cerebral arterial diseases


Summary: Pathological conditions of intracranial ARTERIES supplying the CEREBRUM. These diseases often are due to abnormalities or pathological processes in the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; and POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY.

Top Publications

  1. Suwanwela N, Leelacheavasit N. Isolated corpus callosal infarction secondary to pericallosal artery disease presenting as alien hand syndrome. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2002;72:533-6 pubmed
    ..These patients were unique in their presentation as a callosal type of alien hand syndrome secondary to ischaemic stroke. ..
  2. Mead G, Lewis S, Wardlaw J, Dennis M, Warlow C. Severe ipsilateral carotid stenosis and middle cerebral artery disease in lacunar ischaemic stroke: innocent bystanders?. J Neurol. 2002;249:266-71 pubmed
    ..Carotid stenosis in patients with a lacunar ischaemic stroke may be coincidental. Further studies are required to elucidate the causes of lacunar stroke, and to evaluate the role of carotid endarterectomy. ..
  3. Ritter M, Dittrich R, Thoenissen N, Ringelstein E, Nabavi D. Prevalence and prognostic impact of microembolic signals in arterial sources of embolism. A systematic review of the literature. J Neurol. 2008;255:953-61 pubmed publisher
    ..MES are a frequent finding in varying sources of arterial brain embolism, MES detection is useful for risk stratification in patients with carotid stenosis. ..
  4. Arenillas J, Molina C, Montaner J, Abilleira S, González Sánchez M, Alvarez Sabin J. Progression and clinical recurrence of symptomatic middle cerebral artery stenosis: a long-term follow-up transcranial Doppler ultrasound study. Stroke. 2001;32:2898-904 pubmed
    ..03, CI 1.6 to 30.9, P=0.0071). Progression of symptomatic MCA stenosis detected by means of TCD predicts clinical recurrence. Anticoagulation is independently associated with a lower progression rate of symptomatic MCA stenosis. ..
  5. Bang O, Joo S, Lee P, Joo U, Lee J, Joo I, et al. The course of patients with lacunar infarcts and a parent arterial lesion: similarities to large artery vs small artery disease. Arch Neurol. 2004;61:514-9 pubmed
    ..5-123.9; P =.02). Although LS on examination, SDIs on diffusion-weighted imaging, and a stable hospital course suggest lacunar stroke of benign course, our results indicate that the PAD group represents an intracranial type of LAD. ..
  6. Kim J, Ahn J, Lee B, Chung Y, Chung S, Kim O, et al. Elective stenting for symptomatic middle cerebral artery stenosis presenting as transient ischaemic deficits or stroke attacks: short term arteriographical and clinical outcome. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2004;75:847-51 pubmed
    ..This study indicates the need for randomised control trial data of this intervention. Additionally, long term follow up data and additional clinical experience are required to assess the durability of this procedure. ..
  7. Bang O, Heo J, Kim J, Park J, Huh K. Middle cerebral artery stenosis is a major clinical determinant in striatocapsular small, deep infarction. Arch Neurol. 2002;59:259-63 pubmed
    ..The proximal MCA lesion was a common cause of SSDIs in Korean patients. Depending on the existence of an MCA lesion, the clinical course and magnetic resonance imaging feature of the patients with SSDIs were different. ..
  8. Connors J, Wojak J. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for intracranial atherosclerotic lesions: evolution of technique and short-term results. J Neurosurg. 1999;91:415-23 pubmed
    ..This technique sometimes yields suboptimal angiographic results but achieves the clinical goal safely. Intracranial angioplasty can be safely performed using this technique and modern equipment. ..
  9. Akins P, Pilgram T, Cross D, Moran C. Natural history of stenosis from intracranial atherosclerosis by serial angiography. Stroke. 1998;29:433-8 pubmed
    ..Cerebrovascular events were infrequent during this period, with 4 transient ischemic attacks and 1 intracerebral hemorrhage. Intracranial atherosclerotic stenoses are dynamic lesions demonstrating both progression and regression. ..

More Information


  1. Jinnouchi J, Toyoda K, Inoue T, Fujimoto S, Gotoh S, Yasumori K, et al. Changes in brain volume 2 years after extracranial-intracranial bypass surgery: A preliminary subanalysis of the Japanese EC-IC trial. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2006;22:177-82 pubmed
    ..737, p = 0.0007). Change in acetazolamide reactivity might be a good predictor for brain atrophy in cerebral artery occlusive disease. ..
  2. Tseng Y, Chang Y, Liu J, Su C, Lai S, Lan M. Association of plasma homocysteine concentration with cerebral white matter hyperintensity on magnetic resonance images in stroke patients. J Neurol Sci. 2009;284:36-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Hcy is a risk factor for cerebral white matter lesion in stroke patients. Even mild hyperhomocysteinemia can significantly increase severity of cerebral microangiopathy. ..
  3. Inoue A, Kohno K, Takeda T, Takechi A, Kohno K, Yamaguchi Y, et al. [Two cases of main trunk artery occlusion associated with multiple cerebral aneurysms]. No Shinkei Geka. 2006;34:1131-8 pubmed
  4. Cekirge H, Yavuz K, Geyik S, Saatci I. HyperForm balloon remodeling in the endovascular treatment of anterior cerebral, middle cerebral, and anterior communicating artery aneurysms: clinical and angiographic follow-up results in 800 consecutive patients. J Neurosurg. 2011;114:944-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Not only does this technique allow for the safe treatment of these aneurysms, but it also expands the indications of endovascular treatment to include aneurysms that otherwise cannot be treated with simple coil embolization. ..
  5. Wu Y, Lynch J, Nelson K. Perinatal arterial stroke: understanding mechanisms and outcomes. Semin Neurol. 2005;25:424-34 pubmed
    ..The incidence, clinical presentation, pathogenesis, risk factors, and outcome of this increasingly recognized disorder are reviewed. ..
  6. Ogasawara K, Inoue T, Kobayashi M, Endo H, Fukuda T, Ogawa A. Pretreatment with the free radical scavenger edaravone prevents cerebral hyperperfusion after carotid endarterectomy. Neurosurgery. 2004;55:1060-7 pubmed
    ..Pretreatment with edaravone can prevent occurrence of cerebral hyperperfusion after CEA. ..
  7. Flemming K, Nguyen T, Abu Lebdeh H, Parisi J, Wiebers D, Sicks J, et al. Hyperhomocysteinemia in patients with cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL). Mayo Clin Proc. 2001;76:1213-8 pubmed
    ..5 vs. 24.0 micromol/ L; P = .02). Our findings raise the possibility that increased homocysteine levels or abnormalities of homocysteine metabolism may have a role in the pathogenesis of CADASIL. ..
  8. Hamzei F, Knab R, Weiller C, Rother J. The influence of extra- and intracranial artery disease on the BOLD signal in FMRI. Neuroimage. 2003;20:1393-9 pubmed
    ..Extra- or intracranial artery disease influences CVRC and consequently the BOLD signal. This observation is important for the clinical application of fMRI paradigms. ..
  9. Kralik S, Watson G, Shih C, Ho C, Finke W, Buchsbaum J. Radiation-Induced Large Vessel Cerebral Vasculopathy in Pediatric Patients With Brain Tumors Treated With Proton Radiation Therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2017;99:817-824 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies are necessary to determine potential risk factors for large vessel vasculopathy with proton radiation therapy in comparison with conventional photon radiation therapy. ..
  10. Trinkl A, Vosko M, Wunderlich N, Dichgans M, Hamann G. Pravastatin reduces microvascular basal lamina damage following focal cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. Eur J Neurosci. 2006;24:520-6 pubmed
    ..553 +/- 47%, P < 0.01). Pravastatin pretreatment resulted in a reduction of microvascular basal lamina damage and hemoglobin extravasation following transient ischemia. Pravastatin seems to protect the cerebral microvascular system. ..
  11. Shen J, Xue Y, Zhang Y, Wang Q. [The application of transcranial Doppler in detecting diabetic cerebral macroangiopathy and microangiopathy]. Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi. 2002;41:172-4 pubmed
    ..It indicated that PI and Vm might be two useful markers for the detection of diabetic cerebrovascular changes. Marked increase of PIs of ICA and MCA might reflect the microangiopathic changes of cerebral vessels in diabetic patients. ..
  12. Ahn K, Kim Y, Cho H, Yim H, Kang B, Kim S, et al. Correlation between breast arterial calcification detected on mammography and cerebral artery disease. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2011;284:957-64 pubmed publisher
    ..04 for positive PVH, p < 0.05). The mammographic finding of BAC, which may be a useful marker of women at higher risk for stroke, should receive more of clinicians' attention and its presence should never be omitted from the report. ..
  13. Viguier A, Petit R, Rigal M, Cintas P, Larrue V. Continuous monitoring of middle cerebral artery recanalization with transcranial color-coded sonography and Levovist. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2005;19:55-9 pubmed
    ..Although all HTs were asymptomatic and did not preclude early clinical improvement, particular attention should be given to the incidence and clinical significance of HT in future studies using these methods. ..
  14. Yanagihara C, Nakaji K, Nishimura Y. [A patient with primary Sjögren's syndrome featuring polyneuropathy and oculomotor paralysis and associated with asymptomatic left middle cerebral artery stenosis]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 2002;42:216-20 pubmed
    ..This indicates that, even in the absence of CNS symptoms, cerebral artery involvement may be present in primary SjS. ..
  15. Huang H, Fu X, Peng D, Tan S, Huang J. [Risk factors of middle cerebral artery stenosis in Foshan community, Guangdong province: a longitudinal study]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2007;87:3079-81 pubmed
    ..MCAS exists in the asymptomatic residents. History of hypertensive disease, DM, CHD and HHcy are the risk factors of MCAS Heart attack and changes of body weight contributed to MCAS. ..
  16. Durand M, Raffai G, Weinberg B, Lombard J. Angiotensin-(1-7) and low-dose angiotensin II infusion reverse salt-induced endothelial dysfunction via different mechanisms in rat middle cerebral arteries. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2010;299:H1024-33 pubmed publisher
  17. Sharma V, Tsivgoulis G, Lao A, Malkoff M, Alexandrov A. Noninvasive detection of diffuse intracranial disease. Stroke. 2007;38:3175-81 pubmed
    ..7, 95% CI: 4.8 to 81.2, P<0.001). Diffuse intracranial disease may have a higher than expected frequency in a select stroke population and can be detected with noninvasive screening. ..
  18. Yang L, Bai H, Zhao X, Xiao Y, Tan L. Postpartum cerebral angiopathy presenting with non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and interval development of neurological deficits: a case report and review of literature. Neurol India. 2013;61:517-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Her symptoms gradually improved and she was discharged on the 11 th day of hospitalization. At 1-month follow-up, patient was completely symptom-free with no neurological deficits. ..
  19. Liang J, Wang Z. [Serum levels of interferon-?, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-? in patients with cerebral arterial stenosis]. Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2011;43:837-40 pubmed
    ..015) significantly increased as compared with the control group and the other two stenosis groups. The results suggest that IFN-?, IL-6 and TNF-? are possible to participate in the formation of certain cerebral arterial stenosis. ..
  20. Dittrich R, Dziewas R, Ritter M, Kloska S, Bachmann R, Nassenstein I, et al. Negative ultrasound findings in patients with cervical artery dissection. Negative ultrasound in CAD. J Neurol. 2006;253:424-33 pubmed
    ..In patients with suspected CAD and negative US examination, repeated US examinations and further diagnostic imaging, especially MRI is necessary. ..
  21. Yamauchi H, Higashi T, Kagawa S, Nishii R, Kudo T, Sugimoto K, et al. Is misery perfusion still a predictor of stroke in symptomatic major cerebral artery disease?. Brain. 2012;135:2515-26 pubmed publisher
    ..In patients without misery perfusion, the risk of stroke was reduced over time. Thus, identification and stricter management of patients with misery perfusion are essential to further improve prognosis. ..
  22. Pico F, Jacob M, Labreuche J, Soufir N, Touboul P, Benessiano J, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase-3 and intracranial arterial dolichoectasia. Ann Neurol. 2010;67:508-15 pubmed publisher
    ..55). In this cohort of stroke patients of Caucasian ancestry, IADE was associated with low MMP-3 plasma levels and with the 5A/6A polymorphism of the promoter region of MMP-3. These results suggest that MMP-3 may play a role in IADE. ..
  23. Cho A, Kang D, Kwon S, Kim J. Is 15 mm size criterion for lacunar infarction still valid? A study on strictly subcortical middle cerebral artery territory infarction using diffusion-weighted MRI. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2007;23:14-9 pubmed
    ..There are no clinical and lesion-size differences between MCAD and SVD, suggesting that there seems to be no rationale for the 15 mm size criterion for lacunar or small-vessel infarction. ..
  24. Buchbinder D, Steinberg G, Linetsky M, Casillas J. Moyamoya in a child treated with interferon for recurrent osteosarcoma. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2010;32:476-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the importance of characterizing late effects after the treatment of childhood cancer, the potential role of interferon alpha in the development of moyamoya is discussed. ..
  25. Montavont A, Nighoghossian N, Hermier M, Derex L, Berthezene Y, Philippeau E, et al. Hemiplegia in posterior cerebral artery occlusion: acute MRI assessment. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2003;16:452-3 pubmed
  26. Takagi M. [Cerebral arterial dissection]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 2005;45:846-8 pubmed
    ..The establishment of an effective intervention to prevent the recurrence of subarachnoid hemorrhage is urgently required. ..
  27. Wintermark P, Roulet Perez E, Maeder Ingvar M, Moessinger A, Gudinchet F, Meuli R. Perfusion abnormalities in hemimegalencephaly. Neuropediatrics. 2009;40:92-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Perfusion anomalies in hemimegalencephaly may not necessarily be related to epileptical activity, but may be related to vessel alterations. ..
  28. Feldman D, Borgida A, Rodis J, Campbell W. Irreversible maternal brain injury during pregnancy: a case report and review of the literature. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2000;55:708-14 pubmed
    ..We present a case at our institution and review all previously published cases in the English literature for comparison as well as make management recommendations. ..
  29. Kasner S, Lynn M, Chimowitz M, Frankel M, Howlett Smith H, Hertzberg V, et al. Warfarin vs aspirin for symptomatic intracranial stenosis: subgroup analyses from WASID. Neurology. 2006;67:1275-8 pubmed
  30. Wang K, Zhao J, Jiang G, Yun W, Chen Z. Correlation of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis with extracranial carotid and intracranial cerebral artery atherosclerosis in patients with ischemic stroke. Blood Press. 2013;22:312-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Abdominal aortography should be performed to identify ARAS in elderly patients with IS, especially combined with severe ECAS. ..
  31. Droste D, Jekentaite R, Stypmann J, Grude M, Hansberg T, Ritter M, et al. Contrast transcranial Doppler ultrasound in the detection of right-to-left shunts: comparison of Echovist-200 and Echovist-300, timing of the Valsalva maneuver, and general recommendations for the performance of the test. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2002;13:235-41 pubmed
    ..To achieve the best diagnostic accuracy, the VM should be performed for a duration of 5 s starting at 5 s following the beginning of contrast injection. ..
  32. Yamauchi H, Nishii R, Higashi T, Kagawa S, Fukuyama H. Selective neuronal damage and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance in atherosclerotic occlusive disease of the major cerebral artery. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2011;82:150-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In atherosclerotic ICA or MCA disease, selective neuronal damage that is manifested as a decrease in BZRs in the non-infarcted cerebral cortex may contribute to the development of executive dysfunction. ..
  33. Rai A, Carpenter J, Raghuram K, Roberts T, Rodgers D, Hobbs G. Endovascular therapy yields significantly superior outcomes for large vessel occlusions compared with intravenous thrombolysis: is it time to randomize?. J Neurointerv Surg. 2013;5:430-4 pubmed publisher
    ..There are significantly higher odds of a favorable outcome with EV compared with IV therapy for large vessel strokes. The data support the rationale of a randomized trial for large vessel occlusions. ..
  34. Lien L, Chen W, Chen J, Chiu H, Tsai Y, Choi W, et al. Comparison of transcranial color-coded sonography and magnetic resonance angiography in acute ischemic stroke. J Neuroimaging. 2001;11:363-8 pubmed
    ..An angle-corrected peak systolic velocity > or = 120 cm/s is highly specific for detecting intracranial stenosis as defined by significant MRA abnormality. ..
  35. Llompart Pou J, Abadal J, Velasco J, Homar J, Blanco C, Ayestarán J, et al. Contrast-enhanced transcranial color sonography in the diagnosis of cerebral circulatory arrest. Transplant Proc. 2009;41:1466-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Contrast-enhanced TCCS increased the number of conclusive studies with cerebral circulatory arrest, which minimized the importance of a previous study in cases with a poor acoustic window. ..
  36. Kikuta K, Takagi Y, Fushimi Y, Ishizu K, Okada T, Hanakawa T, et al. "Target bypass": a method for preoperative targeting of a recipient artery in superficial temporal artery-to-middle cerebral artery anastomoses. Neurosurgery. 2006;59:ONS320-6; discussion ONS326-7 pubmed
    ..Successful bypass surgery to the target was confirmed in all cases. The "target bypass" method might be effective for cases with moyamoya disease or for cases requiring surgery through a small craniotomy. ..
  37. Oehm E, Reinhard M, Keck C, Els T, Spreer J, Hetzel A. Impaired dynamic cerebral autoregulation in eclampsia. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2003;22:395-8 pubmed
    ..Because of its probably high sensitivity to hemodynamic disturbances, assessment of DCA might be of great value in early pre-eclampsia for risk prediction of cerebral arteriopathy and eclampsia. ..
  38. Rodionov R, Dayoub H, Lynch C, Wilson K, Stevens J, Murry D, et al. Overexpression of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase protects against cerebral vascular effects of hyperhomocysteinemia. Circ Res. 2010;106:551-8 pubmed publisher
    ..05) but not from accelerated carotid artery thrombosis induced by the HM/LF diet. Overexpression of DDAH1 protects from hyperhomocysteinemia-induced alterations in cerebral arteriolar structure and vascular muscle function. ..
  39. Henninger N, Küppers Tiedt L, Sicard K, Günther A, Schneider D, Schwab S. Neuroprotective effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy monitored by MR-imaging after embolic stroke in rats. Exp Neurol. 2006;201:316-23 pubmed
    ..3 +/- 39.6 mm3 vs. 202.5 +/- 58.3 mm3 (control, P = 0.029). As shown by MRI and TTC, HBO treatment demonstrated significant neuroprotection at 5 h after embolic focal cerebral ischemia that lasted for 168 h. ..
  40. Ogasawara K, Yukawa H, Kobayashi M, Mikami C, Konno H, Terasaki K, et al. Prediction and monitoring of cerebral hyperperfusion after carotid endarterectomy by using single-photon emission computerized tomography scanning. J Neurosurg. 2003;99:504-10 pubmed
    ..In addition, post-CEA monitoring of CBF performed using SPECT scanning results in the timely and reliable identification of patients at risk for hyperperfusion syndrome. ..
  41. Tseng M, Chan S, Guo S. A case study of ligation induced calcification in middle cerebral artery in rat. Histol Histopathol. 2000;15:483-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The functional significance of this first demonstration of acute calcification following transient ligation of the rodent MCA invites further studies. ..
  42. Wunderlich M, Wallesch C, Goertler M. Release of neurobiochemical markers of brain damage is related to the neurovascular status on admission and the site of arterial occlusion in acute ischemic stroke. J Neurol Sci. 2004;227:49-53 pubmed
    ..Protein S100B may serve as a monitoring parameter in acute ischemic stroke, especially with respect to the neurovascular status. Furthermore, S100B obtains additional information about functional outcome. ..
  43. Nakashima S, Nomura S, Tomokiyo M, Furukawa Y, Shimokawa S, Nakagawa S, et al. [Dissecting aneurysm of the middle cerebral artery with subarachnoid hemorrhage showing complete occlusion at the M2 portion of the middle cerebral artery on preoperative angiograms: case report]. No Shinkei Geka. 2002;30:541-5 pubmed
    ..The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient gradually improved and was discharged without neurological deficits. We presented this case with a review of the literature. ..
  44. Chen P, Kuo T, Yang C. Parasympathetic activity correlates with early outcome in patients with large artery atherosclerotic stroke. J Neurol Sci. 2012;314:57-61 pubmed publisher
    ..There were different autonomic function properties between LAA and LAC groups, and depressed parasympathetic modulation was associated with worse early outcome in patients with LAA. ..
  45. Fan X, Wang S, Li Y, Liu J, Qian Y, Zhang Y, et al. [Study on optimum stimulation parameter for Shuigou (GV 26) in Xingnao Kaiqiao needling method]. Zhongguo Zhen Jiu. 2008;28:913-7 pubmed
  46. Moisse K, Welch I, Hill T, Volkening K, Strong M. Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion induces microglial priming in the lumbar spinal cord: a novel model of neuroinflammation. J Neuroinflammation. 2008;5:29 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, survival is excellent following the 30 minutes of occlusion, rendering this a novel and useful model for examining the effects of microglial priming in the spinal motor neuron pool. ..
  47. Horie N, Murakami R, Sato M, Onizuka M, Shibayama A, Hiura T, et al. [Cerebral arteritis and cerebritis caused by subdural empyema: two cases report]. No To Shinkei. 2001;53:881-5 pubmed
    ..Subdural empyema with sinusitis or meningitis around the skull base sometimes causes cerebral angitis. We considered that the angiographical evaluation for the subdural empyema was necessary to detect angitis. ..
  48. Macrae I, Carswell H. Oestrogen and stroke: the potential for harm as well as benefit. Biochem Soc Trans. 2006;34:1362-5 pubmed
    ..Ultimately, this could lead to the development of new classes of oestrogenic compounds with improved risk/benefit profiles, designed to selectively activate pathways inducing only the beneficial effects of oestrogen in vivo. ..
  49. Krejza J, Mariak Z, Babikian V. Importance of angle correction in the measurement of blood flow velocity with transcranial Doppler sonography. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2001;22:1743-7 pubmed
    ..05). In patients with moderate or severe MCA stenosis, the angle of insonation can be substantial and cause large errors when flow velocities are measured without angle correction. ..
  50. van den Boom R, Lesnik Oberstein S, van Duinen S, Bornebroek M, Ferrari M, Haan J, et al. Subcortical lacunar lesions: an MR imaging finding in patients with cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy. Radiology. 2002;224:791-6 pubmed
    ..None of the control subjects had SLLs. Specificity and sensitivity of SLLs for CADASIL were 100% and 59%, respectively. SLLs are an abnormal finding at MR imaging that frequently occur in CADASIL patients. ..
  51. Lyle C, Bernard T, Goldenberg N. Childhood arterial ischemic stroke: a review of etiologies, antithrombotic treatments, prognostic factors, and priorities for future research. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2011;37:786-93 pubmed publisher
    ..We also identify priorities for future research. ..
  52. Chieregato A, Tagliaferri F, Tanfani A, Cocciolo F, Benedettini W, Compagnone C, et al. Cerebral blood flow in mean cerebral artery low density areas is not always ischemic in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage--relationship with neurological outcome. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2005;95:153-8 pubmed
    ..7% of the lesions/Xe-CT studies we found hyperemic values. Patients with a better outcome had hyperemic lesions, suggesting brain tissue recovery in injured areas. ..