epilepsy

Summary

Summary: A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)

Top Publications

  1. Arntz R, Rutten Jacobs L, Maaijwee N, Schoonderwaldt H, Dorresteijn L, van Dijk E, et al. Post-stroke epilepsy in young adults: a long-term follow-up study. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e55498 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore investigated the long-term incidence and risk of post-stroke epilepsy in young adults with a transient ischemic attack (TIA), ischemic stroke (IS) or intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)...
  2. Ko P, Hwang J, Lim H, Park S. Reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory for Epilepsy (K-NDDI-E). Epilepsy Behav. 2012;25:539-42 pubmed publisher
    The Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory for Epilepsy (NDDI-E) was developed as a screening instrument for rapid detection of major depression in people with epilepsy (PWE)...
  3. Besocke A, Rosso B, Cristiano E, Valiensi S, García M, Gonorazky S, et al. Outcome of newly-diagnosed epilepsy in older patients. Epilepsy Behav. 2013;27:29-35 pubmed publisher
    ..The objectives of this study were to (1) analyze the outcome of a cohort of patients with newly-diagnosed epilepsy over the age of 65, (2) describe epilepsy etiology and seizure type, and (3) classify the outcome according to ..
  4. Fabene P, Laudanna C, Constantin G. Leukocyte trafficking mechanisms in epilepsy. Mol Immunol. 2013;55:100-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Epilepsy is a chronic disorder that affects 1% of the world population and is characterized by chronically reoccurring seizures. Seizures are initiated by abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain...
  5. van Eeghen A, Pulsifer M, Merker V, Neumeyer A, van Eeghen E, Thibert R, et al. Understanding relationships between autism, intelligence, and epilepsy: a cross-disorder approach. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2013;55:146-53 pubmed publisher
    As relationships between autistic traits, epilepsy, and cognitive functioning remain poorly understood, these associations were explored in the biologically related disorders tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1)..
  6. Long Q, Qiu B, Wang K, Yang J, Jia C, Xin W, et al. Genetically engineered bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells improve functional outcome in a rat model of epilepsy. Brain Res. 2013;1532:1-13 pubmed publisher
    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) hold a great promising approach for the treatment of epilepsy owing to their distinctive characteristics and multi-potency...
  7. Hamer H, Hong S. Is an epilepsy presurgical evaluation necessary for mid-grade and high-grade brain tumors presenting with seizures?. Epilepsia. 2013;54 Suppl 9:56-60 pubmed publisher
    Patients with epilepsy caused by mid-grade and high-grade tumors do not usually undergo formal presurgical epilepsy evaluations before tumor resection...
  8. Croft L, Rankin P, Liegeois F, Banks T, Cross J, Vargha Khadem F, et al. To speak, or not to speak? The feasibility of imaging overt speech in children with epilepsy. Epilepsy Res. 2013;107:195-9 pubmed publisher
    ..and overt (spoken) versions of a language task in a representative sample of children with lesional focal epilepsy being considered for neurosurgical treatment (N=38, aged 6-17 years)...
  9. Chen T, Klassen T, Goldman A, Marini C, Guerrini R, Noebels J. Novel brain expression of ClC-1 chloride channels and enrichment of CLCN1 variants in epilepsy. Neurology. 2013;80:1078-85 pubmed publisher
    To explore the potential contribution of genetic variation in voltage-gated chloride channels to epilepsy, we analyzed CLCN family (CLCN1-7) gene variant profiles in individuals with complex idiopathic epilepsy syndromes and determined ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Fernandez S, Miró J, Falip M, Coello A, Plans G, Castañer S, et al. Surgical versus conservative treatment in patients with cerebral cavernomas and non refractory epilepsy. Seizure. 2012;21:785-8 pubmed publisher
    The optimal therapy of patients with cerebral cavernoma (CCs) and new onset epilepsy, sporadic seizures, or non well established refractory epilepsy is still not clear...
  2. Courcet J, Faivre L, Malzac P, Masurel Paulet A, Lopez E, Callier P, et al. The DYRK1A gene is a cause of syndromic intellectual disability with severe microcephaly and epilepsy. J Med Genet. 2012;49:731-6 pubmed publisher
    ..with intragenic DYRK1A rearrangements or 21q22 microdeletions including only DYRK1A presented with overlapping phenotypes, we hypothesised that DYRK1A mutations could be responsible for syndromic ID with severe microcephaly and epilepsy.
  3. Ives Deliperi V, Butler J, Meintjes E. Functional MRI language mapping in pre-surgical epilepsy patients: findings from a series of patients in the Epilepsy Unit at Mediclinic Constantiaberg. S Afr Med J. 2013;103:563-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Routine fMRI has been introduced in the Epilepsy Unit at Mediclinic Constantiaberg to contribute to the current functional mapping procedures used in pre-surgical ..
  4. Yutsudo N, Kamada T, Kajitani K, Nomaru H, Katogi A, Ohnishi Y, et al. fosB-null mice display impaired adult hippocampal neurogenesis and spontaneous epilepsy with depressive behavior. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2013;38:895-906 pubmed publisher
    Patients with epilepsy are at high risk for major depression relative to the general population, and both disorders are associated with changes in adult hippocampal neurogenesis, although the mechanisms underlying disease onset remain ..
  5. Lilleker J, Jones M, Mohanraj R. VGKC complex antibodies in epilepsy: diagnostic yield and therapeutic implications. Seizure. 2013;22:776-9 pubmed publisher
    In a significant number of patients developing epilepsy in adult life, the aetiology of their seizures remains unclear...
  6. Quattrocchi G, Nicoletti A, Marin B, Bruno E, Druet Cabanac M, Preux P. Toxocariasis and epilepsy: systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1775 pubmed publisher
    ..canis) and less frequently Toxocara cati (T. cati). A relationship between toxocariasis and epilepsy has been hypothesized...
  7. Nakamura K, Osaka H, Murakami Y, Anzai R, Nishiyama K, Kodera H, et al. PIGO mutations in intractable epilepsy and severe developmental delay with mild elevation of alkaline phosphatase levels. Epilepsia. 2014;55:e13-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings therefore expand the clinical spectrum of GPI-anchor deficiencies involving PIGO mutations to include epileptic encephalopathy with mild elevation of ALP. ..
  8. Emich Widera E, Likus W, Kazek B, Niemiec P, Balcerzyk A, Sieron A, et al. CYP3A5*3 and C3435T MDR1 polymorphisms in prognostication of drug-resistant epilepsy in children and adolescents. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:526837 pubmed publisher
    ..polymorphism of gene CYP3A5 and polymorphism C3435T of MDR1 gene with the occurrence of focal, drug-resistant epilepsy in children and youths up to 18 years of age...
  9. Niesen C, Xu J, Fan X, Li X, Wheeler C, Mamelak A, et al. Transcriptomic profiling of human peritumoral neocortex tissues revealed genes possibly involved in tumor-induced epilepsy. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56077 pubmed publisher
    ..To identify the genes possibly involved in tumor-induced epilepsy, a genome-wide gene expression profiling was conducted using Affymetrix HG U133 plus 2...
  10. Brenner T, Sills G, Hart Y, Howell S, Waters P, Brodie M, et al. Prevalence of neurologic autoantibodies in cohorts of patients with new and established epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2013;54:1028-35 pubmed publisher
    ..studies have found specific neurologic antibodies in a small proportion of people with established epilepsy, but these investigations have seldom included patients with recent diagnosis...
  11. Pisano T, Barkovich A, Leventer R, Squier W, Scheffer I, Parrini E, et al. Peritrigonal and temporo-occipital heterotopia with corpus callosum and cerebellar dysgenesis. Neurology. 2012;79:1244-51 pubmed publisher
    ..There were 28 females and 22 males. All were sporadic with the exception of an affected mother and son. Epilepsy occurred in 62%, cerebellar signs in 56%, cognitive impairment in 56%, and autism in 12%...
  12. Lhatoo S, Moghimi N, Schuele S. Tumor-related epilepsy and epilepsy surgery. Epilepsia. 2013;54 Suppl 9:1-4 pubmed publisher
    Tumor-related epilepsy (TRE) is a major etiologic category of epilepsy. TRE is heterogeneous, and the epidemiology, pathology, pathophysiology, clinical features, treatment, and outcomes vary accordingly...
  13. Sommer B, Grummich P, Coras R, Kasper B, Blumcke I, Hamer H, et al. Integration of functional neuronavigation and intraoperative MRI in surgery for drug-resistant extratemporal epilepsy close to eloquent brain areas. Neurosurg Focus. 2013;34:E4 pubmed publisher
    ..Twenty-five patients (14 females and 11 males) underwent extratemporal resections for drug-resistant epilepsy close to speech/motor brain areas or adjacent to white matter tracts...
  14. Hesdorffer D, Beck V, Begley C, Bishop M, Cushner Weinstein S, Holmes G, et al. Research implications of the Institute of Medicine Report, Epilepsy Across the Spectrum: Promoting Health and Understanding. Epilepsia. 2013;54:207-16 pubmed publisher
    In March 2012 the Institute of Medicine (IOM) released the report, Epilepsy Across The Spectrum: Promoting Health and Understanding...
  15. Meeraus W, Petersen I, Chin R, Knott F, Gilbert R. Childhood epilepsy recorded in primary care in the UK. Arch Dis Child. 2013;98:195-202 pubmed publisher
    To examine temporal trends in the incidence of epilepsy recorded in UK primary care and to evaluate the impact of recent efforts to improve the specificity of diagnosis in children...
  16. Devinsky O, Vezzani A, Najjar S, de Lanerolle N, Rogawski M. Glia and epilepsy: excitability and inflammation. Trends Neurosci. 2013;36:174-84 pubmed publisher
    b>Epilepsy is characterized by recurrent spontaneous seizures due to hyperexcitability and hypersynchrony of brain neurons...
  17. Hauf M, Wiest R, Schindler K, Jann K, Dierks T, Strik W, et al. Common mechanisms of auditory hallucinations-perfusion studies in epilepsy. Psychiatry Res. 2013;211:268-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Hyperperfusion in the temporal lobe covering the PAC occurred in all patients. Our perfusion data support the hypothesis of PAC being a constituting element in the genesis of AH independent of their aetiology...
  18. Amarreh I, Dabbs K, Jackson D, Jones J, Meyerand M, Stafstrom C, et al. Cerebral white matter integrity in children with active versus remitted epilepsy 5 years after diagnosis. Epilepsy Res. 2013;107:263-71 pubmed publisher
    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have reported white matter abnormalities in childhood-onset epilepsy, but the mechanisms and timing underlying these abnormalities, and their resolution, are not well understood...
  19. Holth J, Bomben V, Reed J, Inoue T, Younkin L, Younkin S, et al. Tau loss attenuates neuronal network hyperexcitability in mouse and Drosophila genetic models of epilepsy. J Neurosci. 2013;33:1651-9 pubmed publisher
  20. Yi P, Chen Y, Lin C, Chang F. Occurrence of epilepsy at different zeitgeber times alters sleep homeostasis differently in rats. Sleep. 2012;35:1651-65 pubmed publisher
    Controversial sleep disruptions (e.g., poor nighttime sleep and daytime somnolence) are common in epilepsy patients...
  21. Kaiser C, Pion S, Boussinesq M. Case-control studies on the relationship between onchocerciasis and epilepsy: systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2147 pubmed publisher
    ..review and meta-analysis of all available case-control studies on the relationship between onchocerciasis and epilepsy. Because age and level of onchocerciasis endemicity in the area of residence are major determinants for infection,..
  22. Douw L, de Groot M, van Dellen E, Aronica E, Heimans J, Klein M, et al. Local MEG networks: the missing link between protein expression and epilepsy in glioma patients?. Neuroimage. 2013;75:195-203 pubmed publisher
    ..In tumor-related epilepsy, altered network topology is related to behavior, but the molecular basis of these observations is unknown...
  23. Rydenhag B, Flink R, Malmgren K. Surgical outcomes in patients with epileptogenic tumours and cavernomas in Sweden: good seizure control but late referrals. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2013;84:49-53 pubmed publisher
    Seizure outcome after epilepsy surgery is to an important extent related to underlying aetiology...
  24. Kobow K, Auvin S, Jensen F, Loscher W, Mody I, Potschka H, et al. Finding a better drug for epilepsy: antiepileptogenesis targets. Epilepsia. 2012;53:1868-76 pubmed publisher
    For several decades, both in vitro and in vivo models of seizures and epilepsy have been employed to unravel the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the occurrence of spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS)-the defining hallmark of ..
  25. Rumia J, Marmol F, Sanchez J, Giménez Crouseilles J, Carreno M, Bargallo N, et al. Oxidative stress markers in the neocortex of drug-resistant epilepsy patients submitted to epilepsy surgery. Epilepsy Res. 2013;107:75-81 pubmed publisher
    While there is solid experimental evidence of brain oxidative stress in animal models of epilepsy, it has not been thoroughly verified in epileptic human brain...
  26. Jo K, Shin H, Hong S. Seizure outcomes of lesionectomy in pediatric lesional epilepsy with brain tumor -- single institute experience. Brain Dev. 2013;35:810-5 pubmed publisher
    To determine the clinical characteristics, surgical strategy, and outcome in pediatric lesional epilepsy patients younger than 5years of age undergoing surgery in a single institute...
  27. Mallaret M, Synofzik M, Lee J, Sagum C, Mahajnah M, Sharkia R, et al. The tumour suppressor gene WWOX is mutated in autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia with epilepsy and mental retardation. Brain. 2014;137:411-9 pubmed publisher
    We previously localized a new form of recessive ataxia with generalized tonic-clonic epilepsy and mental retardation to a 19 Mb interval in 16q21-q23 by homozygosity mapping of a large consanguineous Saudi Arabian family...
  28. Michelucci R, Pasini E, Meletti S, Fallica E, Rizzi R, Florindo I, et al. Epilepsy in primary cerebral tumors: the characteristics of epilepsy at the onset (results from the PERNO study--Project of Emilia Romagna Region on Neuro-Oncology). Epilepsia. 2013;54 Suppl 7:86-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The epilepsy section of the PERNO study included all the patients who experienced seizures, either as first symptom of the ..
  29. Oliva M, Berkovic S, Petrou S. Sodium channels and the neurobiology of epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2012;53:1849-59 pubmed publisher
    ..They are essential for normal neurologic function and are, currently, the most common recognized cause of genetic epilepsy. This review summarizes the neurobiology of VGSCs, their association with different epilepsy syndromes, and the ..
  30. Novarino G, El Fishawy P, Kayserili H, Meguid N, Scott E, Schroth J, et al. Mutations in BCKD-kinase lead to a potentially treatable form of autism with epilepsy. Science. 2012;338:394-7 pubmed publisher
    ..in the gene BCKDK (Branched Chain Ketoacid Dehydrogenase Kinase) in consanguineous families with autism, epilepsy, and intellectual disability...
  31. Sun L, Gilligan J, Staber C, Schutte R, Nguyen V, O Dowd D, et al. A knock-in model of human epilepsy in Drosophila reveals a novel cellular mechanism associated with heat-induced seizure. J Neurosci. 2012;32:14145-55 pubmed publisher
    Over 40 missense mutations in the human SCN1A sodium channel gene are linked to an epilepsy syndrome termed genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+)...
  32. Kobow K, Blumcke I. The emerging role of DNA methylation in epileptogenesis. Epilepsia. 2012;53 Suppl 9:11-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, we discuss the emerging role of DNA methylation in epileptogenesis and the perspectives arising from epigenetic medicine as new therapeutic strategy in difficult-to-treat epilepsies. ..
  33. Bhalla D, Samleng C, Gerard D, Oum S, Druet Cabanac M, Preux P. Epilepsy in Asia: a Cambodian experience. Neuroepidemiology. 2013;40:260-3 pubmed publisher
    b>Epilepsy is particularly challenging for resource-poor countries and in turn for Asia which is likely to have greater challenges in terms of treatment cost and deficit, premature mortality, health transitions, population and poverty size, ..
  34. Baulac S, Lenk G, Dufresnois B, Ouled Amar Bencheikh B, Couarch P, Renard J, et al. Role of the phosphoinositide phosphatase FIG4 gene in familial epilepsy with polymicrogyria. Neurology. 2014;82:1068-75 pubmed publisher
    ..gene in a consanguineous Moroccan family with temporo-occipital polymicrogyria, psychiatric manifestations, and epilepsy, previously mapped to the 6q16-q22 region...
  35. Chassoux F, Landre E, Mellerio C, Laschet J, Devaux B, Daumas Duport C. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors: epileptogenicity related to histologic subtypes. Clin Neurophysiol. 2013;124:1068-78 pubmed publisher
    ..We analyzed electroclinical data from 78 patients (50 males; 3-54 years) operated for intractable epilepsy due to a DNT...
  36. Glauser T, Ben Menachem E, Bourgeois B, Cnaan A, Guerreiro C, Kalviainen R, et al. Updated ILAE evidence review of antiepileptic drug efficacy and effectiveness as initial monotherapy for epileptic seizures and syndromes. Epilepsia. 2013;54:551-63 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this report was to update the 2006 International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) report and identify the level of evidence for long-term efficacy or effectiveness for antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) as initial monotherapy for ..
  37. Cardinale F, Cossu M, Castana L, Casaceli G, Schiariti M, Miserocchi A, et al. Stereoelectroencephalography: surgical methodology, safety, and stereotactic application accuracy in 500 procedures. Neurosurgery. 2013;72:353-66; discussion 366 pubmed publisher
    ..implemented by multimodal planning and robot-assisted surgery, allows direct electrical recording from superficial and deep-seated brain structures, providing essential information in the most complex cases of drug-resistant epilepsy.
  38. Arya R, Mangano F, Horn P, Holland K, Rose D, Glauser T. Adverse events related to extraoperative invasive EEG monitoring with subdural grid electrodes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Epilepsia. 2013;54:828-39 pubmed publisher
    ..is important to define the ictal-onset zone and eloquent cortex in selected patients with medically refractory epilepsy. The objective of this systematic review is to summarize data about adverse events related to this procedure...
  39. Konopka A, Grajkowska W, Ziemiańska K, Roszkowski M, Daszkiewicz P, Rysz A, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in human intractable epilepsy caused by focal cortical dysplasia. Epilepsy Res. 2013;104:45-58 pubmed publisher
    ..It is associated with pharmacologically intractable forms of epilepsy in both children and adults...
  40. Pun R, Rolle I, LaSarge C, Hosford B, Rosen J, Uhl J, et al. Excessive activation of mTOR in postnatally generated granule cells is sufficient to cause epilepsy. Neuron. 2012;75:1022-34 pubmed publisher
    ..While the presence of abnormal DGCs in epilepsy has been known for decades, direct evidence linking abnormal DGCs to seizures has been lacking...
  41. Giannandrea M, Guarnieri F, Gehring N, Monzani E, Benfenati F, Kulozik A, et al. Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay and loss-of-function of the protein underlie the X-linked epilepsy associated with the W356× mutation in synapsin I. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e67724 pubmed publisher
    ..display an epileptic phenotype and mutations in the SYN1 gene have been identified in individuals affected by epilepsy and/or autism spectrum disorder. We investigated the impact of the c...
  42. Ghanean H, Jacobsson L, Nojomy M. Self-perception of stigma in persons with epilepsy in Tehran, Iran. Epilepsy Behav. 2013;28:163-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Epilepsy is one of the most stigmatizing medical conditions worldwide. It could be argued that the problem of stigma and discrimination might be different in an Islamic culture...
  43. Iffland P, Carvalho Tavares J, Trigunaite A, Man S, Rasmussen P, Alexopoulos A, et al. Intracellular and circulating neuronal antinuclear antibodies in human epilepsy. Neurobiol Dis. 2013;59:206-19 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested the hypothesis that in addition to known epilepsy-related autoantigens, the human brain tissue and serum from patients with epilepsy contain autoantibodies ..
  44. Tsai M, Vears D, Turner S, Smith R, Berkovic S, Sadleir L, et al. Clinical genetic study of the epilepsy-aphasia spectrum. Epilepsia. 2013;54:280-7 pubmed publisher
    To characterize the frequency and nature of the family history of seizures in probands with epilepsy falling within the epilepsy-aphasia spectrum (EAS) in order to understand the genetic architecture of this group of disorders.
  45. de Araujo Furtado M, Rossetti F, Chanda S, YOURICK D. Exposure to nerve agents: from status epilepticus to neuroinflammation, brain damage, neurogenesis and epilepsy. Neurotoxicology. 2012;33:1476-90 pubmed publisher
    b>Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder characterized by an initial injury due to stroke, traumatic brain injury, brain infection, or febrile seizures causing status epilepticus (SE)...
  46. Maguire J, Salpekar J. Stress, seizures, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis targets for the treatment of epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav. 2013;26:352-62 pubmed publisher
    b>Epilepsy is a heterogeneous condition with varying etiologies including genetics, infection, trauma, vascular, neoplasms, and toxic exposures...
  47. Sakurai M, Morita T, Takeuchi T, Shimada A. Relationship of angiogenesis and microglial activation to seizure-induced neuronal death in the cerebral cortex of Shetland Sheepdogs with familial epilepsy. Am J Vet Res. 2013;74:763-70 pubmed publisher
    ..were related to seizure-induced neuronal death in the cerebral cortex of Shetland Sheepdogs with familial epilepsy. Cadavers of 10 Shetland Sheepdogs from the same family (6 dogs with seizures and 4 dogs without seizures) and 4 ..
  48. Schneider F, Irene Wang Z, Alexopoulos A, Almubarak S, Kakisaka Y, Jin K, et al. Magnetic source imaging and ictal SPECT in MRI-negative neocortical epilepsies: additional value and comparison with intracranial EEG. Epilepsia. 2013;54:359-69 pubmed publisher
    ..with intracranial electroencephalography (EEG) (ICEEG), to localize the epileptogenic zone (EZ) and predict epilepsy surgery outcome in patients with nonlesional neocortical focal epilepsy...
  49. Brodie M, Mintzer S, Pack A, Gidal B, Vecht C, Schmidt D. Enzyme induction with antiepileptic drugs: cause for concern?. Epilepsia. 2013;54:11-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Modern AEDs that do not possess this property have similar efficacy for the common epilepsies. Accordingly, perhaps consideration should be given to starting treatment with, or even switching patients to, non-enzyme-inducing AEDs. ..
  50. Bhalla D, Chea K, Hun C, Vannareth M, Huc P, Chan S, et al. Population-based study of epilepsy in Cambodia associated factors, measures of impact, stigma, quality of life, knowledge-attitude-practice, and treatment gap. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e46296 pubmed publisher
    Identify epilepsy-associated factors and calculate measures of impact, stigma, quality of life (QOL), knowledge-attitude-practice (KAP) and treatment gap in Prey Veng, Cambodia...
  51. Tombini M, Squitti R, Cacciapaglia F, Ventriglia M, Assenza G, Benvenga A, et al. Inflammation and iron metabolism in adult patients with epilepsy: does a link exist?. Epilepsy Res. 2013;107:244-52 pubmed publisher
    Inflammation has been shown to play a key role in epilepsy, and may also affect both the iron status and metabolism. Consequently, a relationship between iron metabolism and neuronal excitability and seizures could be expected...
  52. Goeggel Simonetti B, Rieubland C, Courage C, Strozzi S, Tschumi S, Gallati S, et al. Duplication of the sodium channel gene cluster on 2q24 in children with early onset epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2012;53:2128-34 pubmed publisher
  53. Lee E, Yum M, Choi H, Ko T. Long-term use of clobazam in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome: experience in a single tertiary epilepsy center. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2013;36:4-7 pubmed publisher
    Clobazam (CLB) is a 1,5-benzodiazepine, which is known to be effective for treating refractory partial epilepsy. We have evaluated the long-term efficacy and tolerability of CLB as an add-on therapy in patients with Lennox-Gastaut ..