intracranial thrombosis


Summary: Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in a blood vessel within the SKULL. Intracranial thrombosis can lead to thrombotic occlusions and BRAIN INFARCTION. The majority of the thrombotic occlusions are associated with ATHEROSCLEROSIS.

Top Publications

  1. Théaudin M, Crassard I, Bresson D, Saliou G, Favrole P, Vahedi K, et al. Should decompressive surgery be performed in malignant cerebral venous thrombosis?: a series of 12 patients. Stroke. 2010;41:727-31 pubmed publisher
    ..7-45.6), an excellent recovery of mRS 0 or 1 in 6 and mRS 3 in 1. Decompressive surgery may save lives and may even allow a good functional outcome in malignant CVT, even in patients with bilateral dilated pupils. ..
  2. Karetko Sysa M, Skangiel Kramska J, Nowicka D. Disturbance of perineuronal nets in the perilesional area after photothrombosis is not associated with neuronal death. Exp Neurol. 2011;231:113-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that the PNN reduction was not a result of cellular death and could be considered an attempt to create conditions favorable for synaptic remodeling. ..
  3. Bousser M, Crassard I. Cerebral venous thrombosis, pregnancy and oral contraceptives. Thromb Res. 2012;130 Suppl 1:S19-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Future pregnancy is not contra-indicated, but contraception with oestro-progestogens is definitely contra-indicated. ..
  4. Ferro J, Lopes M, Rosas M, Ferro M, Fontes J. Long-term prognosis of cerebral vein and dural sinus thrombosis. results of the VENOPORT study. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2002;13:272-8 pubmed
    ..The long-term functional prognosis of patients with CVDST was fairly good with complete recovery in the majority of cases. However, these patients had a moderate risk of further thrombotic events and seizures. ..
  5. Stam J. Cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis: incidence and causes. Adv Neurol. 2003;92:225-32 pubmed
  6. Damak M, Crassard I, Wolff V, Bousser M. Isolated lateral sinus thrombosis: a series of 62 patients. Stroke. 2009;40:476-81 pubmed publisher
    ..It presents in more than two thirds of cases with headache as the only symptom either isolated or less frequently associated with papilledema. This stresses the need for CVT workup in a patient with a recent unexplained headache. ..
  7. Bousser M, Ferro J. Cerebral venous thrombosis: an update. Lancet Neurol. 2007;6:162-70 pubmed
    ..Heparin is the first-line treatment, but in a few cases more aggressive treatments, such as local intravenous thrombolysis, mechanical thrombectomy, and decompressive hemicraniectomy, may be required. ..
  8. Schroeter M, Jander S, Stoll G. Non-invasive induction of focal cerebral ischemia in mice by photothrombosis of cortical microvessels: characterization of inflammatory responses. J Neurosci Methods. 2002;117:43-9 pubmed
    ..It may provide a useful model to study functional aspects of lesion-associated and remote molecular responses in transgenic mice. ..
  9. Stoll G, Kleinschnitz C, Nieswandt B. Molecular mechanisms of thrombus formation in ischemic stroke: novel insights and targets for treatment. Blood. 2008;112:3555-62 pubmed publisher
    ..This review discusses recent advances related to antithrombotic strategies in experimental stroke research. ..

More Information


  1. Kleinschnitz C, Schütz A, Nolte I, Horn T, Frank M, Solymosi L, et al. In vivo detection of developing vessel occlusion in photothrombotic ischemic brain lesions in the rat by iron particle enhanced MRI. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2005;25:1548-55 pubmed
    ..This new imaging technique may aid to evaluate antithrombotic treatment strategies in the future. ..
  2. Dentali F, Gianni M, Crowther M, Ageno W. Natural history of cerebral vein thrombosis: a systematic review. Blood. 2006;108:1129-34 pubmed
    ..8% (range, 0%-11.7%) had objectively confirmed recurrence. We conclude that patients with CVT have a low risk of death and that most patients have a good long-term prognosis. ..
  3. Lee J, Park M, Kim Y, Moon K, Joo S, Kim T, et al. Photochemically induced cerebral ischemia in a mouse model. Surg Neurol. 2007;67:620-5; discussion 625 pubmed
    ..This procedure can provide a simple model of cerebral infarction for a unilateral motor cortex lesion. In addition, it can provide a suitable model for the study of potential neuroprotective and therapeutic agents in human stroke. ..
  4. Braun K, Kappelle L, Kirkham F, Deveber G. Diagnostic pitfalls in paediatric ischaemic stroke. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2006;48:985-90 pubmed
    ..We recommend that children with stroke be evaluated in a centre with expertize, using standardized diagnostic protocols and careful follow-up. ..
  5. Cumurciuc R, Crassard I, Sarov M, Valade D, Bousser M. Headache as the only neurological sign of cerebral venous thrombosis: a series of 17 cases. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2005;76:1084-7 pubmed
    ..Hence MRI/MRV should be used to look for signs of CVT in all patients with recent headache (progressive or thunderclap) even when the CT scan and CSF examination are normal. ..
  6. Canhão P, Ferro J, Lindgren A, Bousser M, Stam J, Barinagarrementeria F. Causes and predictors of death in cerebral venous thrombosis. Stroke. 2005;36:1720-5 pubmed
    ..5; 95% CI, 1.3 to 31.7). Worsening of previous focal or de novo focal deficits increased the risk of death. The main causes of acute death were neurologic, the most frequent mechanism being transtentorial herniation. ..
  7. Breteau G, Mounier Vehier F, Godefroy O, Gauvrit J, Mackowiak Cordoliani M, Girot M, et al. Cerebral venous thrombosis 3-year clinical outcome in 55 consecutive patients. J Neurol. 2003;250:29-35 pubmed
    ..However, 3/4 of survivors have residual symptoms. Therefore, despite a low mortality rate, CVT remains a serious disorder. ..
  8. Bergui M, Bradac G. Clinical picture of patients with cerebral venous thrombosis and patterns of dural sinus involvement. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2003;16:211-6 pubmed
    ..The presence of isolated intracranial hypertension is more frequent in patients with a more extended thrombosis of the dural sinuses. ..
  9. van Hoecke M, Prigent Tessier A, Bertrand N, Prevotat L, Marie C, Beley A. Apoptotic cell death progression after photothrombotic focal cerebral ischaemia: effects of the lipophilic iron chelator 2,2'-dipyridyl. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;22:1045-56 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, a large decrease of apoptotic bodies was associated with a significant drop of caspase and PARP-1 cleavages, suggesting that the protective effect of DP closely correlates with limitation of apoptosis expansion. ..
  10. Ramenghi L, Gill B, Tanner S, Martinez D, Arthur R, Levene M. Cerebral venous thrombosis, intraventricular haemorrhage and white matter lesions in a preterm newborn with factor V (Leiden) mutation. Neuropediatrics. 2002;33:97-9 pubmed
    ..The baby was later found to be heterozygous for factor V Leiden. ..
  11. Cucchiara B, Messe S, Taylor R, Clarke J, Pollak E. Utility of D-dimer in the diagnosis of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. J Thromb Haemost. 2005;3:387-9 pubmed
  12. Kosinski C, Mull M, Schwarz M, Koch B, Biniek R, Schläfer J, et al. Do normal D-dimer levels reliably exclude cerebral sinus thrombosis?. Stroke. 2004;35:2820-5 pubmed
    ..76, -0.58, respectively). D-dimer measurement is useful in patients with suspected CST. Normal D-dimers make the presence of CST very unlikely. ..
  13. Grisold W, Oberndorfer S, Struhal W. Stroke and cancer: a review. Acta Neurol Scand. 2009;119:1-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The diagnosis of the cause of stroke in cancer patients is crucial for treatment and prevention. Management of different stroke types will be briefly discussed. ..
  14. Crassard I, Soria C, Tzourio C, Woimant F, Drouet L, Ducros A, et al. A negative D-dimer assay does not rule out cerebral venous thrombosis: a series of seventy-three patients. Stroke. 2005;36:1716-9 pubmed
    ..In a multivariate analysis, isolated headache was the only variable associated with a negative D-dimer assay. A negative D-Dimer assay does not confidently rule out CVT, particularly in the setting of recent isolated headache. ..
  15. Gangakhedkar A, Wong W, Pitcher L. Cerebral thrombosis in childhood nephrosis. J Paediatr Child Health. 2005;41:221-4 pubmed
    ..We describe this case and review available literature to highlight the importance of suspecting and recognizing this potentially life threatening complication and initiating early treatment. ..
  16. Jolkkonen J, Jokivarsi K, Laitinen T, Gröhn O. Subacute hemorrhage and resolution of edema in Rose Bengal stroke model in rats coincides with improved sensorimotor functions. Neurosci Lett. 2007;428:99-102 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that bleeding around cortical infarct is part of the wound healing process and may not impair functional outcome...
  17. Brouns R, Heylen E, Sheorajpanday R, Willemse J, Kunnen J, De Surgeloose D, et al. Carboxypeptidase U (TAFIa) decreases the efficacy of thrombolytic therapy in ischemic stroke patients. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2009;111:165-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Further evaluation of the clinical applicability of these parameters and further investigation of the potential role for CPU inhibitors as adjunctive therapeutics during thrombolytic treatment may be of value. ..
  18. Carvalho K, Bodensteiner J, Connolly P, Garg B. Cerebral venous thrombosis in children. J Child Neurol. 2001;16:574-80 pubmed
    ..Two had other deficits. Neonatal cerebral venous thrombosis is probably more common than previously thought, and outcomes are worse in this group. All children with cerebral venous thrombosis should be tested for coagulation disorders...
  19. Chen F, Suzuki Y, Nagai N, Peeters R, Coenegrachts K, Coudyzer W, et al. Visualization of stroke with clinical MR imagers in rats: a feasibility study. Radiology. 2004;233:905-11 pubmed
    ..05). There was no difference in lesion size at perfusion-weighted MR imaging between superacute and subacute phases (P > .05). Performance of certain stroke-related research in rats is feasible with clinical MR imagers. ..
  20. Heller C, Heinecke A, Junker R, Knöfler R, Kosch A, Kurnik K, et al. Cerebral venous thrombosis in children: a multifactorial origin. Circulation. 2003;108:1362-7 pubmed
    ..CVT in children is a multifactorial disease that, in the majority of cases, results from a combination of prothrombotic risk factors and/or underlying clinical condition. ..
  21. Sigler A, Goroshkov A, Murphy T. Hardware and methodology for targeting single brain arterioles for photothrombotic stroke on an upright microscope. J Neurosci Methods. 2008;170:35-44 pubmed publisher
    ..It is conceivable that this modification and laser system can also be used for other scenarios where targeted photoactivation or photobleaching would be required. ..
  22. Chew K, Baber Y, Iles L, O DONNELL C. Duret hemorrhage: demonstration of ruptured paramedian pontine branches of the basilar artery on minimally invasive, whole body postmortem CT angiography. Forensic Sci Med Pathol. 2012;8:436-40 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding supports the theory that Duret hemorrhages occur as a result of perforating pontine branch of the basilar arterial rupture but does not exclude the contribution of venous congestion. ..
  23. Kato T, Ota T, Schulze P, Farr M, Jorde U, Takayama H, et al. Asymmetric pattern of cerebrovascular lesions in patients after left ventricular assist device implantation. Stroke. 2012;43:872-4 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding suggests LVAD-related thrombus in the setting of infection and/or the anatomic configuration of LVAD outflow cannula-ascending aorta anastomosis to be highly associated with stroke after LVAD surgery. ..
  24. Hines D, Haydon P. Inhibition of a SNARE-sensitive pathway in astrocytes attenuates damage following stroke. J Neurosci. 2013;33:4234-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Drugs targeting astrocyte signaling have a potential benefit for the outcome of stroke in human patients by limiting the spread of damage. ..
  25. Giordano P, Cecinati V, Grassi M, Del Vecchio G, Dicuonzo F, Palma M, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging screening of cerebral thromboembolic events in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a pilot study. Neuropediatrics. 2011;42:55-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study does not seem to suggest a screening for asymptomatic cerebral thromboembolic events in children with ALL during the induction phase. ..
  26. Li J, Liu J, Wang D, Liu K, Liang S, Sun J, et al. [Effects of rhubarb aglycone combined with thrombolysis on brain microvascular basement membrane impairment in rats with thrombus-occluded cerebral ischemia]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2010;35:2908-11 pubmed
    ..Rhubarb aglycone combined with the therapy of thrombolysis could perform the protective effects on brain microvascular basement membrane and then decrease the ICHR and mortality caused by thrombolysis after cerebral ischemia. ..
  27. Man B, Fu Y, Chan Y, Lam W, Hui A, Leung W, et al. Lesion patterns and stroke mechanisms in concurrent atherosclerosis of intracranial and extracranial vessels. Stroke. 2009;40:3211-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The typical lesion patterns and the mechanisms of stroke in patients with concurrent stenoses are unclear. This study aimed to determine these stroke features of such patients in Hong Kong...
  28. Yang Q, Duan J, Fan Z, Qu X, Xie Y, Nguyen C, et al. Early Detection and Quantification of Cerebral Venous Thrombosis by Magnetic Resonance Black-Blood Thrombus Imaging. Stroke. 2016;47:404-9 pubmed publisher
  29. Sanz Gallego I, Fuentes B, Martinez Sanchez P, Diez Tejedor E. Do cerebral venous thrombosis risk factors influence the development of an associated venous infarction?. Neurologia. 2011;26:13-9 pubmed publisher
    ..There appears to be a different profile of associated RF in patients with venous infarction associated to CVT, with the presence of thrombophilia prevailing. ..
  30. Egashira Y, Yoshimura S, Enomoto Y, Ishiguro M, Yamada K, Tanaka Y, et al. Efficacy and limitations of multimodal endovascular revascularization other than clot retrieval for acute stroke caused by large-vessel occlusion. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2013;22:851-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Multimodal EVT for acute LVO yields a high reperfusion rate with a minimal risk of sICH and contributes to favorable patient outcomes. These techniques should be considered when clot retrieval is unsuitable or ineffective. ..
  31. Ansari S, Hunter J, Nassif L, Clark G, Ramocki M. Bilateral in utero cerebellar infarction. J Child Neurol. 2011;26:895-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Such posterior fossa ischemic insults diagnosed in utero are rare with scarce clinical reports. The serial imaging characteristics, clinical, and developmental implications of this case are reviewed. ..
  32. Schneiders J, Vanbavel E, Majoie C, Ferns S, van den Berg R. A flow-diverting stent is not a pressure-diverting stent. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2013;34:E1-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The flow-diverting stent does not seem to protect the aneurysm from the stress induced by pressure or pressure changes within the lumen. ..
  33. Arias Rivas S, Vivancos Mora J, Castillo J. [Epidemiology of the subtypes of stroke in hospitalised patients attended by neurologists: results of the EPICES registry (I)]. Rev Neurol. 2012;54:385-93 pubmed
    ..The frequency of vascular risk factors differs between stroke subtypes. Hypertension remains the most important modifiable risk factor. ..
  34. Loh Y, Towfighi A, Liebeskind D, MacArthur D, Vespa P, Gonzalez N, et al. Basal ganglionic infarction before mechanical thrombectomy predicts poor outcome. Stroke. 2009;40:3315-20 pubmed publisher
  35. Pretorius E, Engelbrecht M, Duim W. Thromboembolic ischemic stroke and the presence of necrotic platelets: a scanning electron microscopy investigation. Ultrastruct Pathol. 2012;36:19-22 pubmed publisher
    ..It is therefore concluded that this morphology might be due to the pro-coagulant activity characteristic of the disease. ..
  36. Jia Y, Wang R. Label-free in vivo optical imaging of functional microcirculations within meninges and cortex in mice. J Neurosci Methods. 2010;194:108-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that OMAG can be a useful tool to study therapeutic strategies in preclinical animal models in order to mitigate various pathologies that are mainly related to the meningeal circulations. ..
  37. Cizmeci M, Kanburoglu M, Akelma A, Donmez A, Sonmez F, Polat A, et al. Cerebral sinovenous thrombosis associated with MTHFR A1298C mutation in the newborn: a case report. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2013;35:279-81 pubmed publisher
    ..There has been no reported case of CSVT associated with MTHFR A1298C mutation in the neonatal period. Herein, we report a neonate with CSVT who was found to have MTHFR A1298C homozygosity. ..
  38. Zivanovic Z, Barlinn K, Balucani C, Palazzo P, Alexandrov A. Headache and aphasia in a young woman with protein S deficiency and nephrotic syndrome. Acta Clin Croat. 2011;50:619-21 pubmed
    ..The patient's symptoms were due to cerebral venous thrombosis in the setting of protein S deficiency and oral contraception. ..
  39. Morel A, Naggara O, Touze E, Raymond J, Mas J, Meder J, et al. Mechanism of ischemic infarct in spontaneous cervical artery dissection. Stroke. 2012;43:1354-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Stroke in patients with CAD is most frequently associated with both direct and indirect signs of artery-to-artery embolization on imaging, a finding that should help design future therapeutic trials. ..
  40. Ferro J, Canhão P, Bousser M, Stam J, Barinagarrementeria F, Stolz E. Cerebral venous thrombosis with nonhemorrhagic lesions: clinical correlates and prognosis. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2010;29:440-5 pubmed publisher
    ..7) were associated with death or dependency at the end of follow-up. Cerebral venous thrombosis patients with NHL are intermediate between patients without brain lesions and those with HL, both in initial clinical picture and prognosis. ..
  41. Desilles J, Syvannarath V, Ollivier V, Journé C, Delbosc S, Ducroux C, et al. Exacerbation of Thromboinflammation by Hyperglycemia Precipitates Cerebral Infarct Growth and Hemorrhagic Transformation. Stroke. 2017;48:1932-1940 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results designate DMT as a possible target for reduction of the deleterious impact of hyperglycemia in acute ischemic stroke. ..
  42. Mazighi M, Serfaty J, Labreuche J, Laissy J, Meseguer E, Lavallee P, et al. Comparison of intravenous alteplase with a combined intravenous-endovascular approach in patients with stroke and confirmed arterial occlusion (RECANALISE study): a prospective cohort study. Lancet Neurol. 2009;8:802-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In patients treated with an IV-endovascular approach, a shorter time from symptom onset to recanalisation is associated with better clinical outcomes. ..
  43. Dobbs T, Barber Z, Squier W, Green A. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis complicating traumatic head injury. J Clin Neurosci. 2012;19:1058-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss the potential difficulties in both the detection and management of such a complication, particularly in association with extradural haematoma. ..
  44. Hiltunen S, Putaala J, Haapaniemi E, Tatlisumak T. Long-term outcome after cerebral venous thrombosis: analysis of functional and vocational outcome, residual symptoms, and adverse events in 161 patients. J Neurol. 2016;263:477-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Long-term functional outcome after CVT may appear good if measured with mRS, but patients often have residual symptoms and are frequently unable to return to their previous work. ..
  45. Cholet C, Mathon B, Law ye B. Rare Intracranial Donut Aneurysm. World Neurosurg. 2017;103:950.e1-950.e3 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding was consistent with a giant arterial aneurysm presenting with a central thrombus, also called "donut aneurysm". ..
  46. Nemmar A, Subramaniyan D, Yasin J, Ali B. Impact of experimental type 1 diabetes mellitus on systemic and coagulation vulnerability in mice acutely exposed to diesel exhaust particles. Part Fibre Toxicol. 2013;10:14 pubmed publisher
  47. Kang J, Yun T, Yoo R, Yoon B, Lee A, Kang K, et al. Bright sinus appearance on arterial spin labeling MR imaging aids to identify cerebral venous thrombosis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e8244 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, this technique may have the potential to be used as a noninvasive diagnostic tool to identify the cerebral venous thrombosis...
  48. Ben Salem Berrabah O, Fekih Mrissa N, Louati I, Layouni S, Zaouali J, N siri B, et al. [Cerebral venous thrombosis: Prospective etiological study of 26 Tunisian patients]. Rev Neurol (Paris). 2011;167:141-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our Tunisian population presented distinct clinical features compared with previous studies, including a high frequency of thrombophilia and gyneco-obstetrical disorders as well as infectious causes. ..
  49. Gomez C, Qureshi A. Medical treatment of patients with intracranial atherosclerotic disease. J Neuroimaging. 2009;19 Suppl 1:25S-9S pubmed publisher
  50. Benmira S, Banda Z, Bhattacharya V. The start of a new era for stroke treatment: mechanical thrombectomy devices. Curr Neurovasc Res. 2011;8:75-85 pubmed
    ..We also consider potentialnovel approaches for stroke treatment including waterjet thrombectomy and laser recanalization. ..
  51. Terranova C, Sartore D, Snenghi R. Death after liposuction: case report and review of the literature. Med Sci Law. 2010;50:161-3 pubmed
    ..The medico-legal interest of the case lies in the singular anatomo-pathological cause of death, discussed in relation to the hypothesis of professional responsibility after surgical intervention for liposuction. ..
  52. Memon M, Natarajan S, Sharma J, Mathews M, Snyder K, Siddiqui A, et al. Safety and feasibility of intraarterial eptifibatide as a revascularization tool in acute ischemic stroke. J Neurosurg. 2011;114:1008-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Its safety and efficacy need to be studied further in larger, multicenter, controlled studies. ..
  53. Nagai N, Kawao N, Okada K, Ishida C, Okumoto K, Ueshima S, et al. Initial brain lesion size affects the extent of subsequent pathophysiological responses. Brain Res. 2010;1322:109-17 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggested that the more severe the brain damage, the stronger the subsequent pathophysiological responses. ..