intracranial arterial diseases


Summary: Pathological conditions involving ARTERIES in the skull, such as arteries supplying the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, the BRAIN STEM, and associated structures. They include atherosclerotic, congenital, traumatic, infectious, inflammatory, and other pathological processes.

Top Publications

  1. Meseguer E, Lavallee P, Mazighi M, Labreuche J, Cabrejo L, Olivot J, et al. Yield of systematic transcranial Doppler in patients with transient ischemic attack. Ann Neurol. 2010;68:9-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Our aim was to determine whether the use of transcranial Doppler (TCD) examination on arrival at the TIA clinic yields additional information that facilitates the identification of patients at high risk of stroke recurrence...
  2. DU Y, Chen S, Hu Y, Lu X, Qian W, Chen K, et al. [Prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic intracranial vascular stenosis in patients with essential hypertension]. Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi. 2007;35:893-6 pubmed
    ..The most common site of stenosis was middle cerebral artery. Hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes were risk factors for the development of intracranial arterial stenosis. ..
  3. Morita D, Donaldson A, Butterfield R, Benedict S, Bale J. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphism and childhood stroke. Pediatr Neurol. 2009;41:247-9 pubmed publisher
    ..01-3.6). No tested cases had hyperhomocysteinemia. MTHFR polymorphism and hyperhomocysteinemia were not risk factors in childhood arterial ischemic stroke or cerebral sinovenous thrombosis in the Intermountain West region. ..
  4. Braun K, Bulder M, Chabrier S, Kirkham F, Uiterwaal C, Tardieu M, et al. The course and outcome of unilateral intracranial arteriopathy in 79 children with ischaemic stroke. Brain. 2009;132:544-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the arterial inflammation probably causing TCA is 'transient', most children are left with permanent arterial abnormalities and residual neurological deficits. ..
  5. Takahashi N, Higuchi T, Shiotani M, Hirose Y, Shibuya H, Yamanouchi H, et al. The effectiveness of postmortem multidetector computed tomography in the detection of fatal findings related to cause of non-traumatic death in the emergency department. Eur Radiol. 2012;22:152-60 pubmed publisher
    ..PMMDCT is a feasible tool for detecting morphological fatal findings in non-traumatic death in ED. It is important to know the ability and limitation of PMMDCT. ..
  6. Khan A, Kasner S, Lynn M, Chimowitz M. Risk factors and outcome of patients with symptomatic intracranial stenosis presenting with lacunar stroke. Stroke. 2012;43:1230-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients presenting with lacunar strokes should be included in trials investigating secondary prevention for symptomatic intracranial stenosis. ..
  7. Smith W, Tsao J, Billings M, Johnston S, Hemphill J, Bonovich D, et al. Prognostic significance of angiographically confirmed large vessel intracranial occlusion in patients presenting with acute brain ischemia. Neurocrit Care. 2006;4:14-7 pubmed
    ..Performing routine intracranial vascular imaging on acute stroke patients may allow for more accurate determination of prognosis and may also guide therapy. ..
  8. Takahashi W, Ohnuki T, Ide M, Takagi S, Shinohara Y. Stroke risk of asymptomatic intra- and extracranial large-artery disease in apparently healthy adults. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2006;22:263-70 pubmed
    ..002). The stroke risk in subjects with asymptomatic extracranial artery disease is markedly increased if intracranial artery stenosis is also present. ..
  9. Jager H, Grieve J. Advances in non-invasive imaging of intracranial vascular disease. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2000;82:1-5 pubmed
    ..It is the purpose of this article to explain the basic technical principles of these two methods and to give an overview of their current clinical applications. ..

More Information


  1. Park M, Shin J, Lee S, Park H, Park K. RNF213 rs112735431 polymorphism in intracranial artery steno-occlusive disease and moyamoya disease in Koreans. J Neurol Sci. 2017;375:331-334 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between the rs112735431 polymorphism of the RNF213 and hypertension in patients with MMD. ..
  2. Zhang Q, Zhang S, Wang C, Gao X, Zhou Y, Zhou H, et al. Ideal cardiovascular health metrics on the prevalence of asymptomatic intracranial artery stenosis: a cross-sectional study. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e58923 pubmed publisher
    ..05). We found a clear gradient relationship between the number of ideal CVH metrics and lower prevalence of ICAS in a Chinese population, which supports the importance of ideal health behaviors and factors in the prevention of ICAS. ..
  3. Taylor R, Kasner S. Natural history of asymptomatic intracranial arterial stenosis. J Neuroimaging. 2009;19 Suppl 1:17S-9S pubmed publisher
    ..In general, aggressive intervention for an asymptomatic intracranial stenosis is not currently recommended. ..
  4. Paschoal J, Paschoal F, de Lima F, Pinho R, Vilanova L, Bor Seng Shu E, et al. Detection of Cerebral Vasculopathy by Transcranial Doppler in Children With Neurofibromatosis Type 1. J Child Neurol. 2016;31:351-6 pubmed publisher
  5. Nasel C. Visualization of intracranial vessel anatomy using high resolution MRI and a simple image fusion technique. Eur J Radiol. 2005;54:107-11 pubmed
  6. Djordjevic V, Stankovic M, Brankovic Sreckovic V, Rakicevic L, Radojkovic D. Genetic risk factors for arterial ischemic stroke in children: a possible MTHFR and eNOS gene-gene interplay?. J Child Neurol. 2009;24:823-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of our study suggest that this genotype combination represents a risk factor of 7.2 (P = .017) for arterial ischemic stroke in children. ..
  7. Fanous R, Midia M. Perivascular spaces: normal and giant. Can J Neurol Sci. 2007;34:5-10 pubmed
    ..Instead, the clinical focus should be aimed at neurosurgical intervention, as dictated by the symptoms of mass effect. ..
  8. Matsumoto M, Inoue K, Moriki A. Associations of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and carotid atherosclerotic lesions with silent cerebral lesions. Hypertens Res. 2007;30:767-73 pubmed
    ..The presence of carotid plaque and that of increased IMT on ultrasound examination are useful for assessing the risk of SIC. Increased IMT is also predictive of intracranial arterial stenosis. ..
  9. Lubicz B. [Aneurysms and other intracranial vascular malformations]. Rev Med Brux. 2012;33:377-81 pubmed
    ..Interventional neuroradiology belongs to several multidisciplinary teams and allows to diagnose, to treat, and to follow-up these patients. ..
  10. Ssi Yan Kai G, Nasr N, Faury A, Catalaa I, Cognard C, Larrue V, et al. Intracranial artery stenosis or occlusion predicts ischemic recurrence after transient ischemic attack. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2013;34:185-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Proximal lesions of cerebral arteries seen on MRA were predictive of recurrent stroke/TIA at 7 days. These findings suggest that MRA could be used to improve the selection of patients with TIA at high risk of early recurrent stroke/TIA. ..
  11. Skoloudik D, Bar M, Sanak D, Bardon P, Roubec M, Langova K, et al. D-dimers increase in acute ischemic stroke patients with the large artery occlusion, but do not depend on the time of artery recanalization. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2010;29:477-82 pubmed publisher
    ..However, this increase was independent on the time of artery recanalization thus cannot be used as its marker. ..
  12. Wijnhoud A, Koudstaal P, Dippel D. The prognostic value of pulsatility index, flow velocity, and their ratio, measured with TCD ultrasound, in patients with a recent TIA or ischemic stroke. Acta Neurol Scand. 2011;124:238-44 pubmed publisher
    ..2 (95% CI: 1.3-3.6) for major vascular events. CONCLUSION?-?In patients with a TIA or non-disabling ischemic stroke, MFV and the PI-MFV ratio in the MCA are independent prognostic factors for recurrent vascular events. ..
  13. Kinoshita T, Ogawa T, Kado H, Sasaki N, Okudera T. CT angiography in the evaluation of intracranial occlusive disease with collateral circulation: comparison with MR angiography. Clin Imaging. 2005;29:303-6 pubmed
    ..CTA is superior to MRA for evaluating collateral vessels. ..
  14. Ulbricht D. AICA infarction and hearing loss: is it peripheral or central?. Stroke. 2003;34:837; author reply 837 pubmed
  15. Mallouhi A, Chemelli A, Judmaier W, Giacomuzzi S, Jaschke W, Waldenberger P. Investigation of cerebrovascular disease with MR angiography: comparison of volume rendering and maximum intensity projection algorithms--initial assessment. Neuroradiology. 2002;44:961-7 pubmed
    ..Volume rendering has the potential to expand the role of cerebral MRA in the diagnostic investigation and treatment planning of cerebrovascular disease. ..
  16. Boulon C, Baud J, Kercret G, Pichot O, Poggi J, Saby J, et al. [Detection of micro-embolic signals: a review of the literature]. J Mal Vasc. 2012;37:311-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Detection of MES is feasible and reproducible for multicenter studies, using rigourous methodology and long lasting recordings. It may contribute to risk stratification, especially in patients with extra- or intracranial stenosis. ..
  17. Jung J, Kang D, Yu K, Koo J, Lee J, Park J, et al. Predictors of recurrent stroke in patients with symptomatic intracranial arterial stenosis. Stroke. 2012;43:2785-7 pubmed
    ..Clinical Trial Registration- URL: Unique identifier: NCT00130039. ..
  18. Krings T, Piske R, Lasjaunias P. Intracranial arterial aneurysm vasculopathies: targeting the outer vessel wall. Neuroradiology. 2005;47:931-7 pubmed
    ..quot;Intelligent" MRI contrast agents (i.e., macrophage marking) could be used to detect vasa vasorum proliferation and weakening of the vessel wall in vivo. ..
  19. Costalat V, Maldonado I, Zerlauth J, Menjot N, Riquelme C, Machi P, et al. Endovascular treatment of symptomatic intracranial arterial stenosis: six-year experience in a single-center series of 42 consecutive patients with acute and mid-term results. Neurosurgery. 2010;67:1505-13; discussion 1513-4 pubmed publisher
  20. Leys D, Debette S. Anticoagulation in cerebral ischemia associated with intracranial artery dissections is safe, but is it enough to recommend it?. Stroke. 2007;38:1720-1 pubmed
  21. Pérez Carrillo G, Hogg J. Intracranial vascular lesions and anatomical variants all residents should know. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. 2010;39:91-109 pubmed publisher
    ..The text and figures aid recognition of these entities and emphasize anatomy, clinical context, and differential diagnosis. These can aid the radiologist in arriving at the appropriate diagnosis. ..
  22. Browne L, Hardiman O, O Dwyer H, Farrell M. Intracranial giant cell arteritis with fatal middle cerebral artery territory infarct. Clin Neuropathol. 2003;22:199-203 pubmed
    ..A possible precipitant for this devastating illness was a recent Chlamydia infection. The salient clinical and pathologic differences between GANS and GCA of the nervous system are discussed. ..
  23. Derdeyn C, Fiorella D, Lynn M, Turan T, Cotsonis G, Lane B, et al. Nonprocedural Symptomatic Infarction and In-Stent Restenosis After Intracranial Angioplasty and Stenting in the SAMMPRIS Trial (Stenting and Aggressive Medical Management for the Prevention of Recurrent Stroke in Intracranial Stenosis). Stroke. 2017;48:1501-1506 pubmed publisher
    ..Symptomatic ISR occurred in at least 1 of 7 patients in SAMMPRIS by 3 years of follow-up and was likely responsible for the majority of nonprocedural cerebral infarctions. URL: Unique identifier: NCT00576693. ..
  24. Ju Y, Schwedt T. Abrupt-onset severe headaches. Semin Neurol. 2010;30:192-200 pubmed publisher
    ..This review summarizes the diagnostic considerations and clinical approach to thunderclap headache, with particular emphasis on the reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndromes. ..
  25. Ichikawa H, Takahashi N, Mukai M, Katoh H, Akizawa T, Kawamura M. Intracranial dilative arteriopathy is associated with chronic kidney disease and small vessel diseases in the elderly. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2009;18:435-42 pubmed publisher
    ..0002 for ICA, P = .0021 for BA). Kidney dysfunction is an independent factor that is related to ICA and BA dilatation, which is also associated with DWMHs that reflect small vessel diseases in older patients. ..
  26. Regensteiner J, Ware J, McCarthy W, Zhang P, Forbes W, Heckman J, et al. Effect of cilostazol on treadmill walking, community-based walking ability, and health-related quality of life in patients with intermittent claudication due to peripheral arterial disease: meta-analysis of six randomized controlled trials. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2002;50:1939-46 pubmed
    ..Questionnaires assessing walking ability and HQL provide important patient-based information about clinical outcomes of claudication therapy. ..
  27. Heller R, Malek A. Delivery technique plays an important role in determining vessel wall apposition of the Enterprise self-expanding intracranial stent. J Neurointerv Surg. 2011;3:340-3 pubmed publisher
    ..This characteristic must be taken into account when deploying this flexible low-profile stent to avoid ISA in even mildly tortuous anatomy given the possible link between stent malapposition and thromboembolic complications. ..
  28. Kurnik K, Kosch A, Sträter R, Schobess R, Heller C, Nowak Gottl U. Recurrent thromboembolism in infants and children suffering from symptomatic neonatal arterial stroke: a prospective follow-up study. Stroke. 2003;34:2887-92 pubmed
    ..The risk of a second event, however, is increased when underlying diseases occur and prothrombotic risk factors are involved. ..
  29. McLaughlin N, Raychev R, Duckwiler G, Martin N. Pure arterial malformation of the posterior cerebral artery: importance of its recognition. J Neurosurg. 2013;119:655-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors propose that this case represents a pure arterial malformation and discuss its distinguishing features. ..
  30. Biesbroek J, Kuijf H, van der Graaf Y, Vincken K, Postma A, Mali W, et al. Association between subcortical vascular lesion location and cognition: a voxel-based and tract-based lesion-symptom mapping study. The SMART-MR study. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e60541 pubmed publisher
  31. Siegel G, Ermilov E. Omega-3 fatty acids: benefits for cardio-cerebro-vascular diseases. Atherosclerosis. 2012;225:291-5 pubmed publisher
    ..A collaborative international basic science approach is warranted considering cautiously designed studies in order to avoid ethical problems. ..
  32. Izumoto H, Oka T, Kawazoe K, Ishibashi K, Yamamoto F. Individualized off-pump all internal thoracic artery revascularization. Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2009;15:155-9 pubmed
    ..An individualized off-pump approach in an AITACR program appears reasonable and safe with excellent early neurological outcomes. ..
  33. Jarius S, Neumayer B, Wandinger K, Hartmann M, Wildemann B. Anti-endothelial serum antibodies in a patient with Susac's syndrome. J Neurol Sci. 2009;285:259-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Larger serological studies are now warranted to assess systematically the frequency and relevance of auto-antibodies in SS. ..
  34. Amarenco P, Labreuche J, Lavallee P, Meseguer E, Cabrejo L, Slaoui T, et al. Does ABCD2 score below 4 allow more time to evaluate patients with a transient ischemic attack?. Stroke. 2009;40:3091-5 pubmed publisher
    ..When triaging on an ABCD(2) score, we recommend adding systematic carotid ultrasound (or a default angiographic CT scan) and electrocardiography within 24 hours before postponing complete transient ischemic attack evaluation. ..
  35. Turan T, Makki A, Tsappidi S, Cotsonis G, Lynn M, Cloft H, et al. Risk factors associated with severity and location of intracranial arterial stenosis. Stroke. 2010;41:1636-40 pubmed publisher
  36. Stetler W, Pandey A, Mashour G. Intracranial aneurysm with concomitant rupture of an undiagnosed visceral artery aneurysm. Neurocrit Care. 2012;16:154-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These reports serve to remind the clinician that intracranial aneurysms may be only part of a systemic pathology, which should be taken into account when unexpected complications arise postoperatively. ..
  37. Haw C, Willinsky R, Agid R, Terbrugge K. The endovascular management of superior cerebellar artery aneurysms. Can J Neurol Sci. 2004;31:53-7 pubmed
    ..Endovascular treatment of superior cerebellar artery aneurysms is an effective treatment strategy with low morbidity. ..
  38. Lee S, Meng H, Elmadhoun O, Blaivas M, Wang M. Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy affecting an African American man: identification of a novel 15-base pair NOTCH3 duplication. Arch Neurol. 2011;68:1584-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first reported pathological and genetic analysis of an African American patient with CADASIL. The mutation in NOTCH3 is the longest duplication within this gene yet reported. ..
  39. Bugnicourt J, Chillon J, Massy Z, Canaple S, Lamy C, Deramond H, et al. High prevalence of intracranial artery calcification in stroke patients with CKD: a retrospective study. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;4:284-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The frequency of IAC was significantly higher in stroke patients than in nonstroke patients. The association between IAC and stroke outcome requires further investigation. ..
  40. Kei O, Duncan W, Human D. Pulmonary arterial and intracranial calcification in the recipient of a twin-twin transfusion. Cardiol Young. 2002;12:488-90 pubmed
    ..A rare condition, termed idiopathic arterial calcification of infancy, is the likely cause. This condition carries a poor prognosis and is usually fatal. ..
  41. Miyamoto N, Naito I, Takatama S, Shimizu T, Iwai T, Shimaguchi H. Urgent stenting for patients with acute stroke due to atherosclerotic occlusive lesions of the cervical internal carotid artery. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2008;48:49-55; discussion 55-6 pubmed
    ..Urgent CAS is a safe and effective treatment in patients with isolated cervical ICA occlusion. Treatment of intracranial tandem occlusions is an issue that must be resolved. ..
  42. Usnich T, Albach F, Brunecker P, Fiebach J, Nolte C. Incidence of new diffusion-weighted imaging lesions outside the area of initial hypoperfusion within 1 week after acute ischemic stroke. Stroke. 2012;43:2654-8 pubmed
    ..Outside and inside lesions represent different pathophysiological entities. More specifically patients with outside lesions may have an increased risk for subsequent cerebrovascular events. ..
  43. Parkinson R, Bendok B, O Shaughnessy B, Shaibani A, Russell E, Getch C, et al. Temporary and permanent occlusion of cervical and cerebral arteries. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2005;16:249-56, viii pubmed
  44. Xing H, Gao H, Tan X, Fan C, Gao S, Sun Y, et al. [Incidence and prognosis of intra-and extracranial large-artery stenosis in the rural community of Beijing]. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2009;30:780-3 pubmed
    ..593, 95%CI: 1.712 - 25.390) and smoking (OR = 8.437, 95%CI: 2.327 - 30.598) appeared to be independent risk factors to cerebral infarction. Cerebral large-artery stenosis and smoking were independent risk factors to cerebral infarction. ..
  45. Diehl R, Samii C, Diehl A. Dynamics and embolic activity of symptomatic intra-cranial cerebral artery stenoses. Acta Neurol Scand. 2002;106:173-81 pubmed
    ..The high prevalence of MES and sudden velocity changes in acute intracranial cerebral artery stenoses indicates that acute intracranial stenoses may be formed at least in part by mobile thrombotic material. ..
  46. Suzuki K, Nakazato K, Kusakabe T, Nagamine T, Sakurai H, Takatama M. Role of oxidative stress on pathogenesis of hypertensive cerebrovascular lesions. Pathol Int. 2007;57:133-9 pubmed
    ..Hypertensive cerebrovascular disease is the result of hypertension-induced oxidative stress. ..
  47. Maas M, Furie K, Lev M, Ay H, Singhal A, Greer D, et al. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score is poorly predictive of proximal occlusion in acute cerebral ischemia. Stroke. 2009;40:2988-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The finding of minimal clinical deficits should not deter urgent angiographic imaging in otherwise appropriate patients suspected of acute stroke. ..
  48. Brouns R, Van den Bossche J, De Surgeloose D, Sheorajpanday R, De Deyn P. Clinical and biochemical diagnosis of small-vessel disease in acute ischemic stroke. J Neurol Sci. 2009;285:185-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Diagnosis of acute lacunar infarction can reliably be made, based on the conjunctive use of clinical evaluation and measurement of D-dimer levels either by a standard assay or by a bedside testing kit. ..
  49. Kasner S, Lynn M, Jackson B, Pullicino P, Chimowitz M. Echocardiography in patients with symptomatic intracranial stenosis. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2007;16:216-9 pubmed
    ..Among patients with TIA or stroke caused by intracranial arterial stenosis, echocardiography appears to offer limited diagnostic and prognostic value. ..
  50. Yountz M, Mehdiratta M, Caplan L. Paradoxical clustering of brain metastases in an underperfused cerebral hemisphere. Arch Neurol. 2007;64:1659-60 pubmed
    ..This case demonstrates the concept that emboli washout by vigorous circulation is more important than direct delivery of embolic material in determining whether tumor cells will implant and grow in the brain. ..
  51. Amlie Lefond C, Sebire G, Fullerton H. Recent developments in childhood arterial ischaemic stroke. Lancet Neurol. 2008;7:425-35 pubmed publisher
  52. Choi J, Kim J, Choi B, Kim J, Hwang H, Kim J, et al. Adjuvant revascularization of intracranial artery occlusion with angioplasty and/or stenting. Neuroradiology. 2009;51:33-43 pubmed publisher
    ..76 to 118.93; p = 0.013) Intracranial revascularization with angioplasty and/or stenting may improve the clinical outcome in selected patients with intracranial occlusion. Multiple factors are related to favorable clinical outcome. ..