lorenz S, Heils A, Taylor K, Gehrmann A, Muhle H, Gresch M, et al. Candidate gene analysis of the succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase gene (ALDH5A1) in patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy and photosensitivity. Neurosci Lett. 2006;397:234-9 pubmed
    ..study tested whether variation of the ALDH5A1 gene confers susceptibility to common syndromes of idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) and an abnormal photoparoxysmal response (PPR)...
  17. Striano S, Capovilla G, Sofia V, Romeo A, Rubboli G, Striano P, et al. Eyelid myoclonia with absences (Jeavons syndrome): a well-defined idiopathic generalized epilepsy syndrome or a spectrum of photosensitive conditions?. Epilepsia. 2009;50 Suppl 5:15-9 pubmed publisher
  18. Chou I, Lee C, Tsai C, Tsai Y, Wan L, Hsu Y, et al. Association of GABRG2 polymorphisms with idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Pediatr Neurol. 2007;36:40-4 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the gamma2 subunit of the GABA receptor gene might be one of the susceptibility factors for idiopathic generalized epilepsies. ..
  19. Saint Martin C, Gauvain G, Teodorescu G, Gourfinkel An I, Fedirko E, Weber Y, et al. Two novel CLCN2 mutations accelerating chloride channel deactivation are associated with idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Hum Mutat. 2009;30:397-405 pubmed publisher
    ..gene encoding the voltage-gated chloride channel CLC2 have been identified in patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE). Yet the involvement of CLCN2 in epilepsy remains controversial...
  20. Lachance Touchette P, Martin C, Poulin C, Gravel M, Carmant L, Cossette P. Screening of GABRB3 in French-Canadian families with idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2010;51:1894-7 pubmed publisher
    ..the frequency of mutation in this gene in our cohort of families with CAE and other related idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) syndromes...
  21. Khosravani H, Bladen C, Parker D, Snutch T, McRory J, Zamponi G. Effects of Cav3.2 channel mutations linked to idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Ann Neurol. 2005;57:745-9 pubmed
    ..2 T-type calcium channel gene (CACNA1H) in patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy. None of the variants were associated with a specific epilepsy phenotype and were not found in patients ..
  22. Ott D, Caplan R, Guthrie D, Siddarth P, Komo S, Shields W, et al. Measures of psychopathology in children with complex partial seizures and primary generalized epilepsy with absence. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2001;40:907-14 pubmed
    ..examined psychopathology in 48 children with complex partial seizures (CPS), 39 children with primary generalized epilepsy with absence (PGE), and 59 nonepileptic children, aged 5 to 16 years, by comparing the Child Behavior ..
  23. Baulac S, Gourfinkel An I, Picard F, Rosenberg Bourgin M, Prud homme J, Baulac M, et al. A second locus for familial generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus maps to chromosome 2q21-q33. Am J Hum Genet. 1999;65:1078-85 pubmed
    We report a clinical and genetic study of a family with a phenotype resembling generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+), described by Berkovic and colleagues...
  24. Seeck M, Dreifuss S, Lantz G, Jallon P, Foletti G, Despland P, et al. Subcortical nuclei volumetry in idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2005;46:1642-5 pubmed
    The exact anatomic and neurophysiologic correlates of idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) in humans are still not well understood, although the thalamus has frequently been invoked as the crucial structure in the generation of primary ..
  25. Cutting S, Lauchheimer A, Barr W, Devinsky O. Adult-onset idiopathic generalized epilepsy: clinical and behavioral features. Epilepsia. 2001;42:1395-8 pubmed
    To identify and define clinical and behavioral features of patients with adult-onset idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE)...
  26. Saccucci P, Verdecchia M, Piciullo A, Bottini N, Rizzo R, Gloria Bottini F, et al. Convulsive disorder and genetic polymorphism. Association of idiopathic generalized epilepsy with haptoglobin polymorphism. Neurogenetics. 2004;5:245-8 pubmed
    ..We have studied two samples of children with idiopathic generalized epilepsy from two different Italian populations...
  27. Chifari R, Guerrini R, Pierluigi M, Cavani S, Sgrò V, Elia M, et al. Mild generalized epilepsy and developmental disorder associated with large inv dup(15). Epilepsia. 2002;43:1096-100 pubmed
    ..Inv dup(15) should be considered in atypical cases of generalized epilepsy of adult onset without clear-cut etiology.
  28. Escayg A, MacDonald B, Meisler M, Baulac S, Huberfeld G, An Gourfinkel I, et al. Mutations of SCN1A, encoding a neuronal sodium channel, in two families with GEFS+2. Nat Genet. 2000;24:343-5 pubmed
  29. Lossin C, Wang D, Rhodes T, Vanoye C, George A. Molecular basis of an inherited epilepsy. Neuron. 2002;34:877-84 pubmed
    ..In generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus, an autosomal dominant epilepsy syndrome, mutations in three genes coding for ..
  30. Koepp M. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy--a generalized epilepsy syndrome?. Acta Neurol Scand Suppl. 2005;181:57-62 pubmed
    Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) has been classified as a syndrome of idiopathic generalized epilepsy and is characterized by specific types of seizures, showing a lack of pathology using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed ..
  31. Escayg A, Heils A, MacDonald B, Haug K, Sander T, Meisler M. A novel SCN1A mutation associated with generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus--and prevalence of variants in patients with epilepsy. Am J Hum Genet. 2001;68:866-73 pubmed
    ..mutations of the neuronal sodium-channel alpha-subunit gene, SCN1A, on chromosome 2q24 in two families with generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) type 2...
  32. Lenzen K, Heils A, Lorenz S, Hempelmann A, Hofels S, Lohoff F, et al. Supportive evidence for an allelic association of the human KCNJ10 potassium channel gene with idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Epilepsy Res. 2005;63:113-8 pubmed
    ..that the KCNJ10 Cys271 allele is associated with seizure resistance to common syndromes of idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE). The study sample comprised 563 German IGE patients and 660 healthy population controls...
  33. Spampanato J, Kearney J, de Haan G, McEwen D, Escayg A, Aradi I, et al. A novel epilepsy mutation in the sodium channel SCN1A identifies a cytoplasmic domain for beta subunit interaction. J Neurosci. 2004;24:10022-34 pubmed
    A mutation in the sodium channel SCN1A was identified in a small Italian family with dominantly inherited generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+)...
  34. Sander T, Syagailo Y, Samochowiec J, Okladnova O, Lesch K, Janz D. Association analysis of a regulatory promoter polymorphism of the PAX-6 gene with idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Epilepsy Res. 1999;36:61-7 pubmed
    ..region, PAX-6LPR) confers susceptibility to the epileptogenesis of common subtypes of idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE)...
  35. Harkin L, Bowser D, Dibbens L, Singh R, Phillips F, Wallace R, et al. Truncation of the GABA(A)-receptor gamma2 subunit in a family with generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus. Am J Hum Genet. 2002;70:530-6 pubmed
    ..Here we describe a family that has generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS(+)), including an individual with severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy, in ..
  36. Thömke F, Brand A, Weilemann S. The temporal dynamics of postanoxic burst-suppression EEG. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2002;19:24-31 pubmed
  37. Spampanato J, Escayg A, Meisler M, Goldin A. Functional effects of two voltage-gated sodium channel mutations that cause generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus type 2. J Neurosci. 2001;21:7481-90 pubmed
    Two mutations that cause generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) have been identified previously in the SCN1A gene encoding the alpha subunit of the Na(v)1.1 voltage-gated sodium channel (Escayg et al., 2000)...
  38. Wallace R, Scheffer I, Parasivam G, Barnett S, Wallace G, Sutherland G, et al. Generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus: mutation of the sodium channel subunit SCN1B. Neurology. 2002;58:1426-9 pubmed
    b>Generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS(+)) is an important childhood genetic epilepsy syndrome with heterogeneous phenotypes, including febrile seizures (FS) and generalized epilepsies of variable severity...
  39. Chioza B, Wilkie H, Nashef L, Blower J, McCormick D, Sham P, et al. Association between the alpha(1a) calcium channel gene CACNA1A and idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Neurology. 2001;56:1245-6 pubmed
  40. Wallace R, Scheffer I, Barnett S, Richards M, Dibbens L, Desai R, et al. Neuronal sodium-channel alpha1-subunit mutations in generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus. Am J Hum Genet. 2001;68:859-65 pubmed
    b>Generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) is a familial epilepsy syndrome characterized by the presence of febrile and afebrile seizures...
  41. Lenzen K, Heils A, Lorenz S, Hempelmann A, Sander T. Association analysis of malic enzyme 2 gene polymorphisms with idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2005;46:1637-41 pubmed
    ..polymorphisms (SNPs) of the gene encoding the malic enzyme 2 (ME2) and adolescent-onset idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE)...
  42. Meadows L, Malhotra J, Loukas A, Thyagarajan V, Kazen Gillespie K, Koopman M, et al. Functional and biochemical analysis of a sodium channel beta1 subunit mutation responsible for generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus type 1. J Neurosci. 2002;22:10699-709 pubmed
    b>Generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus type 1 is an inherited human epileptic syndrome, associated with a cysteine-to-tryptophan (C121W) mutation in the extracellular immunoglobin domain of the auxiliary beta1 subunit of the ..
  43. Lenzen K, Heils A, Lorenz S, Hempelmann A, Sander T. Association analysis of the Arg220His variation of the human gene encoding the GABA delta subunit with idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Epilepsy Res. 2005;65:53-7 pubmed
    ..tested whether the functional GABRD His220 allele confers susceptibility to common syndromes of idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE)...
  44. Pinto D, de Haan G, Janssen G, Boezeman E, van Erp M, Westland B, et al. Evidence for linkage between juvenile myoclonic epilepsy-related idiopathic generalized epilepsy and 6p11-12 in Dutch families. Epilepsia. 2004;45:211-7 pubmed
    ..of the disease status may be crucial, and we therefore used two disease phenotypes: narrow [JME/idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE)-"only"] and broad (JME/IGE-plus-fast EEG background activity)...
  45. Heils A. CLCN2 and idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Adv Neurol. 2005;95:265-71 pubmed
  46. Lohoff F, Ferraro T, Sander T, Zhao H, Dahl J, Berrettini W, et al. No association between common variations in the human alpha 2 subunit gene (ATP1A2) of the sodium-potassium-transporting ATPase and idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Neurosci Lett. 2005;382:33-8 pubmed
    ..Genotypes were assessed in 152 idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) patients of German ancestry and 111 healthy German controls for all seven polymorphisms...
  47. Doherty M, Glass I, Bennett C, Cotter P, Watson N, Mitchell A, et al. An Xp; Yq translocation causing a novel contiguous gene syndrome in brothers with generalized epilepsy, ichthyosis, and attention deficits. Epilepsia. 2003;44:1529-35 pubmed
    We describe two brothers with generalized epilepsy, attention deficits, congenital ichthyosis, and Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis who harbor an unusual Xp; Yq translocation chromosome, resulting in a novel contiguous gene syndrome because ..
  48. Marini C, Scheffer I, Crossland K, Grinton B, Phillips F, McMahon J, et al. Genetic architecture of idiopathic generalized epilepsy: clinical genetic analysis of 55 multiplex families. Epilepsia. 2004;45:467-78 pubmed
    In families with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE), multiple IGE subsyndromes may occur...
  49. Escayg A, De Waard M, Lee D, Bichet D, Wolf P, Mayer T, et al. Coding and noncoding variation of the human calcium-channel beta4-subunit gene CACNB4 in patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy and episodic ataxia. Am J Hum Genet. 2000;66:1531-9 pubmed
    ..The missense mutation C104F was identified both in a German family with generalized epilepsy and praxis-induced seizures and in a French Canadian family with episodic ataxia...
  50. Haug K, Hallmann K, Rebstock J, Dullinger J, Muth S, Haverkamp F, et al. The voltage-gated sodium channel gene SCN2A and idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Epilepsy Res. 2001;47:243-6 pubmed
    ..hypothesis that genetic variation in the human sodium channel gene SCN2A confers liability to idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE)...
  51. Greenberg D, Cayanis E, Strug L, Marathe S, Durner M, Pal D, et al. Malic enzyme 2 may underlie susceptibility to adolescent-onset idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Am J Hum Genet. 2005;76:139-46 pubmed
    Idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) is a class of genetically determined, phenotypically related epilepsy syndromes. Linkage analysis identified a chromosome 18 locus predisposing to a number of adolescent-onset IGEs...
  52. Abou Khalil B, Krei L, Lazenby B, Harris P, Haines J, Hedera P. Familial genetic predisposition, epilepsy localization and antecedent febrile seizures. Epilepsy Res. 2007;73:104-10 pubmed
    ..The groups did not differ with respect to family history of epilepsy. Patients with generalized epilepsy were more likely to have first and second degree relatives with epilepsy than those with partial epilepsy (..
  53. Sivakumar S, Namath A, Tuxhorn I, Lewis S, Galán R. Decreased heart rate and enhanced sinus arrhythmia during interictal sleep demonstrate autonomic imbalance in generalized epilepsy. J Neurophysiol. 2016;115:1988-99 pubmed publisher
    ..To test this hypothesis, we investigated ECG traces of 91 children and adolescents with generalized epilepsy and 25 neurologically normal controls during 30 min of stage 2 sleep with interictal or normal EEG...