carotid artery thrombosis


Summary: Blood clot formation in any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES. This may produce CAROTID STENOSIS or occlusion of the vessel, leading to TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBRAL INFARCTION; or AMAUROSIS FUGAX.

Top Publications

  1. Danton G, Prado R, Truettner J, Watson B, Dietrich W. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase pathophysiology after nonocclusive common carotid artery thrombosis in rats. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2002;22:612-9 pubmed
    ..To model thromboembolic stroke in rats, photochemically induced nonocclusive common carotid artery thrombosis (CCAT) was used to generate a platelet thrombus in the carotid artery of anesthetized rats...
  2. Leach J, O Rear E, Patterson E, Miao Y, Johnson A. Accelerated thrombolysis in a rabbit model of carotid artery thrombosis with liposome-encapsulated and microencapsulated streptokinase. Thromb Haemost. 2003;90:64-70 pubmed
    ..the efficacy of two formulations of encapsulated streptokinase to streptokinase in a rabbit model of carotid artery thrombosis. Arterial thrombosis followed the injection of thrombin mixed with autologous whole blood into a carotid ..
  3. Simmons J, Zeitler P, Fenton L, Abzug M, Fiallo Scharer R, Klingensmith G. Rhinocerebral mucormycosis complicated by internal carotid artery thrombosis in a pediatric patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a case report and review of the literature. Pediatr Diabetes. 2005;6:234-8 pubmed
    ..Finally, we provide a review of the literature regarding mucormycosis infections and treatment options. ..
  4. Kuijpers M, Gilio K, Reitsma S, Nergiz Unal R, Prinzen L, Heeneman S, et al. Complementary roles of platelets and coagulation in thrombus formation on plaques acutely ruptured by targeted ultrasound treatment: a novel intravital model. J Thromb Haemost. 2009;7:152-61 pubmed publisher
    ..This model provides new possibilities to study atherothrombosis in vivo. ..
  5. Holy E, Forestier M, Richter E, Akhmedov A, Leiber F, Camici G, et al. Dietary ?-linolenic acid inhibits arterial thrombus formation, tissue factor expression, and platelet activation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2011;31:1772-80 pubmed publisher
    ..ALA impairs arterial thrombus formation, TF expression, and platelet activation and thereby represents an attractive nutritional intervention with direct dual antithrombotic effects. ..
  6. Nicholas Bublick S, Irlam J, Tietjen G. A malignant case of acute promyelocytic leukemia with occlusion of carotid artery by tumor thrombus. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2012;21:325-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Autopsy revealed an APL-related tumor thrombus obstructing the left internal carotid artery, which to the best of our knowledge has not yet been described as a cause of fatal stroke. ..
  7. Milhaud D, de Freitas G, van Melle G, Bogousslavsky J. Occlusion due to carotid artery dissection: a more severe disease than previously suggested. Arch Neurol. 2002;59:557-61 pubmed
    ..Large infarcts involving the whole middle cerebral artery territory that may be due to the lack of collateral circulation are responsible for the bad prognosis of patients with DO. ..
  8. Sharma V, Tsivgoulis G, Lao A, Flaster M, Frey J, Malkoff M, et al. Thrombotic occlusion of the common carotid artery (CCA) in acute ischemic stroke treated with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (TPA). Eur J Neurol. 2007;14:237-40 pubmed
    ..Recanalization occurred in intracranial vessels only. Marked early neurological improvement occurred in two of three patients. CCA occlusions should not be considered contra-indication to systemic thrombolysis. ..
  9. Szemraj J, Stankiewicz A, Rozmyslowicz Szermińska W, Mogielnicki A, Gromotowicz A, Buczko W, et al. A new recombinant thrombolytic and antithrombotic agent with higher fibrin affinity - a staphylokinase variant. An in-vivo study. Thromb Haemost. 2007;97:1037-45 pubmed
    ..of the thrombolytic potential of SAK-RGD-K2-Hir we examined this protein in an electrically induced carotid artery thrombosis model and stasis-induced venous model in rats...

More Information

Publications114 found, 100 shown here

  1. Popovic I, Lovrencic Huzjan A, Simundic A, Popović A, Seric V, Demarin V. Cognitive performance in asymptomatic patients with advanced carotid disease. Cogn Behav Neurol. 2011;24:145-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The MoCA subtest scores revealed a pattern of cognitive impairment similar to that documented in other studies using more extensive neuropsychological tests. MoCA could be used as part of the clinical evaluation of patients with ICAs/o. ..
  2. Tsutsumi M, Kazekawa K, Tanaka A, Ueno Y, Nomoto Y. Spontaneous thrombosis of a giant intracavernous internal carotid artery aneurysm and ipsilateral internal carotid artery occlusion. Radiat Med. 2002;20:261-3 pubmed
    ..There was no filling of the aneurysm. In this case, the mechanism of parent artery occlusion is unclear, but direct compression and stretching of the parent artery by the aneurysm may be involved. ..
  3. Chu B, Ferguson M, Underhill H, Takaya N, Cai J, Kliot M, et al. Images in cardiovascular medicine. Detection of carotid atherosclerotic plaque ulceration, calcification, and thrombosis by multicontrast weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Circulation. 2005;112:e3-4 pubmed
  4. Castilla Guerra L, Fernández Moreno M, Alvarez Suero J. [Non-pharmacological measures in the secondary prevention of atherothrombic stroke of the elderly. Current status of the subject]. Rev Clin Esp. 2008;208:356-7 pubmed
    ..The aim of this article is to review the current status of knowledge on this controversial subject and to be able to apply it to our clinical practice. ..
  5. Attigah N, Hyhlik Dürr A, Hakimi M, Allenberg J, Böckler D. [High exposure of the distal internal carotid artery]. Chirurg. 2010;81:155-9 pubmed publisher
    ..4%, whereas in carotid aneurysms the rate is considerably higher and averages about 15%. ..
  6. Klijn C, Kappelle L, van der Grond J, Visser G, Algra A, Tulleken C, et al. Lack of evidence for a poor haemodynamic or metabolic state of the brain in patients with haemodynamic clinical features associated with carotid artery occlusion. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2001;12:99-107 pubmed
    ..In patients with CAO we could not find an association between symptoms that have been associated with hypoperfusion and a poor haemodynamic or metabolic state of the brain. ..
  7. Day S, Duquaine D, Mundada L, Menon R, Khan B, Rajagopalan S, et al. Chronic iron administration increases vascular oxidative stress and accelerates arterial thrombosis. Circulation. 2003;107:2601-6 pubmed
    ..Iron-induced vascular dysfunction may contribute to the increased incidence of ischemic cardiovascular events that have been associated with chronic iron overload. ..
  8. Surov A, Behrmann C, Kornhuber M. Neurological picture. Carotid embolism. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2007;78:564 pubmed
  9. Bird J, Smith P, Bostwick J, Shipkova P, Schumacher W. Bleeding response induced by anti-thrombotic doses of a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-? inhibitor in mice. Thromb Res. 2011;127:560-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest a narrower therapeutic index for this PI3K-? inhibitor than previously recognized, at least for this species. ..
  10. Nayak L, Shi H, Atkins G, Lin Z, Schmaier A, Jain M. The thromboprotective effect of bortezomib is dependent on the transcription factor Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2). Blood. 2014;123:3828-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, studies in GL-K2-KO mice showed that the thromboprotective effect of bortezomib is KLF2 dependent. These findings identify a transcriptional basis for the antithrombotic effects of bortezomib. ..
  11. Takahashi K, Wakabayashi K, Watanabe Y, Yamashita K, Yamaguchi S, Kobayashi S, et al. [A case of cavernous sinus syndrome following a mycotic aneurysm of extracranial carotid artery]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 2001;41:606-11 pubmed
    ..We also believe that this infectious aneurysm was caused by the left mandibular osteomyelitis. ..
  12. Eskandari M, Najjar S, Matsumura J, Kibbe M, Morasch M. Technical limitations of carotid filter embolic protection devices. Ann Vasc Surg. 2007;21:403-7 pubmed
    ..Switching to a distal balloon occlusion system, which is well tolerated, may be preferred to unprotected predilation. Practitioners of CAS should be versed in both. ..
  13. Stamers K, Skagers A, Pastars K, Tomisheva N, Ratniece M. Functional activity of rabbit salivary glands in reduced and restored regional arterial blood supply conditions. Stomatologija. 2010;12:28-32 pubmed
  14. Patel S, Huang Y, Reheman A, Pluthero F, Chaturvedi S, Mukovozov I, et al. The cell motility modulator Slit2 is a potent inhibitor of platelet function. Circulation. 2012;126:1385-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability to simultaneously block multiple events in vascular injury may allow Slit2 to effectively prevent and treat thrombotic disorders such as myocardial infarction and stroke. ..
  15. Rebello S, Kasiewski C, Wang W, Bentley R, Morgan S, Chu V, et al. Role of short-term inhibition of factor Xa by FXV673 in arterial passivation: a study in a chronic model of thrombosis in conscious dogs. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2001;38:288-97 pubmed
    ..Dogs were instrumented surgically to induce carotid artery thrombosis by electrolytic injury...
  16. Shen Z, Li L, Chen P, Liu W. Effects of copper-aspirin complex on platelet-neutrophil interactions. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2004;25:576-80 pubmed
    ..The model of electrically stimulated carotid artery thrombosis in Sprague Dawley rats was used; the effects of copper-aspirin complex on rat platelet-neutrophil ..
  17. Hu H, Zhang X, Wang Y, Chen S. Honokiol inhibits arterial thrombosis through endothelial cell protection and stimulation of prostacyclin. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2005;26:1063-8 pubmed
    ..Endothelial cell protection and the stimulation of prostacyclin release may be its main anti-thrombosis mechanism. Stimulation of NO release in endothelial cells may play a role, but it is not a key factor. ..
  18. Wells P, Estrera A. Blunt traumatic innominate pseudoaneurysm and left common carotid occlusion with an associated bovine aortic arch. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2005;130:928-9 pubmed
  19. Jiamsripong P, Mookadam M, Mookadam F. An uncommon cause of epistaxis: cartoid cavernous fistula. Emerg Med J. 2007;24:e28 pubmed
    ..Awareness of this entity will reduce the frequency of this condition resulting in major morbidity and mortality. ..
  20. Dellamonica J, Mazoyer E, Rosa J, Cymbalista F, Samama C. Abrupt oxygen decrease influences thrombosis and bleeding in stenosed and endothelium-injured rabbit carotid arteries. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2008;25:1002-8 pubmed publisher
    ..An abrupt decrease in oxygen administration was responsible for an antithrombotic effect. Increase in bleeding time occurred during hypoxia. No clinically relevant variation of any haemostasis parameters was observed. ..
  21. Fonseca R, Santos G, Mourao P. Effects of polysaccharides enriched in 2,4-disulfated fucose units on coagulation, thrombosis and bleeding. Practical and conceptual implications. Thromb Haemost. 2009;102:829-36 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the location of 2,4-disulfated fucose units in the polysaccharide chains dictates the effects on coagulation, thrombosis and bleeding. ..
  22. Wong G, Yu S, Siu D, Poon W. Recanalization with subsequent near-total occlusion of an internal carotid artery aneurysm after immediate thrombotic occlusion using a flow-diverting stent. J Neurosurg. 2012;116:888-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional angiography studies at 6 months showed near-total occlusion of the aneurysm with the restoration of blood flow to the PCoA. ..
  23. Hennan J, Hong T, Shergill A, Driscoll E, Cardin A, Lucchesi B. Intimatan prevents arterial and venous thrombosis in a canine model of deep vessel wall injury. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002;301:1151-6 pubmed
    ..Dalteparin significantly increased time to carotid artery thrombosis (122.1 +/- 17.5 min) compared with control (64.3 +/- 8...
  24. Murphy R, Moody A, Morgan P, Martel A, Delay G, Allder S, et al. Prevalence of complicated carotid atheroma as detected by magnetic resonance direct thrombus imaging in patients with suspected carotid artery stenosis and previous acute cerebral ischemia. Circulation. 2003;107:3053-8 pubmed
    ..MRDTI has a potential role in identifying "at risk" plaque, studying atherogenesis and the effects of plaque-modifying strategies. ..
  25. Li H, Zhang X, Zhang Y, Pan X, Zhao H, Li H. Clinical and neuroradiological features of internal watershed infarction and the occlusive diseases of carotid artery system. Neurol Res. 2010;32:1090-6 pubmed publisher
    ..There may be some differences in their roles in pathogenesis of C-IWS and P-IWS infarction. Microembolism may contribute C-IWS infarction in addition to hypoperfusion, which is the major pathogenesis of P-IWS infarction. ..
  26. Cheng Q, Tucker E, Pine M, Sisler I, Matafonov A, Sun M, et al. A role for factor XIIa-mediated factor XI activation in thrombus formation in vivo. Blood. 2010;116:3981-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Since fXII deficiency does not impair hemostasis, targeted inhibition of fXI activation by fXIIa may be a useful antithrombotic strategy associated with a low risk of bleeding complications. ..
  27. Vaidya B, Agrawal G, Vyas S. Platelets directed liposomes for the delivery of streptokinase: development and characterization. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2011;44:589-94 pubmed publisher
  28. Keshelava G, Nachkepia M, Arabidze G, Janashia G, Beselia K. Unusual positional compression of the internal carotid artery causes carotid thrombosis and cerebral ischemia. Ann Vasc Surg. 2012;26:572.e15-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Open thrombectomy was performed in acute phase of stroke for prevention of the recapitulative cerebral thromboembolism. Hemiplegia completely disappeared within 7 months. ..
  29. Yellin A, Simansky D, Refaely Y, Smolinsky A. Concomitant CABG, lobectomy and CEA--a possible solution for a complex situation. Isr Med Assoc J. 2002;4:848 pubmed
  30. Peter L, Krolak Salmon P, Pignat J, Dardel P, Vighetto A. [Rhinocerebral mucormycosis]. Rev Neurol (Paris). 2005;161:214-7 pubmed
    ..We report the case of a sphenoidal sinusitis associated with a probable cavernous sinus thrombosis and carotid artery thrombosis with middle cerebral artery territory infarction...
  31. Oweis Y, Gemmete J, Chaudhary N, Pandey A, Ansari S. Delayed development of brain abscesses following stent-graft placement in a head and neck cancer patient presenting with carotid blowout syndrome. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2011;34 Suppl 2:S31-5 pubmed publisher
    ..MRI of the brain demonstrated at least four ring-enhancing lesions within the right cerebral hemisphere consistent with intracranial abscesses that resolved with broad-spectrum antibiotic coverage. ..
  32. Schumacher W, Seiler S, Steinbacher T, Stewart A, Bostwick J, Hartl K, et al. Antithrombotic and hemostatic effects of a small molecule factor XIa inhibitor in rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007;570:167-74 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that pharmacologic inhibition of factor XIa achieves antithrombotic efficacy with minimal effects on provoked bleeding. ..
  33. Maksimovic Z, Jakovljevic N, Putnik S, Jadranin D, Markovic D, Koncar I. Simultaneous surgical treatment of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm and acute carotid occlusive disease. Acta Chir Iugosl. 2009;56:101-3 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first reported successful simultaneous surgical treatment of RAAA and acute thrombosis of internal carotid artery. ..
  34. Yuan J, Yang J, Zhuang Z, Yang Y, Lin L, Wang S. Thrombolytic effects of Douchi fibrinolytic enzyme from Bacillus subtilis LD-8547 in vitro and in vivo. BMC Biotechnol. 2012;12:36 pubmed publisher
    ..The DFE isolated from Bacillus subtilis LD-8547 has obvious thrombolytic effects in vitro and in vivo. This function demonstrates that this enzyme can be a useful tool for preventing and treating clinical thrombus. ..
  35. Urbano L, Perren F, Rossetti A, Von Segesser L, Bogousslavsky J, Devuyst G. Images in cardiovascular medicine. Thrombus in the internal carotid artery complicating an "unstable" atheromatous plaque. Circulation. 2003;107:e19-20 pubmed
  36. Setacci C, de Donato G, Setacci F, Chisci E, Cappelli A, Pieraccini M, et al. Surgical management of acute carotid thrombosis after carotid stenting: a report of three cases. J Vasc Surg. 2005;42:993-6 pubmed
    ..Thromboendarterectomy with stent removal or in selected cases, simple thromboembolectomy, can minimize neurologic sequelae in patients suffering from acute post-stenting carotid thrombosis. ..
  37. Leys D, Woimant F, Ferrieres J, Bauters C, Touboul P, Guerillot M, et al. Detection and management of associated atherothrombotic locations in patients with a recent atherothrombotic ischemic stroke: results of the DETECT survey. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2006;21:60-6 pubmed
    ..However, the question of the most appropriate period for this search after the cerebral event remains unsettled. ..
  38. Pindzola R, Sashin D, Nemoto E, Kuwabara H, Wilson J, Yonas H. Identifying regions of compromised hemodynamics in symptomatic carotid occlusion by cerebrovascular reactivity and oxygen extraction fraction. Neurol Res. 2006;28:149-54 pubmed
    ..Future studies are needed to understand whether those remaining regions with compromised CVR are also at increased stroke risk despite normal OEF. ..
  39. Toffoli D, Elysée S, Dominguez M, Lanthier S. Cardioembolism: a rare cause of jaw claudication. Can J Neurol Sci. 2007;34:254-5 pubmed
  40. Fodor M, Facsko A, Berenyi E, Sziklai I, Berta A, Pfliegler G. Transient visual loss triggered by scuba diving in a patient with a petrous epidermoid and combined thrombotic risk factors. Pathophysiol Haemost Thromb. 2007;36:311-4 pubmed publisher
    ..This case underlines the complex mechanism of thromboembolic diseases, and the importance of the acquired trigger (in the present case scuba diving) in addition to the long-term anatomical and biochemical risk factors...
  41. Arnold M, Nedeltchev K, Mattle H, Loher T, Stepper F, Schroth G, et al. Intra-arterial thrombolysis in 24 consecutive patients with internal carotid artery T occlusions. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2003;74:739-42 pubmed
    ..Favourable outcome was seen only in patients with sufficient leptomeningeal collaterals. ..
  42. Kato Y, Kita Y, Hirasawa Taniyama Y, Nishio M, Mihara K, Ito K, et al. Inhibition of arterial thrombosis by a protease-activated receptor 1 antagonist, FR171113, in the guinea pig. Eur J Pharmacol. 2003;473:163-9 pubmed
    ..thrombosis without a prolongation of thrombin time or coagulation time was seen in the FeCl3-induced carotid artery thrombosis model in guinea pigs. Furthermore, FR171113 did not prolong bleeding time even at 32 mg/kg s.c...
  43. Hong T, Huang J, Driscoll E, Lucchesi B. Preclinical evaluation of S18886 in an experimental model of coronary arterial thrombosis. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2006;48:239-48 pubmed
  44. Rohrweck S, España Gregori E, Gené Sampedro A, Pascual Lozano A, Aparici Robles F, Diaz Llopis M. [Horner syndrome as a manifestation of carotid artery dissection]. Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol. 2011;86:377-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We consider that awareness of neuro-ophthalmologic emergencies is very important in the clinical praxis of an ophthalmologist. Multidisciplinary treatment and follow-up of these patients is required. ..
  45. Wong P, Watson C, Crain E. The P2Y1 receptor antagonist MRS2500 prevents carotid artery thrombosis in cynomolgus monkeys. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2016;41:514-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus P2Y1 receptor antagonism provides a suitable target for drug discovery. ..
  46. Barbieri S, Amadio P, Gianellini S, Tarantino E, Zacchi E, Veglia F, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2-derived prostacyclin regulates arterial thrombus formation by suppressing tissue factor in a sirtuin-1-dependent-manner. Circulation. 2012;126:1373-84 pubmed publisher
  47. Vainas T, Kurvers H, Mess W, de Graaf R, Ezzahiri R, Tordoir J, et al. Chlamydia pneumoniae serology is associated with thrombosis-related but not with plaque-related microembolization during carotid endarterectomy. Stroke. 2002;33:1249-54 pubmed
  48. Rusconi C, Roberts J, Pitoc G, Nimjee S, White R, Quick G, et al. Antidote-mediated control of an anticoagulant aptamer in vivo. Nat Biotechnol. 2004;22:1423-8 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that rationally designed drug-antidote pairs can be generated to provide control over drug activities in animals. ..
  49. Karnicki K, McBane R, Miller R, Leadley R, Morser J, Owen W, et al. Inhibition and reversal of platelet-rich arterial thrombus in vivo: direct vs. indirect factor Xa inhibition. J Thromb Haemost. 2004;2:2162-9 pubmed
    ..2, effectively inhibits thrombosis and promptly deaggregates thrombi induced by arterial injury. In contrast, indirect FXa inhibition with enoxaparin was ineffective. ..
  50. Xu G, Suh D, Choi C, Kim J, Kim W, Kim S, et al. Aspiration thrombectomy of acute complete carotid bulb occlusion. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2005;16:539-42 pubmed
    ..Aspiration thrombectomy is a simple, feasible and effective rescue procedure for patients with acute complete carotid bulb occlusion. ..
  51. Sirol M, Aguinaldo J, Graham P, Weisskoff R, Lauffer R, Mizsei G, et al. Fibrin-targeted contrast agent for improvement of in vivo acute thrombus detection with magnetic resonance imaging. Atherosclerosis. 2005;182:79-85 pubmed
    ..This technique significantly improves detection of small size thrombi in an animal model of occlusive fibrin-rich thrombosis. ..
  52. Labauge P, Bouly S. Thrombotic cocktail in stroke. Neurology. 2005;65:781; author reply 781 pubmed
  53. Hasegawa T, Okada K, Takano Y, Hiraishi Y, Okita Y. Thrombin-free fibrin coating on small caliber vascular prostheses has high antithrombogenicity in rabbit model. Artif Organs. 2005;29:880-6 pubmed
    ..Thrombin-free fibrin-coated vascular prostheses have superior performance of antithrombogenicity to conventional fibrin-coated vascular prostheses with thrombin. ..
  54. Yoshida K, Inoue K, Chin M, Narumi O, Yamagata S. Occlusive thrombosis with neovascularization of the internal carotid artery--two case report--. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2008;48:447-50 pubmed
    ..These cases suggest that both the degree of stenosis and the plaque characteristics should be considered when evaluating the risk of stroke in patients with carotid artery stenosis. ..
  55. Saito A, Shimizu H, Fujimura M, Inoue T, Tominaga T. Predictive role of modified clinical diffusion mismatch in early neurological deterioration due to atherothrombotic ischemia in the anterior circulation. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2011;153:2205-10 pubmed publisher
    ..68, p = 0.0001). CDM based on NIHSS and ASPECTS-DW (modified) could be a significant predictive factor for END of atherothrombotic ischemia in MCA/ICA. ..
  56. Matias Guiu J, Gil A, Serna Candel C, Simal P, García García A, Egido J, et al. Endovascular treatment of distal internal carotid artery occlusions with retrievable stents. Eur Neurol. 2013;70:159-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Retrievable stents may be the treatment of choice, although randomized clinical trials are necessary. The use of 2 retrievable stents at the same time could be an alternative technique useful in thrombi of larger size. ..
  57. Lee K, Suh J, Han S, Yoo J, Lee S, Cho S. The effect of aspirin and prostaglandin E(1) on the patency of microvascular anastomosis in the rats. Hand Surg. 2001;6:177-85 pubmed
    ..From these findings, we could conclude that PGE(1) has superior effect on maintaining the patency after microvascular surgery. ..
  58. Reimers B, Tübler T, De Donato G, Della Barbera M, Cernetti C, Schlüter M, et al. Endovascular treatment of in-stent restenosis after carotid artery stenting: immediate and midterm results. J Endovasc Ther. 2006;13:429-35 pubmed
    ..Repeat endovascular intervention using balloon angioplasty with provisional stenting and routine cerebral protection appears to be a feasible, safe, and clinically effective strategy for the treatment of in-stent restenosis after CAS. ..
  59. Pretnar Oblak J, Zaletel M, Jagodic M, Zaletel M. Thrombosis of internal carotid artery after cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Eur Neurol. 2007;57:109-10 pubmed
  60. Breitenstein A, Stämpfli S, Camici G, Akhmedov A, Ha H, Follath F, et al. Amiodarone inhibits arterial thrombus formation and tissue factor translation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2008;28:2231-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These pleiotropic actions occur within the range of amiodarone concentrations measured in patients, and thus may account at least in part for its beneficial effects in patients with coronary artery disease. ..
  61. Chen K, Li W, Major J, Rahaman S, Febbraio M, Silverstein R. Vav guanine nucleotide exchange factors link hyperlipidemia and a prothrombotic state. Blood. 2011;117:5744-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we showed with an in vivo carotid artery thrombosis model that genetic deletion of Vav1 and Vav3 together may prevent the development of occlusive thrombi ..
  62. Vicenzini E, Toscano M, Maestrini I, Petolicchio B, Lenzi G, Di Piero V. Predictors and timing of recanalization in intracranial carotid artery and siphon dissection: an ultrasound follow-up study. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2013;35:476-82 pubmed publisher
    ..In these cases, contrast ultrasound evidence of thrombus morphological changes may support the decision to continue anticoagulation. ..
  63. Park H, Kim H, Oh Y, Kim I, Kim Y, Koh H, et al. LB30057, an orally effective direct thrombin inhibitor, prevents arterial and venous thrombosis in rats and dogs. Arch Pharm Res. 2003;26:224-31 pubmed
    ..It therefore represents a good lead compound for investigations to discover a new, orally available, therapeutic agent for treating thrombotic diseases. ..
  64. Wang H, Wang D, Lanzino G, Elkins W, Olivero W. Differential interhemispheric cooling and ICP compartmentalization in a patient with left ICA occlusion. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2006;148:681-3; discussion 683 pubmed
    ..A significant inter-hemispheric ICP gradient was also observed. We believe that this is the first demonstration of preferential cooling of the infarcted hemisphere over the non-infarcted hemisphere with regional surface hypothermia. ..
  65. Chang F, Lirng J, Tai S, Luo C, Teng M, Chang C. Brain abscess formation: a delayed complication of carotid blowout syndrome treated by self-expandable stent-graft. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2006;27:1543-5 pubmed
    ..We recommend the use of prophylactic antibiotics if endovascular foreign materials are placed in a contaminated field. ..
  66. Karnicki K, Leadley R, Baxi S, Peterson T, Wysokinski W, McBane R. Comparison of PD0348292, a selective factor Xa inhibitor, to antiplatelet agents for the inhibition of arterial thrombosis. Thromb Haemost. 2008;99:759-66 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, PD0348292 inhibited arterial thrombosis comparable to aspirin plus clopidogrel. Perfusion chamber methodology may be useful in predicting in-vivo antithrombotic efficacy. ..
  67. Watarai H, Kaku Y, Yamada M, Kokuzawa J, Tanaka T, Andoh T, et al. Follow-up study on in-stent thrombosis after carotid stenting using multidetector CT angiography. Neuroradiology. 2009;51:243-51 pubmed publisher
    ..To avoid stent occlusion, both the acute and subacute phases following CAS (up to 12 weeks) call for the administration of appropriate anti-platelet therapy and careful observations of the patients. ..
  68. Sayed S, Cockerill G, Torsney E, Poston R, Thompson M, Loftus I. Elevated tissue expression of thrombomodulatory factors correlates with acute symptomatic carotid plaque phenotype. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2009;38:20-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This transient rise may influence plaque instability, and rapid resolution mirrors the clinical reduction in risk of further thrombo-embolic events. ..
  69. Vasconcellos L, Flores J, Conti M, Veiga J, Lancellotti C. Spontaneous thrombosis of internal carotid artery: a natural history of giant carotid cavernous aneurysms. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2009;67:278-83 pubmed
  70. Moody A, Murphy R, Morgan P, Martel A, Delay G, Allder S, et al. Characterization of complicated carotid plaque with magnetic resonance direct thrombus imaging in patients with cerebral ischemia. Circulation. 2003;107:3047-52 pubmed
    ..The high contrast generated by short T1 species within the plaque allows for ease of interpretation, making this technique highly applicable in the research and clinical setting for the investigation of carotid atherosclerotic disease. ..
  71. Fattorutto M, Tourreau Pham S, Mazoyer E, Bonnin P, Raphael M, Morin F, et al. Recombinant activated factor VII decreases bleeding without increasing arterial thrombosis in rabbits. Can J Anaesth. 2004;51:672-9 pubmed
    ..002, respectively]. rFVIIa did not increase CFRs [3(0-9) vs |(0-5), P = 0.11]. rFVIIa led to a decrease in BT and microvascular bleeding but did not significantly affect arterial thrombosis in rabbits. ..
  72. Thomalla G, Kruetzelmann A, Siemonsen S, Gerloff C, Rosenkranz M, Rother J, et al. Clinical and tissue response to intravenous thrombolysis in tandem internal carotid artery/middle cerebral artery occlusion: an MRI study. Stroke. 2008;39:1616-8 pubmed publisher
    ..There appears to be no evidence to exclude patients with tandem ICA/MCA occlusion from intravenous thrombolysis. ..
  73. Yoon W, Kim Y, Kim S, Park I, Kim S, Baik M. Transarterial coil embolization of a carotid-cavernous fistula which occurred during stent angioplasty. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2009;151:849-53; discussion 853-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Probable causes of this complication and its treatment method are discussed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of such a case. ..
  74. Saito A, Fujimura M, Inoue T, Shimizu H, Tominaga T. Relationship between lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 expression and preoperative echogenic findings of vulnerable carotid plaque. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2010;152:589-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Endothelial MMP-2 might suppress TIMP-2 activation in vulnerable plaques. ..
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    ..A computed tomogram was normal and further condition improved clinically. This complication from the use of a rotary saw has not been documented previously and it must be prevented by using some protection behind the bone. ..
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