moyamoya disease

Summary

Summary: A noninflammatory, progressive occlusion of the intracranial CAROTID ARTERIES and the formation of netlike collateral arteries arising from the CIRCLE OF WILLIS. Cerebral angiogram shows the puff-of-smoke (moyamoya) collaterals at the base of the brain. It is characterized by endothelial HYPERPLASIA and FIBROSIS with thickening of arterial walls. This disease primarily affects children but can also occur in adults.

Top Publications

  1. Yang S, Yu J, Wang H, Wang B, Luo Q. Endovascular embolization of distal anterior choroidal artery aneurysms associated with moyamoya disease. A report of two cases and a literature review. Interv Neuroradiol. 2010;16:433-41 pubmed
    ..embolization for the management of distal anterior choroidal artery (AChA) aneurysms associated with moyamoya disease and performed a literature review to summarize their clinical features and treatment...
  2. Horiguchi S, Mitsuya K, Watanabe R, Yagishita S, Nakasu Y. Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma and moyamoya disease in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 - case report - . Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2011;51:310-4 pubmed
    ..neurofibromatosis type 1 presented with a rare case of coexisting pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) and moyamoya disease manifesting as progressive right hemiparesis...
  3. Park Y, Min K, Kim T, Lee Y, Cheong H, Yeom I, et al. Age-specific eNOS polymorphisms in moyamoya disease. Childs Nerv Syst. 2011;27:1919-26 pubmed publisher
    ..a case-control study to investigate whether polymorphisms in eNOS are related to the age-specific onset of moyamoya disease. Ninety-three Korean patients [mean age, 23.0 ± 16.1 years; 59 female (63.4%) and 34 male (36...
  4. Hayashi T, Shirane R, Fujimura M, Tominaga T. Postoperative neurological deterioration in pediatric moyamoya disease: watershed shift and hyperperfusion. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2010;6:73-81 pubmed publisher
    Young patients with moyamoya disease frequently exhibit extensive cerebral infarction at the time of initial presentation, and even in the early postoperative period...
  5. Li H, Zhang Z, Liu W, Yang W, Dong Z, Ma M, et al. Association of a functional polymorphism in the MMP-3 gene with Moyamoya Disease in the Chinese Han population. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2010;30:618-25 pubmed publisher
    b>Moyamoya disease (MMD) is an uncommon cerebrovascular disease characterized by progressive stenosis of the intracranial internal carotid arteries and their proximal branches...
  6. Kamada F, Aoki Y, Narisawa A, Abe Y, Komatsuzaki S, Kikuchi A, et al. A genome-wide association study identifies RNF213 as the first Moyamoya disease gene. J Hum Genet. 2011;56:34-40 pubmed publisher
    b>Moyamoya disease (MMD) shows progressive cerebral angiopathy characterized by bilateral internal carotid artery stenosis and abnormal collateral vessels. Although ? 15% of MMD cases are familial, the MMD gene(s) remain unknown...
  7. Li H, Zhang Z, Dong Z, Ma M, Yang W, Han C, et al. Increased thyroid function and elevated thyroid autoantibodies in pediatric patients with moyamoya disease: a case-control study. Stroke. 2011;42:1138-9 pubmed publisher
    ..study was to investigate whether thyroid function and thyroid autoantibodies were associated with the risk of moyamoya disease in pediatric subjects...
  8. Pandey P, Steinberg G. Neurosurgical advances in the treatment of moyamoya disease. Stroke. 2011;42:3304-10 pubmed publisher
    b>Moyamoya disease is characterized by chronic stenoocclusive vasculopathy involving the distal supraclinoid internal carotid arteries and presents with ischemic or hemorrhagic symptoms...
  9. Herve D, Philippi A, Belbouab R, Zerah M, Chabrier S, Collardeau Frachon S, et al. Loss of ?1?1 soluble guanylate cyclase, the major nitric oxide receptor, leads to moyamoya and achalasia. Am J Hum Genet. 2014;94:385-94 pubmed publisher
    ..It can occur as an isolated cerebral angiopathy (so-called moyamoya disease) or in association with various conditions (moyamoya syndromes)...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Waldron J, Hetts S, Armstrong Wells J, Dowd C, Fullerton H, Gupta N, et al. Multiple intracranial aneurysms and moyamoya disease associated with microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II: surgical considerations. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2009;4:439-44 pubmed publisher
    ..small stature and microcephaly, and is associated in 25% of patients with intracranial aneurysms and moyamoya disease. Although aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and stroke are leading causes of morbidity and death in these ..
  2. Roder C, Nayak N, Khan N, Tatagiba M, Inoue I, Krischek B. Genetics of Moyamoya disease. J Hum Genet. 2010;55:711-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a disease pattern consisting of bilateral stenosis of the intracranial internal carotid arteries (ICA) accompanied by a network of abnormal collateral vessels that bypass the stenosis...
  3. Miskinyte S, Butler M, Herve D, Sarret C, Nicolino M, Petralia J, et al. Loss of BRCC3 deubiquitinating enzyme leads to abnormal angiogenesis and is associated with syndromic moyamoya. Am J Hum Genet. 2011;88:718-728 pubmed publisher
    ..Moyamoya angiopathy can either be the sole manifestation of the disease (moyamoya disease) or be associated with various conditions, including neurofibromatosis, Down syndrome, TAAD (autosomal-..
  4. Miyatake S, Miyake N, Touho H, Nishimura Tadaki A, Kondo Y, Okada I, et al. Homozygous c.14576G>A variant of RNF213 predicts early-onset and severe form of moyamoya disease. Neurology. 2012;78:803-10 pubmed publisher
    RNF213 was recently reported as a susceptibility gene for moyamoya disease (MMD). Our aim was to clarify the correlation between the RNF213 genotype and MMD phenotype...
  5. Liu W, Morito D, Takashima S, Mineharu Y, Kobayashi H, Hitomi T, et al. Identification of RNF213 as a susceptibility gene for moyamoya disease and its possible role in vascular development. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22542 pubmed publisher
    b>Moyamoya disease is an idiopathic vascular disorder of intracranial arteries. Its susceptibility locus has been mapped to 17q25.3 in Japanese families, but the susceptibility gene is unknown...
  6. Duan L, Bao X, Yang W, Shi W, Li D, Zhang Z, et al. Moyamoya disease in China: its clinical features and outcomes. Stroke. 2012;43:56-60 pubmed publisher
    Here we describe the clinical features and outcomes of patients with moyamoya disease who were surgically treated at a single institution in China. Our cohort included 802 patients with moyamoya disease...
  7. Shoukat S, Itrat A, Taqui A, Zaidi M, Kamal A. Moyamoya disease: a clinical spectrum, literature review and case series from a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. BMC Neurol. 2009;9:15 pubmed publisher
    Moyamoya is a rare cerebrovascular disease of unknown etiology. The data on moyamoya disease from Pakistan is sparse...
  8. Smith E, Scott R. Moyamoya: epidemiology, presentation, and diagnosis. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2010;21:543-51 pubmed publisher
    ..This article discusses the epidemiology, presentation, and diagnosis of this condition in children. ..
  9. Kim S, Heo K, Shin H, Bang O, Kim G, Chung C, et al. Association of thyroid autoantibodies with moyamoya-type cerebrovascular disease: a prospective study. Stroke. 2010;41:173-6 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the association between thyroid autoantibodies and moyamoya disease (MMD) in patients with an apparent euthyroid state. We prospectively studied angiographically diagnosed patients with MMD...
  10. Wang X, Zhang Z, Liu W, Xiong Y, Sun W, Huang X, et al. Impacts and interactions of PDGFRB, MMP-3, TIMP-2, and RNF213 polymorphisms on the risk of Moyamoya disease in Han Chinese human subjects. Gene. 2013;526:437-42 pubmed publisher
    Polymorphisms of PDGFRB, MMP-3, TIMP-2, RNF213, TGFB1, Raptor and eNOS genes have been associated with Moyamoya disease (MMD) separately in studies, but their interactions on MMD have never been evaluated in one study...
  11. Southerland A, Meschia J, Worrall B. Shared associations of nonatherosclerotic, large-vessel, cerebrovascular arteriopathies: considering intracranial aneurysms, cervical artery dissection, moyamoya disease and fibromuscular dysplasia. Curr Opin Neurol. 2013;26:13-28 pubmed publisher
    ..cerebrovasculature include intracranial aneurysms, cervical artery dissection, fibromuscular dysplasia and moyamoya disease. Together, these entities contribute to a high incidence of devastating cerebrovascular outcomes, including ..
  12. Wu Z, Jiang H, Zhang L, Xu X, Zhang X, Kang Z, et al. Molecular analysis of RNF213 gene for moyamoya disease in the Chinese Han population. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e48179 pubmed publisher
    b>Moyamoya disease (MMD) is an uncommon cerebrovascular disorder characterized by progressive occlusion of the internal carotid artery causing cerebral ischemia and hemorrhage...
  13. Guo D, Papke C, Tran Fadulu V, Regalado E, Avidan N, Johnson R, et al. Mutations in smooth muscle alpha-actin (ACTA2) cause coronary artery disease, stroke, and Moyamoya disease, along with thoracic aortic disease. Am J Hum Genet. 2009;84:617-27 pubmed publisher
    ..including premature onset of coronary artery disease (CAD) and premature ischemic strokes (including Moyamoya disease [MMD]), as well as previously defined TAAD...
  14. Guzman R, Lee M, Achrol A, Bell Stephens T, Kelly M, Do H, et al. Clinical outcome after 450 revascularization procedures for moyamoya disease. Clinical article. J Neurosurg. 2009;111:927-35 pubmed publisher
    b>Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a rare cerebrovascular disease mainly described in the Asian literature...
  15. Reid A, Bhattacharjee M, Regalado E, Milewicz A, El Hakam L, Dauser R, et al. Diffuse and uncontrolled vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation in rapidly progressing pediatric moyamoya disease. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2010;6:244-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Moyamoya disease is a rare stroke syndrome of unknown etiology resulting from stenosis or occlusion of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA) in association with an abnormal vascular network in the basal ganglia...
  16. Miyatake S, Touho H, Miyake N, Ohba C, Doi H, Saitsu H, et al. Sibling cases of moyamoya disease having homozygous and heterozygous c.14576G>A variant in RNF213 showed varying clinical course and severity. J Hum Genet. 2012;57:804-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a rare cerebrovascular disease characterized by progressive occlusion of the terminal portion of the internal carotid arteries and their branches...
  17. Kim T, Kim D, Chung S, Choi J. Moyamoya syndrome after radiation therapy: case reports. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2011;47:138-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The radiation therapy may cause fatal vascular damage so it should be taken into consideration when a treatment plan is being formulated for young patients. ..
  18. Weinberg D, Arnaout O, Rahme R, Aoun S, Batjer H, Bendok B. Moyamoya disease: a review of histopathology, biochemistry, and genetics. Neurosurg Focus. 2011;30:E20 pubmed publisher
    b>Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a rare cerebrovascular disorder involving stenosis of the major vessels of the circle of Willis and proximal portions of its principal branches...
  19. Vo Van P, Sabouraud P, Mac G, Abely M, Bednarek N. Moyamoya disease associated with hereditary spherocytosis. Pediatr Neurol. 2011;44:69-71 pubmed publisher
    ..and middle cerebral artery stenosis, with an extensive vascular mesh in the thalamic area indicative of moyamoya disease. Treatment consisted of supporting cerebral perfusion with blood transfusions, and splenectomy to prevent ..
  20. Guzman R, Steinberg G. Direct bypass techniques for the treatment of pediatric moyamoya disease. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2010;21:565-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Revascularization surgery seems to be effective in preventing stroke in moyamoya, with direct techniques providing durable protection when performed at experienced centers. ..
  21. Conklin J, Fierstra J, Crawley A, Han J, Poublanc J, Mandell D, et al. Impaired cerebrovascular reactivity with steal phenomenon is associated with increased diffusion in white matter of patients with Moyamoya disease. Stroke. 2010;41:1610-6 pubmed publisher
    ..that regions of steal phenomenon are associated with increased ADC in normal-appearing WM of patients with Moyamoya disease. Twenty-two patients with unilateral CVR impairment secondary to Moyamoya disease and 12 healthy control ..
  22. Miao W, Zhao P, Zhang Y, Liu H, Chang Y, Ma J, et al. Epidemiological and clinical features of Moyamoya disease in Nanjing, China. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2010;112:199-203 pubmed publisher
    The epidemiology of Moyamoya disease in mainland China has not been documented. Therefore, the present study was designed to examine the epidemiological and clinical features of Moyamoya disease in Nanjing, a provincial capital in China...
  23. Shibata Y, Matsuda M, Suzuki K, Matsumura A. Cystic neurohypophysial germinoma associated with moyamoya disease. Neurol Sci. 2010;31:189-92 pubmed publisher
    b>Moyamoya disease associated with a germinoma has never yet been reported in the literature. This report describes a case of a cystic neurohypophysial germinoma associated with moyamoya disease...
  24. Zhao W, Luo Q, Jia J, Yu J. Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome after revascularization surgery in patients with moyamoya disease. Br J Neurosurg. 2013;27:321-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a progressive occlusive disease of the distal internal carotid artery that is primarily treated by superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass...
  25. Huang A, Liu H, Lai D, Yang C, Tsai Y, Wang K, et al. Clinical significance of posterior circulation changes after revascularization in patients with moyamoya disease. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2009;28:247-57 pubmed publisher
    It has been noted that the posterior circulation serves as an important source of collateral blood supply in moyamoya disease. Since most of the literature has focused on non-operative cases and many symptomatic patients receive surgical ..
  26. Nakagawa A, Fujimura M, Arafune T, Sakuma I, Tominaga T. Clinical implications of intraoperative infrared brain surface monitoring during superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery anastomosis in patients with moyamoya disease. J Neurosurg. 2009;111:1158-64 pubmed publisher
    Surgical revascularization for moyamoya disease prevents cerebral ischemic attacks by improving cerebral blood flow (CBF)...
  27. Li Z, Zhou P, Xiong Z, Ma Z, Wang S, Bian H, et al. Perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging used in assessing hemodynamics following superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery bypass in patients with Moyamoya disease. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2013;35:455-60 pubmed publisher
    ..hemodynamics following superficial temporal artery (STA)-middle cerebral artery (MCA) bypass in patients with Moyamoya disease remains unknown...
  28. Starke R, Komotar R, Hickman Z, Paz Y, Pugliese A, Otten M, et al. Clinical features, surgical treatment, and long-term outcome in adult patients with moyamoya disease. Clinical article. J Neurosurg. 2009;111:936-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Forty-three adult patients with moyamoya disease (mean age 40 +/- 11 years [SD], range 18-69 years) were treated with encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS)...
  29. Park Y, Jeon Y, Lee B, Kim T, Choi J, Kim D, et al. Association of the miR-146aC>G, miR-196a2C>T, and miR-499A>G polymorphisms with moyamoya disease in the Korean population. Neurosci Lett. 2012;521:71-5 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the effects of miRNA SNPs in moyamoya disease, we recruited 107 patients with moyamoya disease and 240 healthy controls from a Korean study population and ..
  30. Koss M, Scott R, Irons M, Smith E, Ullrich N. Moyamoya syndrome associated with neurofibromatosis Type 1: perioperative and long-term outcome after surgical revascularization. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2013;11:417-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The clinical, radiographic, and angiographic features in this population are comparable to primary moyamoya disease, with the exception of patients treated with cranial irradiation, who may be at greater risk for both stroke ..
  31. Roder C, Peters V, Kasuya H, Nishizawa T, Takehara Y, Berg D, et al. Polymorphisms in TGFB1 and PDGFRB are associated with Moyamoya disease in European patients. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2010;152:2153-60 pubmed publisher
    The etiology of Moyamoya disease (MMD) is still widely unknown. Several publications on Moyamoya describe differences of cytokine and growth factor concentrations in different specimen...
  32. Lévêque M, McLaughlin N, Laroche M, Bojanowski M. Endoscopic treatment of distal choroidal artery aneurysm. J Neurosurg. 2011;114:116-9 pubmed publisher
    ..artery aneurysms stemming from the lateral wall of the ventricles are rare and are mostly associated with moyamoya disease. The treatment of these aneurysms is difficult because of their deep location...
  33. Dai D, Zhao W, Zhang Y, Yang Z, Li Q, Xu B, et al. Role of CT perfusion imaging in evaluating the effects of multiple burr hole surgery on adult ischemic Moyamoya disease. Neuroradiology. 2013;55:1431-8 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the effects of the multiple burr hole (MBH) revascularization on ischemic type adult Moyamoya disease (MMD) by computed tomography perfusion (CTP)...
  34. He Y, Zhou Q, He M. An asymptomatic Moyamoya disease: autopsy case and literature review. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2010;31:77-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a chronic occlusive cerebrovascular disorder. Patients diagnosed asymptomatic MMD should have no prior ischemic or hemorrhagic episode and no history of neurologic diseases...
  35. Zhang J, Wang J, Geng D, Li Y, Song D, Gu Y. Whole-brain CT perfusion and CT angiography assessment of Moyamoya disease before and after surgical revascularization: preliminary study with 256-slice CT. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e57595 pubmed publisher
    ..CT perfusion (CTP) in determining graft patency as well as investigating cerebral hemodynamic changes in Moyamoya disease before and after surgical revascularization...
  36. Kim S, Yoo J, Cho B, Hong S, Kim Y, Moon J, et al. Elevation of CRABP-I in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Moyamoya disease. Stroke. 2003;34:2835-41 pubmed
    The etiology of moyamoya disease (MMD) remains obscure. This study was undertaken to identify specific proteins associated with the pathogenesis of MMD...
  37. Jea A, Smith E, Robertson R, Scott R. Moyamoya syndrome associated with Down syndrome: outcome after surgical revascularization. Pediatrics. 2005;116:e694-701 pubmed
    ..angiographic features of moyamoya syndrome associated with Down syndrome seem comparable to those of primary moyamoya disease. Cerebral revascularization surgery with the pial synangiosis technique seems to confer long-lasting ..
  38. Halley S, White W, Ramsby G, Voytovich A. Renovascular hypertension in moyamoya syndrome. Therapeutic response to percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. Am J Hypertens. 1988;1:348-52 pubmed
    ..This case illustrates that moyamoya syndrome may be an intracranial manifestation of a systemic arterial disorder. Renal artery stenosis may, in appropriate cases, be managed by percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. ..
  39. Czartoski T, Hallam D, Lacy J, Chun M, Becker K. Postinfectious vasculopathy with evolution to moyamoya syndrome. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2005;76:256-9 pubmed
    ..The inflammation and subsequent postinfectious autoimmune response associated with meningitis can lead to a progressive vasculopathy and may represent a pathophysiologic mechanism for the arterial occlusions seen in moyamoya syndrome. ..
  40. Golomb M, Biller J, Smith J, Edwards Brown M, Sanchez J, Nebesio T, et al. A 10-year-old girl with coexistent moyamoya disease and Graves' disease. J Child Neurol. 2005;20:620-4 pubmed
    There are rare reports of young women with moyamoya disease associated with Graves' disease; we are unaware of any previous reports of this association in prepubescent girls...
  41. Takagi Y, Kikuta K, Nozaki K, Fujimoto M, Hayashi J, Imamura H, et al. Expression of hypoxia-inducing factor-1 alpha and endoglin in intimal hyperplasia of the middle cerebral artery of patients with Moyamoya disease. Neurosurgery. 2007;60:338-45; discussion 345 pubmed
    b>Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a cerebrovascular occlusive disease characterized by progressive stenosis or occlusion at the distal ends of the bilateral internal arteries...
  42. Achrol A, Guzman R, Lee M, Steinberg G. Pathophysiology and genetic factors in moyamoya disease. Neurosurg Focus. 2009;26:E4 pubmed publisher
    b>Moyamoya disease is an uncommon cerebrovascular condition characterized by progressive stenosis of the bilateral internal carotid arteries with compensatory formation of an abnormal network of perforating blood vessels providing ..
  43. Nanba R, Kuroda S, Ishikawa T, Houkin K, Iwasaki Y. Increased expression of hepatocyte growth factor in cerebrospinal fluid and intracranial artery in moyamoya disease. Stroke. 2004;35:2837-42 pubmed
    The etiology of moyamoya disease still remains unknown. This study was aimed to explore the role of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), a strong inducer of angiogenesis, in development of moyamoya disease...
  44. Takekawa Y, Umezawa T, Ueno Y, Sawada T, Kobayashi M. Pathological and immunohistochemical findings of an autopsy case of adult moyamoya disease. Neuropathology. 2004;24:236-42 pubmed
    b>Moyamoya disease is vaso-occlusive disease involving the arteries of the circle of Willis that is accompanied by a compensatory recruitment of a vascular network...
  45. Nishio A, Hara M, Otsuka Y, Tsuruno T, Murata T. Endovascular treatment of posterior cerebral aneurysm associated with Moyamoya disease. J Neuroradiol. 2004;31:60-2 pubmed
    A patient with moyamoya disease associated with a ruptured posterior cerebral artery aneurysm treated by endovascular embolization is presented. A 47-year-old woman was admitted with severe headache to our hospital...
  46. Kuriyama S, Kusaka Y, Fujimura M, Wakai K, Tamakoshi A, Hashimoto S, et al. Prevalence and clinicoepidemiological features of moyamoya disease in Japan: findings from a nationwide epidemiological survey. Stroke. 2008;39:42-7 pubmed
    The objectives of the present study were to estimate an annual number of patients with moyamoya disease in Japan and to describe the clinicoepidemiological features of the disease...
  47. Chiu D, Shedden P, Bratina P, Grotta J. Clinical features of moyamoya disease in the United States. Stroke. 1998;29:1347-51 pubmed
    We report the clinical features and longitudinal outcome of the largest cohort of patients with moyamoya disease described from a single institution in the western hemisphere...
  48. Hsu S, Chaloupka J, Fattal D. Rapidly progressive fatal bihemispheric infarction secondary to Moyamoya syndrome in association with Graves thyrotoxicosis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2006;27:643-7 pubmed
    ..Because of the rarity of this association, we reviewed the literature in an attempt to establish possible demographic and clinical characteristics that may suggest putative mechanisms of pathogenesis. ..
  49. Kagawa K, Ezura M, Shirane R, Takahashi A, Yoshimoto T. Intraaneurysmal embolization of an unruptured basilar tip aneurysm associated with moyamoya disease. J Clin Neurosci. 2001;8:462-4 pubmed
    We describe a patient with moyamoya disease associated with an unruptured basilar tip aneurysm which was treated by endovascular embolization using Guglielmi detachable coils (GDCs)...
  50. Burke G, Burke A, Sherma A, Hurley M, Batjer H, Bendok B. Moyamoya disease: a summary. Neurosurg Focus. 2009;26:E11 pubmed publisher
    ..The Ministry of Health and Welfare of Japan has defined 4 types of moyamoya disease (MMD): ischemic, hemorrhagic, epileptic, and "other...
  51. Yamauchi T, Tada M, Houkin K, Tanaka T, Nakamura Y, Kuroda S, et al. Linkage of familial moyamoya disease (spontaneous occlusion of the circle of Willis) to chromosome 17q25. Stroke. 2000;31:930-5 pubmed
    b>Moyamoya disease is a cerebrovascular disease of unknown cause that mainly affects Japanese children. The incidence of familial occurrence accounts for 9% of cases...
  52. Kim J, Kim S, Wang K, Kim H, Jeoung D. SEREX identification of the autoantibodies that are prevalent in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with moyamoya disease. Biotechnol Lett. 2004;26:585-8 pubmed
    ..expression library) to identify autoantibodies that are prevalent in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with moyamoya disease. These autoantibodies include PC326 (of unknown function), SRY (sex determining region Y), and peroxisomal D3,..
  53. Yun T, Cheon J, Na D, Kim W, Kim I, Chang K, et al. Childhood moyamoya disease: quantitative evaluation of perfusion MR imaging--correlation with clinical outcome after revascularization surgery. Radiology. 2009;251:216-23 pubmed publisher
    ..whether changes at perfusion MR imaging after revascularization surgery correspond with clinical outcome in moyamoya disease. An institutional review board approved this retrospective study; informed consent was waived...