cerebellar ataxia

Summary

Summary: Incoordination of voluntary movements that occur as a manifestation of CEREBELLAR DISEASES. Characteristic features include a tendency for limb movements to overshoot or undershoot a target (dysmetria), a tremor that occurs during attempted movements (intention TREMOR), impaired force and rhythm of diadochokinesis (rapidly alternating movements), and GAIT ATAXIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p90)

Top Publications

  1. Alviña K, Khodakhah K. The therapeutic mode of action of 4-aminopyridine in cerebellar ataxia. J Neurosci. 2010;30:7258-68 pubmed publisher
    Episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2) is a hereditary cerebellar ataxia associated with mutations in the P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium (Ca(2+)) channels. Therapeutic approaches for treatment of EA2 are very limited...
  2. Criscimagna Hemminger S, Bastian A, Shadmehr R. Size of error affects cerebellar contributions to motor learning. J Neurophysiol. 2010;103:2275-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The neural basis of motor learning in response to small and large errors appears to be distinct...
  3. Quinzii C, Lopez L, Naini A, DiMauro S, Hirano M. Human CoQ10 deficiencies. Biofactors. 2008;32:113-8 pubmed
    ..fibers; 2) infantile multisystemic disease typically with prominent nephropathy and encephalopathy; 3) cerebellar ataxia with marked cerebellar atrophy; and 4) pure myopathy...
  4. Anheim M, Fleury M, Monga B, Laugel V, Chaigne D, Rodier G, et al. Epidemiological, clinical, paraclinical and molecular study of a cohort of 102 patients affected with autosomal recessive progressive cerebellar ataxia from Alsace, Eastern France: implications for clinical management. Neurogenetics. 2010;11:1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..FRDA) and ataxia telangiectasia (AT) are known to be the two most frequent forms of autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia (ARCA), knowledge on the other forms of ARCA has been obtained only recently, and they appear to be rarer...
  5. Guergueltcheva V, Azmanov D, Angelicheva D, Smith K, Chamova T, Florez L, et al. Autosomal-recessive congenital cerebellar ataxia is caused by mutations in metabotropic glutamate receptor 1. Am J Hum Genet. 2012;91:553-64 pubmed publisher
    Autosomal-recessive congenital cerebellar ataxia was identified in Roma patients originating from a small subisolate with a known strong founder effect...
  6. Duque V, Seixas D, Ventura C, da Cunha S, Meliço Silvestre A. Plasmodium falciparum malaria, bilateral sixth cranial nerve palsy and delayed cerebellar ataxia. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2012;6:290-4 pubmed
    ..by bilateral sixth cranial nerve palsy during acute malaria, followed by the appearance of delayed cerebellar ataxia during the recovery phase...
  7. Fogel B, Lee J, Lane J, Wahnich A, Chan S, Huang A, et al. Mutations in rare ataxia genes are uncommon causes of sporadic cerebellar ataxia. Mov Disord. 2012;27:442-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Rare genetic ataxias, reported only in specific populations or families, may contribute to a percentage of sporadic ataxia...
  8. Kirchner H, Kremmyda O, Hüfner K, Stephan T, Zingler V, Brandt T, et al. Clinical, electrophysiological, and MRI findings in patients with cerebellar ataxia and a bilaterally pathological head-impulse test. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2011;1233:127-38 pubmed publisher
    A significant number of patients with bilateral vestibulopathy suffer from cerebellar ataxia and central vestibular symptoms and vice versa...
  9. Durr A. Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias: polyglutamine expansions and beyond. Lancet Neurol. 2010;9:885-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The diversity of underlying mechanisms that give rise to the dominant cerebellar ataxias need to be taken into account to identify therapeutic targets...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Wardle M, Majounie E, Muzaimi M, Williams N, Morris H, Robertson N. The genetic aetiology of late-onset chronic progressive cerebellar ataxia. A population-based study. J Neurol. 2009;256:343-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, there is marked geographic and ethnic variation in the relative importance of these individual disorders and the cause of such observed variation remains unexplained...
  2. Bonnan M, Cabre P, Olindo S, Signate A, Saint Vil M, Smadja D. [Steroid treatment in four cases of anti-GAD cerebellar ataxia]. Rev Neurol (Paris). 2008;164:427-33 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Cerebellar ataxia is a new feature of this expanding spectrum. No therapeutic trial is yet available in these diseases...
  3. Sailer A, Houlden H. Recent advances in the genetics of cerebellar ataxias. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2012;12:227-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Translating the genetic findings into isolated and overlapping disease pathways will help stratify patient groups and identify therapeutic targets for ataxia that have so far remained undiscovered...
  4. Manto M, Hampe C, Rogemond V, Honnorat J. Respective implications of glutamate decarboxylase antibodies in stiff person syndrome and cerebellar ataxia. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2011;6:3 pubmed publisher
    To investigate whether Stiff-person syndrome (SPS) and cerebellar ataxia (CA) are associated with distinct GAD65-Ab epitope specificities and neuronal effects.
  5. Jones J, Jaramillo Merchán J, Bueno C, Pastor D, Viso León M, Martinez S. Mesenchymal stem cells rescue Purkinje cells and improve motor functions in a mouse model of cerebellar ataxia. Neurobiol Dis. 2010;40:415-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Of these, cerebellar ataxia is a group of disorders characterized by the degeneration of the cerebellum, particularly the Purkinje cells,..
  6. Becker E, Oliver P, Glitsch M, Banks G, Achilli F, Hardy A, et al. A point mutation in TRPC3 causes abnormal Purkinje cell development and cerebellar ataxia in moonwalker mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:6706-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report a previously undescribed dominant mouse model of cerebellar ataxia, moonwalker (Mwk), that displays motor and coordination defects and loss of cerebellar Purkinje cells...
  7. Liao K, Walker M, Leigh R. Abnormal vestibular responses to vertical head motion in cerebellar ataxia. Ann Neurol. 2008;64:224-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Impairment of the corresponding otolith-spinal reflexes may contribute substantially to falls...
  8. Shintaku M, Kaneda D. Chromosome 16q22.1-linked autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia: an autopsy case report with some new observations on cerebellar pathology. Neuropathology. 2009;29:285-92 pubmed publisher
    An autopsy case of chromosome 16q22.1-linked autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia is reported. The patient was a 77-year-old man who died after a clinical course of about 19 years characterized by pure cerebellar ataxia...
  9. Giles L, DelBello M, Gilbert D, Stanford K, Shear P, Strakowski S. Cerebellar ataxia in youths at risk for bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord. 2008;10:733-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study examined cerebellar function in youths who were at familial risk for BD by comparing ataxia battery scores of youths with a bipolar parent to those of healthy youths...
  10. Suraweera A, Lim Y, Woods R, Birrell G, Nasim T, Becherel O, et al. Functional role for senataxin, defective in ataxia oculomotor apraxia type 2, in transcriptional regulation. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:3384-96 pubmed publisher
    Ataxia oculomotor apraxia type 2 (AOA2) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cerebellar ataxia and oculomotor apraxia...
  11. Paquette C, Franzen E, Jones G, Horak F. Walking in circles: navigation deficits from Parkinson's disease but not from cerebellar ataxia. Neuroscience. 2011;190:177-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Our goal was to examine how Parkinson's disease (PD) and cerebellar ataxia, as human lesion models of the basal ganglia and cerebellum, affect spatial navigation round a circular ..
  12. Vermeer S, van de Warrenburg B, Willemsen M, Cluitmans M, Scheffer H, Kremer B, et al. Autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxias: the current state of affairs. J Med Genet. 2011;48:651-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The clinical and genetic characteristics of those forms with a known molecular genetic defect are discussed, along with the emerging insights in the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms...
  13. Grimaldi G, Manto M. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) decreases the amplitudes of long-latency stretch reflexes in cerebellar ataxia. Ann Biomed Eng. 2013;41:2437-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Anodal tDCS of the cerebellum represents a novel experimental tool to investigate the effects of the cerebellar cortex on the modulation of the amplitudes of LLSR. ..
  14. Schniepp R, Wuehr M, Neuhaeusser M, Kamenova M, Dimitriadis K, Klopstock T, et al. Locomotion speed determines gait variability in cerebellar ataxia and vestibular failure. Mov Disord. 2012;27:125-31 pubmed publisher
    ..A GAITRite system was used to analyze the gait of 40 patients with cerebellar ataxia, 22 patients with bilateral vestibular failure, and 51 healthy subjects over the entire range of the ..
  15. Liu C, Soong B, Lee Y, Chen W, Kuo C, Cheng W, et al. Gluten sensitivity: associated sporadic cerebellar ataxia in Taiwan. Acta Neurol Taiwan. 2010;19:263-9 pubmed
    ..Gluten sensitivity (GS) is related to the pathogenesis of sporadic or hereditary ataxia...
  16. Nanri K, Niwa H, Mitoma H, Takei A, Ikeda J, Harada T, et al. Low-titer anti-GAD-antibody-positive cerebellar ataxia. Cerebellum. 2013;12:171-5 pubmed publisher
    The majority of cases of anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)-antibody-positive cerebellar ataxia are reported to have high levels of anti-GAD antibody, and the diagnostic value of low titers of anti-GAD antibody in a patient with ..
  17. Gao Z, Todorov B, Barrett C, van Dorp S, Ferrari M, van den Maagdenberg A, et al. Cerebellar ataxia by enhanced Ca(V)2.1 currents is alleviated by Ca2+-dependent K+-channel activators in Cacna1a(S218L) mutant mice. J Neurosci. 2012;32:15533-46 pubmed publisher
    ..influx has been shown to reduce the regularity of cerebellar Purkinje cell activity and to induce episodic cerebellar ataxia. However, little is known about how ataxia can be caused by CACNA1A mutations that increase the Ca(2+) ..
  18. Freund J, Stetts D. Use of trunk stabilization and locomotor training in an adult with cerebellar ataxia: a single system design. Physiother Theory Pract. 2010;26:447-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Further research with additional subjects is indicated...
  19. Cheong B. Typhoid fever presenting as acute cerebellar ataxia and severe thrombocytopenia. Med J Malaysia. 2008;63:77-8 pubmed
    ..Here we describe a case of typhoid fever presenting with acute cerebellar ataxia and marked thrombocytopenia...
  20. Gerards M, van den Bosch B, Calis C, Schoonderwoerd K, van Engelen K, Tijssen M, et al. Nonsense mutations in CABC1/ADCK3 cause progressive cerebellar ataxia and atrophy. Mitochondrion. 2010;10:510-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Homozygosity mapping in a consanguineous family with three affected children with progressive cerebellar ataxia and atrophy revealed a candidate locus on chromosome 1, containing the CABC1/ADCK3 (the chaperone, ABC1 ..
  21. Liu S, Friel D. Impact of the leaner P/Q-type Ca2+ channel mutation on excitatory synaptic transmission in cerebellar Purkinje cells. J Physiol. 2008;586:4501-15 pubmed publisher
    Loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels cause cerebellar ataxia in mice and humans, but the underlying mechanism(s) are unknown...
  22. Utine G, Haliloglu G, Salanci B, Cetinkaya A, Kiper P, Alanay Y, et al. A homozygous deletion in GRID2 causes a human phenotype with cerebellar ataxia and atrophy. J Child Neurol. 2013;28:926-32 pubmed publisher
    ..with loss of GRID2 function was described only in mice until now, characterized by different degrees of cerebellar ataxia and usually relatively mild abnormalities of the cerebellum...
  23. Winkelmann J, Lin L, Schormair B, Kornum B, Faraco J, Plazzi G, et al. Mutations in DNMT1 cause autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia, deafness and narcolepsy. Hum Mol Genet. 2012;21:2205-10 pubmed publisher
    Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia, deafness and narcolepsy (ADCA-DN) is characterized by late onset (30-40 years old) cerebellar ataxia, sensory neuronal deafness, narcolepsy-cataplexy and dementia...
  24. Becker E, Zuliani L, Pettingill R, Lang B, Waters P, Dulneva A, et al. Contactin-associated protein-2 antibodies in non-paraneoplastic cerebellar ataxia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2012;83:437-40 pubmed publisher
    Relatively few studies have searched for potentially pathogenic antibodies in non-paraneoplastic patients with cerebellar ataxia.
  25. Spencer R, Ivry R. Sequence learning is preserved in individuals with cerebellar degeneration when the movements are directly cued. J Cogn Neurosci. 2009;21:1302-10 pubmed publisher
    ..this translation process was eliminated by having the stimuli directly indicate the response location, the cerebellar ataxia group demonstrated normal sequence learning...
  26. Goodworth A, Paquette C, Jones G, Block E, Fletcher W, Hu B, et al. Linear and angular control of circular walking in healthy older adults and subjects with cerebellar ataxia. Exp Brain Res. 2012;219:151-61 pubmed publisher
    ..and angular control of trunk and leg motion during curvilinear navigation was investigated in subjects with cerebellar ataxia and age-matched control subjects. Subjects walked with eyes open around a 1.2-m circle...
  27. Szmulewicz D, Waterston J, Halmagyi G, Mossman S, Chancellor A, McLean C, et al. Sensory neuropathy as part of the cerebellar ataxia neuropathy vestibular areflexia syndrome. Neurology. 2011;76:1903-10 pubmed publisher
    The syndrome of cerebellar ataxia with bilateral vestibulopathy was delineated in 2004. Sensory neuropathy was mentioned in 3 of the 4 patients described...
  28. Sevin C, Ferdinandusse S, Waterham H, Wanders R, Aubourg P. Autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia caused by mutations in the PEX2 gene. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2011;6:8 pubmed publisher
    To expand the spectrum of genetic causes of autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia (ARCA).
  29. Marsden J, Harris C. Cerebellar ataxia: pathophysiology and rehabilitation. Clin Rehabil. 2011;25:195-216 pubmed publisher
    ..The competency addressed in this article is 'The trainee consistently demonstrates a knowledge of management approaches for specific impairments including spasticity, ataxia.'..
  30. Zeng R, Farias F, Johnson G, McKay S, Schnabel R, Decker J, et al. A truncated retrotransposon disrupts the GRM1 coding sequence in Coton de Tulear dogs with Bandera's neonatal ataxia. J Vet Intern Med. 2011;25:267-72 pubmed publisher
    Bandera's neonatal ataxia (BNAt) is an autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia that affects members of the Coton de Tulear dog breed.
  31. Schicks J, Synofzik M, Schulte C, Schols L. POLG, but not PEO1, is a frequent cause of cerebellar ataxia in Central Europe. Mov Disord. 2010;25:2678-82 pubmed publisher
    ..the frequency and phenotypic spectrum of PEO1 compared to POLG mutations in a cohort of 80 patients with cerebellar ataxia for which common repeat expansion diseases had been excluded...
  32. Yoshida K, Shimizu Y, Morita H, Okano T, Sakai H, Ohata T, et al. Severity and progression rate of cerebellar ataxia in 16q-linked autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia (16q-ADCA) in the endemic Nagano Area of Japan. Cerebellum. 2009;8:46-51 pubmed publisher
    16q22.1-linked autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia (16q-ADCA) is a recently defined subtype of ADCA identified by a disease-specific C/T substitution in the 5' untranslated region of the puratrophin-1 gene...
  33. Hammer M, Eleuch Fayache G, Schottlaender L, Nehdi H, Gibbs J, Arepalli S, et al. Mutations in GBA2 cause autosomal-recessive cerebellar ataxia with spasticity. Am J Hum Genet. 2013;92:245-51 pubmed publisher
    Autosomal-recessive cerebellar ataxia (ARCA) comprises a large and heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders with more than 20 different forms currently recognized, many of which are also associated with increased tone and some ..
  34. Jezierska J, Stevanin G, Watanabe H, Fokkens M, Zagnoli F, Kok J, et al. Identification and characterization of novel PDYN mutations in dominant cerebellar ataxia cases. J Neurol. 2013;260:1807-12 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a screen of PDYN for mutations in 371 cerebellar ataxia cases, which had a positive family history; most are of French origin...
  35. Kolb L, Arlier Z, Yalcinkaya C, Ozturk A, Moliterno J, Erturk O, et al. Novel VLDLR microdeletion identified in two Turkish siblings with pachygyria and pontocerebellar atrophy. Neurogenetics. 2010;11:319-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Among these, disequilibrium syndrome describes a constellation of findings including non-progressive cerebellar ataxia, mental retardation, and cerebellar hypoplasia following an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance and ..
  36. Patel K, Green Hopkins I, Lu S, Tunkel A. Cerebellar ataxia following prolonged use of metronidazole: case report and literature review. Int J Infect Dis. 2008;12:e111-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Discontinuation of metronidazole almost always results in resolution of symptoms and structural lesions...
  37. Zanni G, Cali T, Kalscheuer V, Ottolini D, Barresi S, Lebrun N, et al. Mutation of plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase isoform 3 in a family with X-linked congenital cerebellar ataxia impairs Ca2+ homeostasis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:14514-9 pubmed publisher
    ..mutation (G1107D) in the CaM-binding domain of isoform 3 of the PMCAs in a family with X-linked congenital cerebellar ataxia. PMCA3 is highly expressed in the cerebellum, particularly in the presynaptic terminals of parallel fibers-..
  38. Mari S, Serrao M, Casali C, Conte C, Ranavolo A, Padua L, et al. Turning strategies in patients with cerebellar ataxia. Exp Brain Res. 2012;222:65-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients with cerebellar ataxia have unstable gait and report a high incidence of falls...
  39. Fitzpatrick L, Jackson M, Crowe S. Characterization of cerebellar ataxia in chronic alcoholics using the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS). Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2012;36:1942-51 pubmed publisher
    ..This study set out to characterize the frequency and pattern of clinical signs of ACD in an alcoholic group using the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS)...
  40. Turkmen S, Guo G, Garshasbi M, Hoffmann K, Alshalah A, Mischung C, et al. CA8 mutations cause a novel syndrome characterized by ataxia and mild mental retardation with predisposition to quadrupedal gait. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000487 pubmed publisher
  41. Emmanuele V, Lopez L, Lopez L, Berardo A, Naini A, Tadesse S, et al. Heterogeneity of coenzyme Q10 deficiency: patient study and literature review. Arch Neurol. 2012;69:978-83 pubmed publisher
    ..with 5 major clinical phenotypes: encephalomyopathy, severe infantile multisystemic disease, nephropathy, cerebellar ataxia, and isolated myopathy...
  42. Tamayev R, Matsuda S, Arancio O, D ADAMIO L. ?- but not ?-secretase proteolysis of APP causes synaptic and memory deficits in a mouse model of dementia. EMBO Mol Med. 2012;4:171-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data and the failures of anti-A? therapies in humans advise against targeting ?-secretase cleavage of APP and/or A?...
  43. Miyai I, Ito M, Hattori N, Mihara M, Hatakenaka M, Yagura H, et al. Cerebellar ataxia rehabilitation trial in degenerative cerebellar diseases. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2012;26:515-22 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate short- and long-term effects of intensive rehabilitation on ataxia, gait, and activities of daily living (ADLs) in patients with degenerative cerebellar disease...
  44. Federighi P, Cevenini G, Dotti M, Rosini F, Pretegiani E, Federico A, et al. Differences in saccade dynamics between spinocerebellar ataxia 2 and late-onset cerebellar ataxias. Brain. 2011;134:879-91 pubmed publisher
    ..10°-18°) were studied in seven patients with spinocerebellar ataxia 2, eight patients with late-onset cerebellar ataxia and 25 healthy controls...
  45. Vermeer S, Hoischen A, Meijer R, Gilissen C, Neveling K, Wieskamp N, et al. Targeted next-generation sequencing of a 12.5 Mb homozygous region reveals ANO10 mutations in patients with autosomal-recessive cerebellar ataxia. Am J Hum Genet. 2010;87:813-9 pubmed publisher
    ..technology, we identified a mutation in a gene and have shown its association with autosomal-recessive cerebellar ataxia. In a Dutch consanguineous family with three affected siblings a homozygous 12...
  46. Sato K, Yabe I, Fukuda Y, Soma H, Nakahara Y, Tsuji S, et al. Mapping of autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia without the pathogenic PPP2R2B mutation to the locus for spinocerebellar ataxia 12. Arch Neurol. 2010;67:1257-62 pubmed publisher
    To map the disease locus and to identify a gene mutation in a Japanese family with autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia.
  47. Moon J, Il Kim G, Koo Y, Kim H, Kim W, Kim O, et al. Kinetic tremor and cerebellar ataxia as initial manifestations of Kikuchi-Fujimoto's disease. J Neurol Sci. 2009;277:181-3 pubmed publisher
    ..This case of KFD involved unusual acute cerebellar symptoms. Selective involvement of the cerebellar system by viral or immunologic response may be attributed to acute cerebellar symptoms in KFD...
  48. Dewan P, Pooniya V, Kaushik J, Gomber S, Singhal S. Isolated cerebellar ataxia: an early neurological complication of enteric fever. Ann Trop Paediatr. 2009;29:217-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Although central nervous system involvement is not uncommon in enteric fever, acute cerebellar ataxia as a presenting feature is rare...
  49. Szmulewicz D, Waterston J, Macdougall H, Mossman S, Chancellor A, McLean C, et al. Cerebellar ataxia, neuropathy, vestibular areflexia syndrome (CANVAS): a review of the clinical features and video-oculographic diagnosis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2011;1233:139-47 pubmed publisher
    The association of bilateral vestibulopathy with cerebellar ataxia was first reported in 1991 and delineated as a distinct syndrome with a characteristic and measurable clinical sign--an absent visually enhanced vestibulo-ocular reflex--..
  50. Matsuda S, Tamayev R, D ADAMIO L. Increased A?PP processing in familial Danish dementia patients. J Alzheimers Dis. 2011;27:385-91 pubmed publisher
  51. Storey E, Bahlo M, Fahey M, Sisson O, Lueck C, Gardner R. A new dominantly inherited pure cerebellar ataxia, SCA 30. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2009;80:408-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Currently, 27 forms are known, with the causative gene identified in 16. Although the majority of dominant pedigrees worldwide have SCAs 1, 2, 3, 6 or 8, new SCAs continue to be delineated. We describe a new disorder: SCA 30...
  52. Jarius S, Wandinger K, Horn S, Heuer H, Wildemann B. A new Purkinje cell antibody (anti-Ca) associated with subacute cerebellar ataxia: immunological characterization. J Neuroinflammation. 2010;7:21 pubmed publisher
    ..serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) reactivity to Purkinje cells (PCs) associated with subacute inflammatory cerebellar ataxia. The patient, a previously healthy 33-year-old lady, presented with severe limb and gait ataxia, dysarthria, ..
  53. Strupp M, Teufel J, Habs M, Feuerecker R, Muth C, van de Warrenburg B, et al. Effects of acetyl-DL-leucine in patients with cerebellar ataxia: a case series. J Neurol. 2013;260:2556-61 pubmed publisher
    No existing medication has yet been shown to convincingly improve cerebellar ataxia. Therefore, the identification of new drugs for its symptomatic treatment is desirable...