cerebral amyloid angiopathy

Summary

Summary: A heterogeneous group of sporadic or familial disorders characterized by AMYLOID deposits in the walls of small and medium sized blood vessels of CEREBRAL CORTEX and MENINGES. Clinical features include multiple, small lobar CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; cerebral ischemia (BRAIN ISCHEMIA); and CEREBRAL INFARCTION. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is unrelated to generalized AMYLOIDOSIS. Amyloidogenic peptides in this condition are nearly always the same ones found in ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (from Kumar: Robbins and Cotran: Pathologic Basis of Disease, 7th ed., 2005)

Top Publications

  1. Utter S, Tamboli I, Walter J, Upadhaya A, Birkenmeier G, Pietrzik C, et al. Cerebral small vessel disease-induced apolipoprotein E leakage is associated with Alzheimer disease and the accumulation of amyloid beta-protein in perivascular astrocytes. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2008;67:842-56 pubmed publisher
    ..It is therefore tempting to speculate that apoE represents a pathogenetic link between SVD and AD. ..
  2. Renard D, Castelnovo G, Wacongne A, Le Floch A, Thouvenot E, Mas J, et al. Interest of CSF biomarker analysis in possible cerebral amyloid angiopathy cases defined by the modified Boston criteria. J Neurol. 2012;259:2429-33 pubmed publisher
    According to the modified Boston criteria, cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) can present with lobar hematoma (LH) or superficial siderosis (SS)...
  3. Hartz A, Bauer B, Soldner E, Wolf A, Boy S, Backhaus R, et al. Amyloid-? contributes to blood-brain barrier leakage in transgenic human amyloid precursor protein mice and in humans with cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Stroke. 2012;43:514-23 pubmed publisher
    b>Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a degenerative disorder characterized by amyloid-? (A?) deposition in the blood-brain barrier (BBB)...
  4. De Reuck J, Deramecourt V, Cordonnier C, Leys D, Maurage C, Pasquier F. The impact of cerebral amyloid angiopathy on the occurrence of cerebrovascular lesions in demented patients with Alzheimer features: a neuropathological study. Eur J Neurol. 2011;18:913-8 pubmed publisher
    ..study was to determine the prevalence of the different cerebrovascular lesions to be attributed to cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and of those associated with the severity of the Alzheimer dementia (AD) itself...
  5. Han B, Zhou M, Abousaleh F, Brendza R, Dietrich H, Koenigsknecht Talboo J, et al. Cerebrovascular dysfunction in amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice: contribution of soluble and insoluble amyloid-beta peptide, partial restoration via gamma-secretase inhibition. J Neurosci. 2008;28:13542-50 pubmed publisher
    ..expressing mutant amyloid precursor protein (APP) and having elevated levels of soluble Abeta but no cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA)...
  6. van Helmond Z, Miners J, Bednall E, Chalmers K, Zhang Y, Wilcock G, et al. Caveolin-1 and -2 and their relationship to cerebral amyloid angiopathy in Alzheimer's disease. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2007;33:317-27 pubmed
    b>Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) affects over 90% of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and increases the risk of cerebral haemorrhage and infarction...
  7. Weller R, Boche D, Nicoll J. Microvasculature changes and cerebral amyloid angiopathy in Alzheimer's disease and their potential impact on therapy. Acta Neuropathol. 2009;118:87-102 pubmed publisher
    ..Accumulation of Abeta as plaques in brain parenchyma and artery walls as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is associated with failure of perivascular elimination of Abeta from the brain in the elderly and ..
  8. Nicoll J, Barton E, Boche D, Neal J, Ferrer I, Thompson P, et al. Abeta species removal after abeta42 immunization. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2006;65:1040-8 pubmed
    ..neurites, although other features of tau pathology (tangles and neuropil threads) remained and cerebral amyloid angiopathy persisted...
  9. Thal D, Capetillo Zarate E, Larionov S, Staufenbiel M, Zurbruegg S, Beckmann N. Capillary cerebral amyloid angiopathy is associated with vessel occlusion and cerebral blood flow disturbances. Neurobiol Aging. 2009;30:1936-48 pubmed publisher
    The role of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is not fully understood...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Keage H, Carare R, Friedland R, Ince P, Love S, Nicoll J, et al. Population studies of sporadic cerebral amyloid angiopathy and dementia: a systematic review. BMC Neurol. 2009;9:3 pubmed publisher
    Deposition of amyloid-beta (Abeta) in vessel walls of the brain as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) could be a major factor in the pathogenesis of dementia...
  2. Mori T, Koyama N, Arendash G, Horikoshi Sakuraba Y, Tan J, Town T. Overexpression of human S100B exacerbates cerebral amyloidosis and gliosis in the Tg2576 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Glia. 2010;58:300-14 pubmed publisher
  3. Wilcock D, Vitek M, Colton C. Vascular amyloid alters astrocytic water and potassium channels in mouse models and humans with Alzheimer's disease. Neuroscience. 2009;159:1055-69 pubmed publisher
    ..A significant proportion of individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have vascular amyloid deposits (cerebral amyloid angiopathy, CAA) that contribute to the heterogeneous nature of the disease...
  4. Schrag M, McAuley G, Pomakian J, Jiffry A, Tung S, Mueller C, et al. Correlation of hypointensities in susceptibility-weighted images to tissue histology in dementia patients with cerebral amyloid angiopathy: a postmortem MRI study. Acta Neuropathol. 2010;119:291-302 pubmed publisher
    ..significance of these lesions remains uncertain, their distribution and prevalence correlates with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), hypertension, smoking, and cognitive deficits...
  5. Grinberg L, Thal D. Vascular pathology in the aged human brain. Acta Neuropathol. 2010;119:277-90 pubmed publisher
    Cerebral atherosclerosis (AS), small vessel disease (SVD), and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) are the most prevalent arterial disorders in the aged brain...
  6. Lefterov I, Fitz N, Cronican A, Fogg A, Lefterov P, Kodali R, et al. Apolipoprotein A-I deficiency increases cerebral amyloid angiopathy and cognitive deficits in APP/PS1DeltaE9 mice. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:36945-57 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine the effect of Apoa-I deletion on cerebral amyloid angiopathy, we measured insoluble A? isolated from cerebral blood vessels...
  7. Sakaguchi H, Ueda A, Kosaka T, Yamashita S, Kimura E, Yamashita T, et al. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation presenting with steroid-responsive higher brain dysfunction: case report and review of the literature. J Neuroinflammation. 2011;8:116 pubmed publisher
    ..amyloid in the blood vessels and perivascular inflammation, which highlights the diagnosis of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA)-related inflammation...
  8. Charidimou A, Peeters A, Jäger R, Fox Z, Vandermeeren Y, Laloux P, et al. Cortical superficial siderosis and intracerebral hemorrhage risk in cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Neurology. 2013;81:1666-73 pubmed publisher
    ..more than 3 sulci), increases the risk of future symptomatic lobar intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA)...
  9. Schroeter S, Khan K, Barbour R, Doan M, Chen M, Guido T, et al. Immunotherapy reduces vascular amyloid-beta in PDAPP mice. J Neurosci. 2008;28:6787-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Abeta) plaques, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by Abeta in the cerebral vasculature [cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA)] in the majority of patients...
  10. Matthews F, Brayne C, Lowe J, McKeith I, Wharton S, Ince P. Epidemiological pathology of dementia: attributable-risks at death in the Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study. PLoS Med. 2009;6:e1000180 pubmed publisher
    ..Other significant factors include cerebral amyloid angiopathy (7%) and Lewy bodies (3%)...
  11. Timmer N, Schirris T, Bruinsma I, Otte Holler I, van Kuppevelt T, de Waal R, et al. Aggregation and cytotoxic properties towards cultured cerebrovascular cells of Dutch-mutated Abeta40 (DAbeta(1-40)) are modulated by sulfate moieties of heparin. Neurosci Res. 2010;66:380-9 pubmed publisher
    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), in particular as part of heparan sulfate proteoglycans, are associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA)...
  12. Hasegawa K, Ozawa D, Ookoshi T, Naiki H. Surface-bound basement membrane components accelerate amyloid-? peptide nucleation in air-free wells: an in vitro model of cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1834:1624-31 pubmed publisher
    b>Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is caused by deposition of the amyloid ?-peptide which consists of mainly 39-40 residues to the cortical and leptomeningeal vessel walls...
  13. Okamoto Y, Yamamoto T, Kalaria R, Senzaki H, Maki T, Hase Y, et al. Cerebral hypoperfusion accelerates cerebral amyloid angiopathy and promotes cortical microinfarcts. Acta Neuropathol. 2012;123:381-94 pubmed publisher
    ..in brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease tend to be located close to vessels afflicted with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA)...
  14. Kimberly W, Gilson A, Rost N, Rosand J, Viswanathan A, Smith E, et al. Silent ischemic infarcts are associated with hemorrhage burden in cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Neurology. 2009;72:1230-5 pubmed publisher
    Neuropathologic studies suggest an association between cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and small ischemic infarctions as well as hemorrhages...
  15. Weller R, Subash M, Preston S, Mazanti I, Carare R. Perivascular drainage of amyloid-beta peptides from the brain and its failure in cerebral amyloid angiopathy and Alzheimer's disease. Brain Pathol. 2008;18:253-66 pubmed publisher
    ..of amyloid-beta (Abeta) as insoluble deposits in brain parenchyma and in blood vessel walls [cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA)]...
  16. Salvarani C, Brown R, Calamia K, Christianson T, Huston J, Meschia J, et al. Primary central nervous system vasculitis: comparison of patients with and without cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2008;47:1671-7 pubmed publisher
    To describe the clinical features and outcomes of patients with primary central nervous system vasculitis (PCNSV) and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) from a large cohort of consecutive patients with PCNSV treated at a single institution.
  17. Xiong H, Callaghan D, Jones A, Bai J, Rasquinha I, Smith C, et al. ABCG2 is upregulated in Alzheimer's brain with cerebral amyloid angiopathy and may act as a gatekeeper at the blood-brain barrier for Abeta(1-40) peptides. J Neurosci. 2009;29:5463-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Abeta deposition in cerebrovessels occurs in many AD patients and results in cerebral amyloid angiopathy (AD/CAA)...
  18. Smith E, Greenberg S. Beta-amyloid, blood vessels, and brain function. Stroke. 2009;40:2601-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Vascular beta-amyloid deposition, also known as cerebral amyloid angiopathy, is associated with vascular dysfunction in animal and human studies...
  19. Zhu G, Zhang W, Liu Y, Li J. Arterioles in cerebral amyloid angiopathy and vascular dementia. Chin Med J (Engl). 2009;122:2985-8 pubmed
    Small cerebrovascular lesions are one of the most important factors in cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and vascular dementia (VaD)...
  20. Maia L, Mackenzie I, Feldman H. Clinical phenotypes of Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy. J Neurol Sci. 2007;257:23-30 pubmed
    The term Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy (CAA) is used to describe the pathological changes occurring in cerebral blood vessels, both leptomeningeal and cortical that result from the deposition of amyloid proteins...
  21. Revesz T, Holton J, Lashley T, Plant G, Frangione B, Rostagno A, et al. Genetics and molecular pathogenesis of sporadic and hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathies. Acta Neuropathol. 2009;118:115-30 pubmed publisher
    In cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), amyloid fibrils deposit in walls of arteries, arterioles and less frequently in veins and capillaries of the central nervous system, often resulting in secondary degenerative vascular changes...
  22. Machida K, Tojo K, Naito K, Gono T, Nakata Y, Ikeda S. Cortical petechial hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage and corticosteroid-responsive leukoencephalopathy in a patient with cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Amyloid. 2008;15:60-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, surgical intervention for communicating hydrocephalus might have induced cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA)-related leukoencephalopathy in her right cerebral hemisphere...
  23. Hawkes C, Gatherer M, Sharp M, Dorr A, Yuen H, Kalaria R, et al. Regional differences in the morphological and functional effects of aging on cerebral basement membranes and perivascular drainage of amyloid-? from the mouse brain. Aging Cell. 2013;12:224-36 pubmed publisher
    Development of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with failure of elimination of amyloid-? (A?) from the brain along perivascular basement membranes that form the pathways for drainage of ..
  24. Thal D, Griffin W, Braak H. Parenchymal and vascular Abeta-deposition and its effects on the degeneration of neurons and cognition in Alzheimer's disease. J Cell Mol Med. 2008;12:1848-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Abeta-deposits show the morphology of senile plaques and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). Senile plaques and vascular Abeta-deposits occur first in neocorti-cal areas...
  25. Charidimou A, Gang Q, Werring D. Sporadic cerebral amyloid angiopathy revisited: recent insights into pathophysiology and clinical spectrum. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2012;83:124-37 pubmed publisher
    Sporadic cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a common age related cerebral small vessel disease, characterised by progressive deposition of amyloid-? (A?) in the wall of small to medium sized arteries, arterioles and capillaries of the ..
  26. Wilcock D, Gordon M, Morgan D. Quantification of cerebral amyloid angiopathy and parenchymal amyloid plaques with Congo red histochemical stain. Nat Protoc. 2006;1:1591-5 pubmed
    ..Congophilic amyloid in blood vessels is called cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA)...
  27. Biffi A, Halpin A, Towfighi A, Gilson A, Busl K, Rost N, et al. Aspirin and recurrent intracerebral hemorrhage in cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Neurology. 2010;75:693-8 pubmed publisher
    ..microbleeds or macrobleeds and posterior CT white matter hypodensity, which may be markers of severity for underlying cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Use of an antiplatelet agent following lobar ICH may also increase recurrence risk.
  28. Pezzini A, Del Zotto E, Volonghi I, Giossi A, Costa P, Padovani A. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy: a common cause of cerebral hemorrhage. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16:2498-513 pubmed
    ..b>Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) defines a clinicopathological phenomenon characterized by amyloid deposition in the walls of ..
  29. Farris W, Schütz S, Cirrito J, Shankar G, Sun X, George A, et al. Loss of neprilysin function promotes amyloid plaque formation and causes cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Am J Pathol. 2007;171:241-51 pubmed
  30. Kovari E, Herrmann F, Hof P, Bouras C. The relationship between cerebral amyloid angiopathy and cortical microinfarcts in brain ageing and Alzheimer's disease. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2013;39:498-509 pubmed publisher
    b>Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) represents the deposition of amyloid ? protein (A?) in the meningeal and intracerebral vessels...
  31. Auriel E, Greenberg S. The pathophysiology and clinical presentation of cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2012;14:343-50 pubmed publisher
    b>Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is defined as the deposition of amyloid ß peptide within leptomeningial and cortical vessels, likely reflecting an imbalance between A? production and clearance...
  32. Miners J, van Helmond Z, Chalmers K, Wilcock G, Love S, Kehoe P. Decreased expression and activity of neprilysin in Alzheimer disease are associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2006;65:1012-21 pubmed
    ..In Alzheimer disease (AD), downregulation of NEP has been suggested to contribute to the development of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). We examined the relationship among NEP, CAA, and APOE status in AD and elderly control cases...
  33. Kinnecom C, Lev M, Wendell L, Smith E, Rosand J, Frosch M, et al. Course of cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation. Neurology. 2007;68:1411-6 pubmed
    A subset of patients with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) present with cognitive symptoms, seizures, headaches, T2-hyperintense MRI lesions, and neuropathologic evidence of CAA-associated vascular inflammation...
  34. Jellinger K, Attems J. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy in Lewy body disease. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2008;115:473-82 pubmed publisher
    ..dementia in Parkinson's disease (PD/Lewy body disease of brainstem type), the incidence and impact of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and its association with cognitive decline in PD and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are unknown...
  35. Prada C, Garcia Alloza M, Betensky R, Zhang Nunes S, Greenberg S, Bacskai B, et al. Antibody-mediated clearance of amyloid-beta peptide from cerebral amyloid angiopathy revealed by quantitative in vivo imaging. J Neurosci. 2007;27:1973-80 pubmed
    b>Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is the accumulation of amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) in the vessel wall of arteries in the brain...
  36. Soontornniyomkij V, Lynch M, Mermash S, Pomakian J, Badkoobehi H, Clare R, et al. Cerebral microinfarcts associated with severe cerebral beta-amyloid angiopathy. Brain Pathol. 2010;20:459-67 pubmed publisher
    b>Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is common in elderly individuals, especially those affected with Alzheimer's disease...
  37. Kumar Singh S. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy: pathogenetic mechanisms and link to dense amyloid plaques. Genes Brain Behav. 2008;7 Suppl 1:67-82 pubmed publisher
    b>Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) of the amyloid-beta (Abeta) type is the most common form of sporadic CAA and is now also accepted as an early and integral part of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis...
  38. Kumar Singh S. Hereditary and sporadic forms of abeta-cerebrovascular amyloidosis and relevant transgenic mouse models. Int J Mol Sci. 2009;10:1872-95 pubmed publisher
    b>Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) refers to the specific deposition of amyloid fibrils in the leptomeningeal and cerebral blood vessel walls, often causing secondary vascular degenerative changes...
  39. Arbel Ornath M, Hudry E, Eikermann Haerter K, Hou S, Gregory J, Zhao L, et al. Interstitial fluid drainage is impaired in ischemic stroke and Alzheimer's disease mouse models. Acta Neuropathol. 2013;126:353-64 pubmed publisher
    ..disease and Alzheimer disease and suggests that facilitation of A? clearance along the perivascular pathway should be considered as a new target for therapeutic approaches to Alzheimer disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy.
  40. Chung K, Anderson N, Hutchinson D, Synek B, Barber P. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy related inflammation: three case reports and a review. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2011;82:20-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Cerebral amyloid angiopathy related inflammation (CAA-I), previously described under various names, is a treatable encephalopathy usually occurring in older adults...
  41. Alafuzoff I, Aho L, Helisalmi S, Mannermaa A, Soininen H. Beta-amyloid deposition in brains of subjects with diabetes. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2009;35:60-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our result challenges the claim that DM is a direct risk factor of developing AD. Thus further studies on pathological lesions in demented diabetics should be conducted. ..
  42. Alafuzoff I, Thal D, Arzberger T, Bogdanovic N, Al Sarraj S, Bodi I, et al. Assessment of beta-amyloid deposits in human brain: a study of the BrainNet Europe Consortium. Acta Neuropathol. 2009;117:309-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Likewise, a high agreement (93%) was reached while assessing the absence/presence of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and the type of CAA (74%) while examining the six brain regions...
  43. Alcalay R, Smith E. MRI showing white matter lesions and multiple lobar microbleeds in a patient with reversible encephalopathy. J Neuroimaging. 2009;19:89-91 pubmed publisher
    b>Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) can rarely be complicated by vascular and perivascular inflammation...
  44. Cano L, Martinez Yelamos S, Majos C, Albertí M, Boluda S, Velasco R, et al. Reversible acute leukoencephalopathy as a form of presentation in cerebral amyloid angiopathy. J Neurol Sci. 2010;288:190-3 pubmed publisher
    b>Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) may present as cerebral haemorrhage, cerebral infarction and periventricular white matter lesions. Reversible leukoencephalopathy is a rare manifestation of CAA...
  45. Brunot S, Fromont A, Ricolfi F, Moreau T, Giroud M. [Focal subarachnoid hemorrhage and cerebral amyloid angiopathy: a non-fortuitous association]. Rev Neurol (Paris). 2010;166:83-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is a degenerative angiopathy due to amyloid deposits in the walls of the meningeal and cortical vessels. It is considered as a major cause of cerebral hemorrhage to the elderly...
  46. Beckmann N, Gerard C, Abramowski D, Cannet C, Staufenbiel M. Noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging detection of cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related microvascular alterations using superparamagnetic iron oxide particles in APP transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease: application to passive Abeta immunot. J Neurosci. 2011;31:1023-31 pubmed publisher
    b>Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a common feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). More advanced stages are accompanied by microhemorrhages and vasculitis...
  47. Mori T, Rezai Zadeh K, Koyama N, Arendash G, Yamaguchi H, Kakuda N, et al. Tannic acid is a natural ?-secretase inhibitor that prevents cognitive impairment and mitigates Alzheimer-like pathology in transgenic mice. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:6912-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results raise the possibility that dietary supplementation with TA may be prophylactic for AD by inhibiting ?-secretase activity and neuroinflammation and thereby mitigating AD pathology. ..
  48. Marotti J, Savitz S, Kim W, Williams K, Caplan L, Joseph J. Cerebral amyloid angiitis processing to generalized angiitis and leucoencephalitis. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2007;33:475-9 pubmed
  49. Kokjohn T, Maarouf C, Roher A. Is Alzheimer's disease amyloidosis the result of a repair mechanism gone astray?. Alzheimers Dement. 2012;8:574-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Successful application of AD preventative approaches may hinge on an accurate and comprehensive view of comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and head trauma. ..
  50. Biffi A, Shulman J, Jagiella J, Cortellini L, Ayres A, Schwab K, et al. Genetic variation at CR1 increases risk of cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Neurology. 2012;78:334-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the biologic overlap between AD and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), a leading cause of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in elderly individuals, we investigated ..
  51. McHugh J, Ryan A, Lynch T, Dempsey E, Stack J, Farrell M, et al. Steroid-responsive recurrent encephalopathy in a patient with cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2007;23:66-9 pubmed
  52. Attems J, Lauda F, Jellinger K. Unexpectedly low prevalence of intracerebral hemorrhages in sporadic cerebral amyloid angiopathy: an autopsy study. J Neurol. 2008;255:70-6 pubmed publisher
    ..5 +/- 6.8 SD years), sporadic cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) of various degrees was detected in 73.2% and in 98...
  53. Kloppenborg R, Richard E, Sprengers M, Troost D, Eikelenboom P, Nederkoorn P. Steroid responsive encephalopathy in cerebral amyloid angiopathy: a case report and review of evidence for immunosuppressive treatment. J Neuroinflammation. 2010;7:18 pubmed publisher
    b>Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a common but often asymptomatic disease, characterized by deposition of amyloid in cerebral blood vessels...