carotid artery injuries


Summary: Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)

Top Publications

  1. Slater S, Koutsouki E, Jackson C, Bush R, Angelini G, Newby A, et al. R-cadherin:beta-catenin complex and its association with vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2004;24:1204-10 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that R-cadherin expression and beta-catenin signaling may be associated with increased cyclin D1 expression and VSMC proliferation and may therefore play an important role in vascular disease. ..
  2. Chen L, Wu F, Xia W, Zhang Y, Xu S, Cheng F, et al. CXCR4 gene transfer contributes to in vivo reendothelialization capacity of endothelial progenitor cells. Cardiovasc Res. 2010;88:462-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study demonstrates that CXCR4 gene transfer contributes to the enhanced in vivo reendothelialization capacity of EPCs. Up-regulation of CXCR4 in human EPCs may become a novel therapeutic target for endothelial repair. ..
  3. Saxena A, Rauch U, Berg K, Andersson L, Hollender L, Carlsson A, et al. The vascular repair process after injury of the carotid artery is regulated by IL-1RI and MyD88 signalling. Cardiovasc Res. 2011;91:350-7 pubmed publisher
  4. Guo J, Li D, Bai S, Xu T, Zhou Z, Zhang Y. Detecting DNA synthesis of neointimal formation after catheter balloon injury in GK and in Wistar rats: using 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2012;11:150 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, more obvious DNA synthesis in the vascular neointima could be observed in GK rats than in Wistar rats. ..
  5. Zhang X, Wang Y, Cai J, Hou X, Wang H, Zou J, et al. Downregulation of quinone reductase 2 attenuates vascular smooth muscle cells proliferation and neointimal formation in balloon injured rat carotid artery. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2012;29:453-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study suggests that downregulation of NQO2 significantly suppresses VSMCs proliferation and progression of neointimal formation after vascular injury. ..
  6. Biffl W, Cothren C, Moore E, Kozar R, Cocanour C, Davis J, et al. Western Trauma Association critical decisions in trauma: screening for and treatment of blunt cerebrovascular injuries. J Trauma. 2009;67:1150-3 pubmed publisher
  7. Bromberg W, Collier B, Diebel L, Dwyer K, Holevar M, Jacobs D, et al. Blunt cerebrovascular injury practice management guidelines: the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma. J Trauma. 2010;68:471-7 pubmed publisher
    ..It is noted that change in the diagnosis and management of this injury constellation is rapid due to technological advancement and the difficulties inherent in performing randomized prospective trials in this patient population. ..
  8. Giannotti G, Doerries C, Mocharla P, Mueller M, Bahlmann F, Horvath T, et al. Impaired endothelial repair capacity of early endothelial progenitor cells in prehypertension: relation to endothelial dysfunction. Hypertension. 2010;55:1389-97 pubmed publisher
  9. Li C, Schminke U, Tan T. Extracranial carotid artery disease in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with post-irradiation ischemic stroke. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2010;112:682-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients who received neck irradiation are at risk for the delayed development of diffused atherosclerosis but also for carotid occlusion within years, although the mechanism remains elusive and probably multifactorial. ..

More Information


  1. Talasila A, Yu H, Ackers Johnson M, Bot M, Van Berkel T, Bennett M, et al. Myocardin regulates vascular response to injury through miR-24/-29a and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-?. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2013;33:2355-65 pubmed publisher
  2. Qu Y, Shi X, Zhang H, Sun W, Han S, Yu C, et al. VCAM-1 siRNA reduces neointimal formation after surgical mechanical injury of the rat carotid artery. J Vasc Surg. 2009;50:1452-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that perivascular events mediated by VCAM-1 are likely to play an important role in the pathogenesis of carotid artery neointimal hyperplasia in rats after CSMDE. ..
  3. Berne J, Reuland K, Villarreal D, McGovern T, Rowe S, Norwood S. Internal carotid artery stenting for blunt carotid artery injuries with an associated pseudoaneurysm. J Trauma. 2008;64:398-405 pubmed publisher
    Blunt carotid artery injuries (BCI) are being recognized and treated with increasing frequency because of improved screening protocols...
  4. Joo J, Ahn J, Chung Y, Chung S, Kim S, Yoon P, et al. Therapeutic endovascular treatments for traumatic carotid artery injuries. J Trauma. 2005;58:1159-66 pubmed
    ..Long-term follow-up review of these repairs will be necessary to provide a full evaluation of the safety and efficacy of these devices. ..
  5. Schober A, Zernecke A, Liehn E, von Hundelshausen P, Knarren S, Kuziel W, et al. Crucial role of the CCL2/CCR2 axis in neointimal hyperplasia after arterial injury in hyperlipidemic mice involves early monocyte recruitment and CCL2 presentation on platelets. Circ Res. 2004;95:1125-33 pubmed
    ..This mechanism may explain reduced neointimal macrophage infiltration and lesion formation in CCR2-deficient apoE-/- mice. ..
  6. Jagadeesha D, Lindley T, Deleon J, Sharma R, Miller F, Bhalla R. Tempol therapy attenuates medial smooth muscle cell apoptosis and neointima formation after balloon catheter injury in carotid artery of diabetic rats. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2005;289:H1047-53 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Bax expression may play an important role in vascular SMC apoptosis and, finally, that this regulatory mechanism is redox sensitive. ..
  7. Schneidereit N, Simons R, Nicolaou S, Graeb D, Brown D, Kirkpatrick A, et al. Utility of screening for blunt vascular neck injuries with computed tomographic angiography. J Trauma. 2006;60:209-15; discussion 215-6 pubmed
    ..To prospectively study the impact of implementing a computed tomographic angiography (CTA)-based screening protocol on the detected incidence and associated morbidity and mortality of blunt vascular neck injury (BVNI)...
  8. Choi E, Khan M, Leidenfrost J, Collins E, Boc K, Villa B, et al. Beta3-integrin mediates smooth muscle cell accumulation in neointima after carotid ligation in mice. Circulation. 2004;109:1564-9 pubmed
    ..The alpha(v)beta3-integrin mediates intimal SMC accumulation that contributes to neointimal thickening in the setting of arterial ligation. ..
  9. Fu K, Corbley M, Sun L, Friedman J, Shan F, Papadatos J, et al. SM16, an orally active TGF-beta type I receptor inhibitor prevents myofibroblast induction and vascular fibrosis in the rat carotid injury model. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2008;28:665-71 pubmed publisher
    ..TGF-beta plays a significant role in vascular injury-induced stenosis. This study evaluates the efficacy of a novel, small molecule inhibitor of ALK5/ALK4 kinase, in the rat carotid injury model of vascular fibrosis...
  10. Starnes B, Arthurs Z. Endovascular management of vascular trauma. Perspect Vasc Surg Endovasc Ther. 2006;18:114-29 pubmed
    ..This chapter reviews current literature with regard to the endovascular management of traumatic vascular injuries with regions being broadly defined as neck, trunk, and extremity. ..
  11. Gulati R, Jevremovic D, Witt T, Kleppe L, Vile R, Lerman A, et al. Modulation of the vascular response to injury by autologous blood-derived outgrowth endothelial cells. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2004;287:H512-7 pubmed
    ..Moreover, delivery of OECs confers greater vascular protection than PBMCs or saline controls and may thus offer a novel, autologous strategy to limit the response to mechanical injury. ..
  12. Berne J, Norwood S, McAuley C, Villareal D. Helical computed tomographic angiography: an excellent screening test for blunt cerebrovascular injury. J Trauma. 2004;57:11-7; discussion 17-9 pubmed
    ..Except for one patient in whom the CTA was clearly misinterpreted by the radiologist, no patient with a negative CTA examination was subsequently found to have a missed injury. CTA is an excellent test with which to screen for BCVI. ..
  13. Hou R, Liu L, Anees S, Hiroyasu S, Sibinga N. The Fat1 cadherin integrates vascular smooth muscle cell growth and migration signals. J Cell Biol. 2006;173:417-29 pubmed
    ..Because it is induced after arterial injury, Fat1 may control VSMC functions central to vascular remodeling by facilitating migration and limiting proliferation. ..
  14. Wu Y, Bond M, Sala Newby G, Newby A. Altered S-phase kinase-associated protein-2 levels are a major mediator of cyclic nucleotide-induced inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. Circ Res. 2006;98:1141-50 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate for the first time that Skp2 is an important factor in VSMC proliferation and its inhibition by cyclic nucleotides. ..
  15. Utter G, Hollingworth W, Hallam D, Jarvik J, Jurkovich G. Sixteen-slice CT angiography in patients with suspected blunt carotid and vertebral artery injuries. J Am Coll Surg. 2006;203:838-48 pubmed
    ..Radiologists should maintain a high degree of suspicion in patients who meet screening criteria. Optimal imaging strategies should focus on the most predictive criteria. ..
  16. Dimayuga P, Li H, Chyu K, Fredrikson G, Nilsson J, Fishbein M, et al. T cell modulation of intimal thickening after vascular injury: the bimodal role of IFN-gamma in immune deficiency. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005;25:2528-34 pubmed
    ..In the Rag-1KO mice, late IFN-gamma expression promotes intimal thickening. These findings add novel insight to conditions of immune deficiency that affect intimal thickening. ..
  17. Lee C, Kwon Y, Yang H, Kim S, Kim T, Hur J, et al. New mechanism of rosiglitazone to reduce neointimal hyperplasia: activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta followed by inhibition of MMP-9. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2009;29:472-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Rosiglitazone activates GSK-3beta, which inhibits not only proliferation of VSMCs but also migration of VSMCs through blocking NF-kappaB-dependent MMP-9 activation. ..
  18. Kong D, Melo L, Gnecchi M, Zhang L, Mostoslavsky G, Liew C, et al. Cytokine-induced mobilization of circulating endothelial progenitor cells enhances repair of injured arteries. Circulation. 2004;110:2039-46 pubmed
    ..We postulate that cytokine-induced mobilization of CEPCs may be a suitable therapeutic strategy for prevention of restenosis after revascularization procedures. ..
  19. Mallawaarachchi C, Weissberg P, Siow R. Smad7 gene transfer attenuates adventitial cell migration and vascular remodeling after balloon injury. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005;25:1383-7 pubmed
    ..Smad7 may represent a novel therapeutic target to reduce the incidence of restenosis. ..
  20. Struffert T, Buhk J, Buchfelder M, Rohde V, Doerfler A, Knauth M. Coil migration after endovascular coil occlusion of internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysms within the sphenoid sinus. Minim Invasive Neurosurg. 2009;52:89-92 pubmed publisher
    ..We report two cases of coil migration after endovascular treatment of pseudoaneurysm of the internal carotid artery within the sphenoid sinus with coils and noncovered stents...
  21. Ruiz Juretschke F, Castro E, Mateo Sierra O, Iza B, Manuel Garbizu J, Fortea F, et al. Massive epistaxis resulting from an intracavernous internal carotid artery traumatic pseudoaneurysm: complete resolution with overlapping uncovered stents. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2009;151:1681-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The endovascular treatment with overlapping self-expanding stents achieved complete exclusion of the pseudoaneurysm with preservation of the intracavernous carotid artery...
  22. Bond M, Wu Y, Sala Newby G, Newby A. Rho GTPase, Rac1, regulates Skp2 levels, vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, and intima formation in vitro and in vivo. Cardiovasc Res. 2008;80:290-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the role of Rac(1) in the regulation of Skp2 in rat VSMC...
  23. Ho B, Hou G, Pickering J, Hannigan G, Langille B, Bendeck M. Integrin-linked kinase in the vascular smooth muscle cell response to injury. Am J Pathol. 2008;173:278-88 pubmed publisher
    ..A decrease in ILK levels after injury may permit SMC migration, proliferation, and neointimal thickening, and its re-expression at the luminal surface may attenuate this process during later stages of the injury response. ..
  24. Maras D, Lioupis C, Magoufis G, Tsamopoulos N, Moulakakis K, Andrikopoulos V. Covered stent-graft treatment of traumatic internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysms: a review. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2006;29:958-68 pubmed
  25. House S, Singer H. CaMKII-delta isoform regulation of neointima formation after vascular injury. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2008;28:441-7 pubmed
    ..This provides a potential mechanism for Ca2+-dependent regulation of VSM and myofibroblast proliferation and migration in response to vascular injury or disease. ..
  26. Yin Y, Zhao X, Fang Y, Yu S, Zhao J, Song M, et al. SDF-1alpha involved in mobilization and recruitment of endothelial progenitor cells after arterial injury in mice. Cardiovasc Pathol. 2010;19:218-27 pubmed publisher
    ..This contribution appears to be attributable to SDF-1alpha-dependent mobilization and recruitment of circulating EPCs. ..
  27. Eastman A, Muraliraj V, Sperry J, Minei J. CTA-based screening reduces time to diagnosis and stroke rate in blunt cervical vascular injury. J Trauma. 2009;67:551-6; discussion 555-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This may be due to earlier diagnosis and initiation of definitive therapy. ..
  28. Blaivas M. Video analysis of accidental arterial cannulation with dynamic ultrasound guidance for central venous access. J Ultrasound Med. 2009;28:1239-44 pubmed
  29. Chen W, Chu Y, Zhu D, Yan C, Liu J, Ji K, et al. Perivascular gene transfer of dominant-negative N19RhoA attenuates neointimal formation via inhibition of TGF-beta1-Smad2 signaling in rats after carotid artery balloon injury. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;389:217-23 pubmed publisher
  30. Maffia P, Grassia G, Di Meglio P, Carnuccio R, Berrino L, Garside P, et al. Neutralization of interleukin-18 inhibits neointimal formation in a rat model of vascular injury. Circulation. 2006;114:430-7 pubmed
    ..These results identify a critical role for IL-18 in neointimal formation in a rat model of vascular injury and suggest a potential role for IL-18 neutralization in the reduction of neointimal development. ..
  31. Torella D, Curcio A, Gasparri C, Galuppo V, De Serio D, Surace F, et al. Fludarabine prevents smooth muscle proliferation in vitro and neointimal hyperplasia in vivo through specific inhibition of STAT-1 activation. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007;292:H2935-43 pubmed
    ..Fludarabine-eluting stents are feasible and effective in reducing in-stent restenosis in rabbits. ..
  32. Cao A, Shi H, Zhang Y, Teng G. In vivo tracking of dual-labeled mesenchymal stem cells homing into the injured common carotid artery. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2009;292:1677-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Rat BMSCs can be efficiently labeled with SPIO and DiI, and the directional homing of labeled cells to the site of injured common carotid arteries after intravascular transplantation could be tracked in vivo with 7T micro-MRI...
  33. Karshovska E, Zernecke A, Sevilmis G, Millet A, Hristov M, Cohen C, et al. Expression of HIF-1alpha in injured arteries controls SDF-1alpha mediated neointima formation in apolipoprotein E deficient mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007;27:2540-7 pubmed
    ..HIF-1alpha expression is directly involved in neointimal formation after vascular injury and mediates the upregulation of SDF-1alpha, which may affect the stem cell-based repair of injured arteries. ..
  34. Cheng Y, Liu X, Yang J, Lin Y, Xu D, Lu Q, et al. MicroRNA-145, a novel smooth muscle cell phenotypic marker and modulator, controls vascular neointimal lesion formation. Circ Res. 2009;105:158-66 pubmed publisher
    ..These novel findings may have extensive implications for the diagnosis and therapy of a variety of proliferative vascular diseases. ..
  35. Leen L, Filipe C, Billon A, Garmy Susini B, Jalvy S, Robbesyn F, et al. Estrogen-stimulated endothelial repair requires osteopontin. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2008;28:2131-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate here that E(2) acceleration of the endothelial repair requires osteopontin, both for bone marrow-derived cell recruitment and for endothelial cell migration and proliferation. ..
  36. Meng Q, Yang G, Yang W, Jiang B, Wu L, Wang R. Protective effect of hydrogen sulfide on balloon injury-induced neointima hyperplasia in rat carotid arteries. Am J Pathol. 2007;170:1406-14 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, CSE expression and H(2)S production are reduced during the development of balloon injury-induced neointimal hyperplasia, and treatment with NaHS significantly reduces neointimal lesion formation. ..
  37. Brand S, Teebken O, Bolzen P, Hildebrand F, Wilhelmi M, Krettek C, et al. [Traumatic dissection of carotid arteries caused by high energy motorcycle accident]. Unfallchirurg. 2012;115:930-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This could lead to a reduction of overlooked dissections and an increase in promptly and correctly treated injuries. ..
  38. Zhang S, Gao L, Zhang X, Zhang R, Zhu L, Wang P, et al. Interferon regulatory factor 8 modulates phenotypic switching of smooth muscle cells by regulating the activity of myocardin. Mol Cell Biol. 2014;34:400-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, IRF8 is crucial in modulating SMC phenotype switching and neointima formation in response to vascular injury via direct interaction with the SRF/myocardin complex. ..
  39. Sigaut S, Skhiri A, Stany I, Golmar J, Nivoche Y, Constant I, et al. Ultrasound guided internal jugular vein access in children and infant: a meta-analysis of published studies. Paediatr Anaesth. 2009;19:1199-206 pubmed publisher
    ..This current meta-analysis does not found the utility of ultrasound during IJV access in children and infants in increasing the success rate and in decreasing complications. ..
  40. Kheirabadi B, Mace J, Terrazas I, Fedyk C, Estep J, Dubick M, et al. Safety evaluation of new hemostatic agents, smectite granules, and kaolin-coated gauze in a vascular injury wound model in swine. J Trauma. 2010;68:269-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we investigated the thromboembolic risk of using WS when compared with kaolin-coated gauze, Combat Gauze (CG); or regular gauze, Kerlix (KX) to treat an external wound with vascular injuries in pigs...
  41. Ye J, Rong X, Xiang Y, Xing Y, Tang Y. A study of radiation-induced cerebral vascular injury in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with radiation-induced temporal lobe necrosis. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42890 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate radiation-induced carotid and cerebral vascular injury and its relationship with radiation-induced temporal lobe necrosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients...
  42. Fu G, Xu C, Zhong Y, Zhu D, Gao P. Aldosterone-induced osteopontin expression in vascular smooth muscle cells involves MR, ERK, and p38 MAPK. Endocrine. 2012;42:676-83 pubmed publisher
    ..These molecules may represent therapeutic targets for the prevention of pathological vascular remodeling. ..
  43. Valentine R, Boase S, Jervis Bardy J, Dones Cabral J, Robinson S, Wormald P. The efficacy of hemostatic techniques in the sheep model of carotid artery injury. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2011;1:118-22 pubmed publisher
    ..In the sheep model of endoscopic ICA injury, the muscle patch and U-Clip anastomotic device significantly improved survival, reduced blood loss, and achieved primary hemostasis while maintaining vascular patency. ..
  44. Yang J, Jiang H, Chen S, Chen J, Li W, Xu S, et al. Lentivirus-mediated RNAi targeting CREB binding protein attenuates neointimal formation and promotes re-endothelialization in balloon injured rat carotid artery. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2010;26:441-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we investigated whether inhibition of CBP by lentivirus-mediated small interfering RNA can reduce neointimal formation after arterial injury...
  45. Ii M, Takeshita K, Ibusuki K, Luedemann C, Wecker A, Eaton E, et al. Notch signaling regulates endothelial progenitor cell activity during recovery from arterial injury in hypercholesterolemic mice. Circulation. 2010;121:1104-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The results presented here provide novel insights into the role of EPCs during atherosclerosis and suggest that cholesterol and Notch1 may be involved in the regulation of EPC activity. ..
  46. Metharom P, Martin K, Kumar A, Sawhney N, Cronin M, McCarthy D, et al. Pleiotropic role for monocyte C-fms protein in response to vascular injury: potential therapeutic target. Atherosclerosis. 2011;216:74-82 pubmed publisher
  47. Vaquero Puerta C, San Norberto E, Merino B, Gonzalez Fajardo J, Taylor J. Shotgun wound and pellet embolism to the intracranial carotid artery. J Vasc Surg. 2012;55:535-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The patient was successfully treated by emergency flow reversal and embolectomy. Because this injury is extremely rare, the literature is reviewed, and several principles are suggested to improve the management. ..
  48. Wang Y, Cui X, Chuang Y, Chen S. Janus Kinase 3, a Novel Regulator for Smooth Muscle Proliferation and Vascular Remodeling. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2017;37:1352-1360 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that JAK3 mediates SMC proliferation and survival during injury-induced vascular remodeling, which provides a potential therapeutic target for preventing neointimal hyperplasia in proliferative vascular diseases. ..
  49. Bahnson E, Vavra A, Flynn M, Vercammen J, Jiang Q, Schwartz A, et al. Long-term effect of PROLI/NO on cellular proliferation and phenotype after arterial injury. Free Radic Biol Med. 2016;90:272-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that a short-lived NO donor exerts durable effects on proliferation, phenotype modulation, and inflammation that result in long-term inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia. ..
  50. Valentine R, Padhye V, Wormald P. Management of arterial injury during endoscopic sinus and skull base surgery. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016;24:170-4 pubmed publisher
  51. Hiraishi T, Kawaguchi T, Kobayashi T, Tomikawa M, Ito Y, Fujii Y. Unstable stenosis of the internal carotid artery caused by a craniofacial nail-gun injury-case report-. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2009;49:590-3 pubmed
    ..To avoid the occurrence of such events, rapid treatment after necessary investigations is recommended in patients with craniofacial penetrating injuries that affect the ICA...
  52. Sundgren N, Zhu W, Yuhanna I, Chambliss K, Ahmed M, Tanigaki K, et al. Coupling of Fc? receptor I to Fc? receptor IIb by SRC kinase mediates C-reactive protein impairment of endothelial function. Circ Res. 2011;109:1132-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar mechanisms underlie eNOS antagonism by immune complex. Fc?RI and Fc?RIIB may be novel therapeutic targets for preventing endothelial dysfunction in inflammatory or immune complex-mediated conditions...
  53. Shrestha G, Gurung A, Koirala S. Comparison between long- and short-axis techniques for ultrasound-guided cannulation of internal jugular vein. Ann Card Anaesth. 2016;19:288-92 pubmed publisher
    ..18 ± 4.72 vs. 15.21 ± 4.24; P < 0.004) and margin of safety with of incidence of carotid puncture (12.15 ± 4.03 vs. 6.59 ± 3.13; P < 0.016). Both techniques have similar outcomes when used for IJ vein cannulation. ..
  54. Cordova A, D Arpa S, Di Lorenzo S, Toia F, Campisi G, Moschella F. Prophylactic chimera anterolateral thigh/vastus lateralis flap: preventing complications in high-risk head and neck reconstruction. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2014;72:1013-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors present the application of a prophylactic chimeric anterolateral thigh (ALT) and vastus lateralis (VL) flap to prevent complications...
  55. Hejna P. Amussat's sign in hanging--A prospective autopsy study. J Forensic Sci. 2011;56:132-5 pubmed publisher
  56. Gu Z, Rolfe B, Xu Z, Campbell J, Lu G, Thomas A. Antibody-targeted drug delivery to injured arteries using layered double hydroxide nanoparticles. Adv Healthc Mater. 2012;1:669-73 pubmed publisher
  57. Chen J, Zhang J, Xu L, Xu C, Chen S, Yang J, et al. Inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia in the rat carotid artery injury model by a HMGB1 inhibitor. Atherosclerosis. 2012;224:332-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of HMGB1 activity attenuated VSMCs activation and neointimal formation after carotid injury. Therefore, blockage of HMGB1 might represent a novel therapeutic strategy for vascular injury. ..
  58. Wang Y, Zang Q, Liu Z, Wu Q, Maass D, Dulan G, et al. Regulation of VEGF-induced endothelial cell migration by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2011;301:C695-704 pubmed publisher
    ..Mito-Vit-E also attenuated carotid artery reendothelialization in vivo. These results provide strong evidence that mtROS regulate EC migration through Rac-1. ..
  59. Cesena F, Dimayuga P, Yano J, Zhao X, Kirzner J, Zhou J, et al. Immune-modulation by polyclonal IgM treatment reduces atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic apoE-/- mice. Atherosclerosis. 2012;220:59-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study identifies a novel athero-protective and immunomodulatory role for non-immune polyclonal IgM. ..
  60. Gandhi C, El Gengahy A, Cornett Thompson O, Kraus J, Prestigiacomo C. The novel use of Onyx for the rapid treatment of a traumatic carotid injury. J Neurointerv Surg. 2012;4:e18 pubmed publisher
    ..Injection was continued until cast formation completely occluded the proximal cervical ICA but preserved the external carotid artery. This method very rapidly controlled bleeding and should be considered in these cases. ..
  61. Demirci S, Dogan K, Koc S. Fatal injury by an unmodified blank pistol: a case report and review of the literature. J Forensic Leg Med. 2011;18:237-41 pubmed publisher
    ..It is concluded that as blank pistols may cause fatal injuries even without any modification, it is necessary to develop new standards for their production. ..
  62. McGettigan B, Parkes W, Gonsalves C, Eschelman D, Keane W, Boon M. The use of a covered stent in carotid blowout syndrome. Ear Nose Throat J. 2011;90:E17 pubmed
    ..We examine the covered-stent approach to treating acute CBS, and we discuss other treatment approaches that have been described in the literature. ..
  63. Phillips L, Dhanaliwala A, Klibanov A, Hossack J, Wamhoff B. Focused ultrasound-mediated drug delivery from microbubbles reduces drug dose necessary for therapeutic effect on neointima formation--brief report. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2011;31:2853-5 pubmed publisher
  64. Santana A, Marinotto D, Delle H, Cordeiro A, Noronha I. Effectiveness of thalidomide and tamoxifen in preventing neointimal hyperplasia in experimental vascular injury in rats. Transplant Proc. 2010;42:585-8 pubmed publisher
    ..A possible beneficial effect of combined therapy with thalidomide plus tamoxifen should be addressed in future studies. ..
  65. Belczak S, Silva E, Aun R, Sincos I, Belon A, Casella I, et al. Endovascular treatment of peripheral arterial injury with covered stents: an experimental study in pigs. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2011;66:1425-30 pubmed
    ..The present experimental model, which involved endovascular techniques, highlighted important factors that must be considered in future studies involving similar animals and materials. ..
  66. Wang H, Zhang W, Tang R, Zhu C, Bucher C, Blazar B, et al. Adenosine receptor A2A deficiency in leukocytes increases arterial neointima formation in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30:915-22 pubmed publisher
    ..A(2A)R antagonists are being tested for the treatment of neurodegenerative and other chronic diseases. An evaluation of the effect of A(2A)R antagonists on arterial restenosis after arterial angioplasty should be conducted. ..
  67. De Blasi R, Bracciolini E, Chiumarulo L, Salvati A, Monetti C, Federico F, et al. Pseudoaneurysm formation following intrasphenoid rupture of an idiopathic intracavernous carotid artery aneurysm: coil migration and early recurrence after endovascular treatment. Interv Neuroradiol. 2010;16:442-6 pubmed
    ..Our report emphasizes the relapsing behaviour of a non-traumatic aneurysm of the cavernous portion of the internal carotid artery ruptured into the sphenoid sinus. ..
  68. Zhang J, Chen J, Yang J, Xu C, Pu P, Ding J, et al. Resveratrol attenuates oxidative stress induced by balloon injury in the rat carotid artery through actions on the ERK1/2 and NF-kappa B pathway. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2013;31:230-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Resveratrol significantly suppressed the neointimal hyperplasia after balloon injury through inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammation by blocking the ERK1/2/NF-kappa B pathway. ..
  69. Papac Milicevic N, Breuss J, Zaujec J, Ryban L, Plyushch T, Wagner G, et al. The interferon stimulated gene 12 inactivates vasculoprotective functions of NR4A nuclear receptors. Circ Res. 2012;110:e50-63 pubmed publisher
  70. Demetriades A, Miller N, Garibaldi D. Bilateral internal carotid artery dissection presenting as isolated unilateral Horner syndrome. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2009;25:485-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Immediate neuroimaging should be performed in any patient with Horner syndrome following trauma, regardless of other symptoms or signs. ..