post traumatic epilepsy

Summary

Summary: Recurrent seizures causally related to CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Seizure onset may be immediate but is typically delayed for several days after the injury and may not occur for up to two years. The majority of seizures have a focal onset that correlates clinically with the site of brain injury. Cerebral cortex injuries caused by a penetrating foreign object (CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, PENETRATING) are more likely than closed head injuries (HEAD INJURIES, CLOSED) to be associated with epilepsy. Concussive convulsions are nonepileptic phenomena that occur immediately after head injury and are characterized by tonic and clonic movements. (From Rev Neurol 1998 Feb;26(150):256-261; Sports Med 1998 Feb;25(2):131-6)

Top Publications

  1. Rinaldi A, Conti L. Posttraumatic epilepsy. Neurol Sci. 2003;24:229-30 pubmed
  2. Gupta Y, Gupta M. Post traumatic epilepsy: a review of scientific evidence. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2006;50:7-16 pubmed
    b>Post traumatic epilepsy is the development of recurrent seizures following head trauma and has a high clinical relevance. Several risk factors including some genetic factors increase the susceptibility of post traumatic epilepsy...
  3. Lauvrud C, Nonstad K, Palmstierna T. Occurrence of post traumatic stress symptoms and their relationship to professional quality of life (ProQoL) in nursing staff at a forensic psychiatric security unit: a cross-sectional study. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2009;7:31 pubmed publisher
    ..Implications of this high risk environment have not been systematically explored. This paper explores occurrence of symptoms on post traumatic stress and their relationship to professional quality of life...
  4. Mathews M, Smith W, Wintermark M, Dillon W, Binder D. Local cortical hypoperfusion imaged with CT perfusion during postictal Todd's paresis. Neuroradiology. 2008;50:397-401 pubmed publisher
    ..However, it is unclear whether the pathophysiology of Todd's paralysis is related to alterations in cerebral perfusion. We report CT perfusion findings in a patient presenting with postictal aphasia and right hemiparesis...
  5. Rappaport N. School-based interventions for children exposed to violence. JAMA. 2003;290:2541; author reply 2542 pubmed
  6. Neugebauer R. School-based interventions for children exposed to violence. JAMA. 2003;290:2541-2; author reply 2542 pubmed
  7. Schauer R, Singer M, Saltuari L, Kofler M. Suppression of cortical myoclonus by levetiracetam. Mov Disord. 2002;17:411-5 pubmed
    ..Add-on therapy with levetiracetam significantly improved the patient's clinical condition, suppressed cortical myoclonus-associated spikes, and enabled further neurorehabilitation...
  8. Berlucchi G, Aglioti S, Tassinari G. Rightward attentional bias and left hemisphere dominance in a cue-target light detection task in a callosotomy patient. Neuropsychologia. 1997;35:941-52 pubmed
    ..On the basis of several considerations the rightward bias could be attributed to the callosal interhemispheric disconnection rather than to the right prefrontal lesion...
  9. Stevens J. Traumatic brain injury. Kans Nurse. 2008;83:3-5 pubmed

More Information

Publications62

  1. Zalihic A, Zalihic D, Pivić G. Influence of posttraumatic stress disorder of the fathers on other family members. Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2008;8:20-6 pubmed
  2. Nita D, Cisse Y, Timofeev I, Steriade M. Waking-sleep modulation of paroxysmal activities induced by partial cortical deafferentation. Cereb Cortex. 2007;17:272-83 pubmed
  3. Pagni C, Zenga F. Posttraumatic epilepsy with special emphasis on prophylaxis and prevention. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2005;93:27-34 pubmed
    ..Some of them (phosphate diester of vitamin E and C, melatonin, vanillyl alcohol) may be employed in clinical practice, but up to date there is no controlled study in human beings...
  4. D AMBROSIO R, Fairbanks J, Fender J, Born D, Doyle D, Miller J. Post-traumatic epilepsy following fluid percussion injury in the rat. Brain. 2004;127:304-14 pubmed
  5. Latronico N, Cagnazzi E. Antiepileptic drug prophylaxis in severe traumatic brain injury. Neurology. 2003;61:1161-2; author reply 1162 pubmed
  6. Oquendo M, Echavarria G, Galfalvy H, Grunebaum M, Burke A, Barrera A, et al. Lower cortisol levels in depressed patients with comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2003;28:591-8 pubmed
    ..The findings underscore the impact of comorbidity of PTSD with MDE and highlight the importance of considering comorbidity in psychobiology...
  7. Santhakumar V, Ratzliff A, Jeng J, Toth Z, Soltesz I. Long-term hyperexcitability in the hippocampus after experimental head trauma. Ann Neurol. 2001;50:708-17 pubmed
    ..These persistent structural and functional alterations in inhibitory and excitatory circuits are likely to influence the development of hyperexcitable foci in posttraumatic limbic circuits...
  8. Adams J, Graham D, Jennett B. The structural basis of moderate disability after traumatic brain damage. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2001;71:521-4 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the dominant lesion was focal damage from an evacuated intracranial haematoma. Severe diffuse damage was not found, with diffuse axonal injury only mild and thalamic damage in only one patient...
  9. Kuwabara T, Fukushima T, Makino K, Kondo H. Epileptic seizure, cataract, and tongue atrophy during the 8 years after electrical brain injury. Intern Med. 2009;48:1179-82 pubmed
    ..Systemic EMG examination revealed neuropathic changes in both (interossei dorsalis) IODs, the right biceps, right tongue, and right masseter muscles...
  10. Jyoti A, Sethi P, Sharma D. Aging accelerates the progression and manifestation of seizures in post-traumatic model of epilepsy. Neurosci Lett. 2009;453:86-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The observed biochemical and microscopic alterations associated with old age positively correlate with the altered susceptibility to develop seizures in old epileptic groups...
  11. Lowenstein D. Epilepsy after head injury: an overview. Epilepsia. 2009;50 Suppl 2:4-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Given current events in the Middle East and elsewhere, the importance of TBI and epilepsy deserves special attention due to the increase in severe head trauma associated with modern warfare...
  12. Jones K, Puccio A, Harshman K, Falcione B, Benedict N, Jankowitz B, et al. Levetiracetam versus phenytoin for seizure prophylaxis in severe traumatic brain injury. Neurosurg Focus. 2008;25:E3 pubmed publisher
    ..In the current study, the authors compare the EEG findings in patients receiving phenytoin with those receiving levetiracetam monotherapy for seizure prophylaxis following severe TBI...
  13. Hunt E. Phenytoin in traumatic brain injury. Arch Dis Child. 2002;86:62-3 pubmed
  14. Elzinga B, Bremner J. Are the neural substrates of memory the final common pathway in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)?. J Affect Disord. 2002;70:1-17 pubmed
    ..This model is also relevant for understanding the distinction between declarative and non-declarative memory-functions in processing trauma-related information in PTSD. Implications of our model are reviewed...
  15. Hudak A, Trivedi K, Harper C, Booker K, Caesar R, Agostini M, et al. Evaluation of seizure-like episodes in survivors of moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2004;19:290-5 pubmed
    ..However, as such therapy is frequently ineffective, we studied the usefulness of prolonged video electroencephalogram (VEEG) monitoring in the clinical management of paroxysmal behaviors in TBI survivors...
  16. Gordon W, Zafonte R, Cicerone K, Cantor J, Brown M, Lombard L, et al. Traumatic brain injury rehabilitation: state of the science. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2006;85:343-82 pubmed
  17. Herman S. Clinical trials for prevention of epileptogenesis. Epilepsy Res. 2006;68:35-8 pubmed
    ..Issues revolve around selection of subjects, consent for participation, length of follow-up, and selection of an appropriate endpoint. The use of biomarkers are a possible solution in future research...
  18. Al Okaili R, Schwartz E. Bilateral aortic origins of the vertebral arteries with right vertebral artery arising distal to left subclavian artery: case report. Surg Neurol. 2007;67:174-6; discussion 176 pubmed
    ..Bilateral aortic origins of the vertebral arteries are a rare anatomic variant, with fewer than 20 cases reported in the literature. This particular variant has only been reported twice...
  19. Pitkanen A, Immonen R, Gröhn O, Kharatishvili I. From traumatic brain injury to posttraumatic epilepsy: what animal models tell us about the process and treatment options. Epilepsia. 2009;50 Suppl 2:21-9 pubmed publisher
  20. Kim C, Moberg Wolff E, Trovato M, Kim H, Murphy N. Pediatric rehabilitation: 1. Common medical conditions in children with disabilities. PM R. 2010;2:S3-S11 pubmed publisher
    ..The goal of this article is to enhance the learner's knowledge regarding current physiatric management of complications related with pediatric traumatic brain injury and cerebral palsy...
  21. Iudice A, Murri L. Pharmacological prophylaxis of post-traumatic epilepsy. Drugs. 2000;59:1091-9 pubmed
    ..New compounds, such as free-radical scavengers and antiperoxidants, show encouraging experimental results, but their clinical use is still very limited...
  22. Rafiq A, Gong Q, Lyeth B, Delorenzo R, Coulter D. Induction of prolonged electrographic seizures in vitro has a defined threshold and is all or none: implications for diagnosis of status epilepticus. Epilepsia. 2003;44:1034-41 pubmed
    ..To study whether induction of prolonged (>30-min duration) in vitro electrographic seizure discharges resembling status epilepticus (SE) is graded or all-or-none, and to determine the critical factors mediating SE induction...
  23. D AMBROSIO R, Fender J, Fairbanks J, Simon E, Born D, Doyle D, et al. Progression from frontal-parietal to mesial-temporal epilepsy after fluid percussion injury in the rat. Brain. 2005;128:174-88 pubmed
    ..These observations establish numerous similarities between FPI-induced and human PTE and further validate it as a clinically relevant model of PTE...
  24. Kharazia V, Prince D. Changes of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate receptors in layer V of epileptogenic, chronically isolated rat neocortex. Neuroscience. 2001;102:23-34 pubmed
    ..A sub-population of layer V neurons remains relatively unaffected, and would presumably be capable of generating fast glutamatergic synaptic potentials necessary for the development of synchronous epileptiform activity...
  25. Raymont V, Salazar A, Lipsky R, Goldman D, Tasick G, Grafman J. Correlates of posttraumatic epilepsy 35 years following combat brain injury. Neurology. 2010;75:224-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The high prevalence (45%-53%) of posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) in this unique cohort makes it valuable for study...
  26. Joseph A, Wroblewski B. Potentially toxic serum concentrations of desipramine after discontinuation of valproic acid. Brain Inj. 1993;7:463-5 pubmed
    ..This case demonstrates the important point that it is not simply the addition of one drug to another that may cause interaction, but the withdrawal of a particular drug which may then adversely impact the remaining drug regimen...
  27. Hunt R, Scheff S, Smith B. Posttraumatic epilepsy after controlled cortical impact injury in mice. Exp Neurol. 2009;215:243-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Identifying experimental injury models that exhibit similar pathology to injury-induced epilepsy in humans should help to elucidate the mechanisms by which the injured brain becomes epileptic...
  28. McKinney R, Debanne D, Gahwiler B, Thompson S. Lesion-induced axonal sprouting and hyperexcitability in the hippocampus in vitro: implications for the genesis of posttraumatic epilepsy. Nat Med. 1997;3:990-6 pubmed
    ..We thus demonstrate that recurrent axon collaterals are newly sprouted by pyramidal cells as a consequence of axonal injury and suggest that this underlies the development of posttraumatic epilepsy...
  29. Vojvodic N, Sokic D, Jankovic S, Rasulic L. [Concussive convulsions in the differential diagnosis of post-traumatic epilepsy]. Srp Arh Celok Lek. 2002;130:274-7 pubmed
    ..They returned to their occupations after four weeks without problems for a further one year...
  30. Diaz Arrastia R, Agostini M, Madden C, Van Ness P. Posttraumatic epilepsy: the endophenotypes of a human model of epileptogenesis. Epilepsia. 2009;50 Suppl 2:14-20 pubmed publisher
    ..It is likely that better understanding of the subtypes of epilepsy resulting from brain trauma will be required to successfully identify antiepileptogenic therapies...
  31. Angeleri F, Majkowski J, Cacchio G, Sobieszek A, D Acunto S, Gesuita R, et al. Posttraumatic epilepsy risk factors: one-year prospective study after head injury. Epilepsia. 1999;40:1222-30 pubmed
  32. Agrawal A, Cincu R, Timothy J. Corticosteroids and head injury. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2008;110:421-2 pubmed publisher
  33. Chen J, Ruff R, Eavey R, Wasterlain C. Posttraumatic epilepsy and treatment. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2009;46:685-96 pubmed
    ..Optimal seizure control is essential to the physical and emotional health of veterans with TBI and to their ability to lead productive lives...
  34. Jaramillo M, Stewart K, Kolhe P. Phenytoin induced rhinophyma treated by excision and full thickness skin grafting. Br J Plast Surg. 2000;53:521-3 pubmed
    ..Radical excision of the affected skin followed by full thickness skin graft nasal reconstruction should be considered for cases of recurrent severe rhinophyma with inclusion cysts to eradicate chronic infection and improve cosmesis...
  35. McCrory P, Berkovic S. Video analysis of acute motor and convulsive manifestations in sport-related concussion. Neurology. 2000;54:1488-91 pubmed
    ..To describe the motor and convulsive manifestations in acute sports-related head injury...
  36. Echegoyen J, Armstrong C, Morgan R, Soltesz I. Single application of a CB1 receptor antagonist rapidly following head injury prevents long-term hyperexcitability in a rat model. Epilepsy Res. 2009;85:123-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that, paradoxically, a seizure-enhancing drug may disrupt the epileptogenic process if applied within a short therapeutic time window...
  37. Kumar R, Gupta R, Husain M, Vatsal D, Chawla S, Rathore R, et al. Magnetization transfer MR imaging in patients with posttraumatic epilepsy. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2003;24:218-24 pubmed
    ..This study was performed to determine the severity of tissue damage after severe head injury as assessed with magnetization transfer (MT) MR imaging and the relationship of this damage with seizure intractability...
  38. Dichter M. Posttraumatic epilepsy: the challenge of translating discoveries in the laboratory to pathways to a cure. Epilepsia. 2009;50 Suppl 2:41-5 pubmed publisher
  39. Tani H, Bandrowski A, Parada I, Wynn M, Huguenard J, Prince D, et al. Modulation of epileptiform activity by glutamine and system A transport in a model of post-traumatic epilepsy. Neurobiol Dis. 2007;25:230-8 pubmed
  40. Benardo L. Prevention of epilepsy after head trauma: do we need new drugs or a new approach?. Epilepsia. 2003;44:27-33 pubmed
    ..A pilot study is proposed to begin to translate these findings to explore the feasibility of early VPA delivery to severe head trauma patients admitted to Kings County Hospital Center in Brooklyn, NY, a Level 1 trauma center...
  41. Mandat T, Potakiewicz Z, Bolewski J, Matuszewska A, Podgorski J. [Posttraumatic visual agnosia and epilepsy as a consequence of gunshot injury to the head. Case report]. Neurol Neurochir Pol. 2002;36:403-11 pubmed
    ..During the treatment extremely infrequently occurring posttraumatic visual agnosia and posttraumatic epilepsy were observed. Twenty-two months after operation the patient is independent and professionally active...
  42. Andelic N, Hammergren N, Bautz Holter E, Sveen U, Brunborg C, Røe C. Functional outcome and health-related quality of life 10 years after moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury. Acta Neurol Scand. 2009;120:16-23 pubmed publisher
    ..To describe the functional outcome and health-related quality of life (HRQL) 10 years after moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
  43. Hobfoll S, Walter K, Horsey K. Commentary on "Does psychoeducation help prevent post traumatic psychological distress?" Dose and fit are vital to intervention success. Psychiatry. 2008;71:308-18 pubmed publisher
    ..The current commentary emphasizes the need for all interventions to either bring new resources or activate or allow existing resources to be utilized, and it highlights the need for a consideration of the event-intervention fit...
  44. Eftekhar B, Sahraian M, Nouralishahi B, Khaji A, Vahabi Z, Ghodsi M, et al. Prognostic factors in the persistence of posttraumatic epilepsy after penetrating head injuries sustained in war. J Neurosurg. 2009;110:319-26 pubmed publisher
  45. Srivastava A, Gupta S, Jain S, Gupta Y. Effect of melatonin and phenytoin on an intracortical ferric chloride model of posttraumatic seizures in rats. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 2002;24:145-9 pubmed
    ..These findings showed a superior protective effect of melatonin over phenytoin in an intracortical FeCl3 model of posttraumatic epilepsy...
  46. Marcinkowski J, Kaczmarek T, Klimberg A. [Driver and epilepsy]. Arch Med Sadowej Kryminol. 2007;57:62-6 pubmed
    ..The described situations point to the necessity of: 1) striving for the highest possible objectivity of diagnosing epilepsy, and 2) standardization of criteria for certification of epilepsy...
  47. Avakian G, Lebedeva N, Pashnin A. [Nonlinear EEG analysis in prognosis of pharmacoresistant therapy and evaluation of using millimeter (MM) therapy in its treatment]. Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2007;107:42-5 pubmed
  48. Morino M, Shimizu H, Ishibashi K, Sakamoto S, Tsuyuguchi N, Ohata K, et al. Effectiveness of cerebral hemispherotomy for improving behavioral disorders associated with intractable post-traumatic seizures. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2006;46:182-5 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that the effects of seizures may be reversible in brain areas connected with, but remote from, the epileptogenic cortex...
  49. Ljesević B, Martinovic Z, Popovic M, Jović S. [Visual vs. quantitative electroencephalographic analysis in patients with and without posttraumatic epilepsy]. Med Pregl. 2010;63:40-6 pubmed
  50. Vespa P, Miller C, McArthur D, Eliseo M, Etchepare M, Hirt D, et al. Nonconvulsive electrographic seizures after traumatic brain injury result in a delayed, prolonged increase in intracranial pressure and metabolic crisis. Crit Care Med. 2007;35:2830-6 pubmed
    ..To determine whether nonconvulsive electrographic post-traumatic seizures result in increases in intracranial pressure and microdialysis lactate/pyruvate ratio...
  51. Kharatishvili I, Immonen R, Gröhn O, Pitkanen A. Quantitative diffusion MRI of hippocampus as a surrogate marker for post-traumatic epileptogenesis. Brain. 2007;130:3155-68 pubmed
    ..These results for the first time demonstrate that quantitative diffusion MRI can serve as a tool to facilitate prediction of increased seizure susceptibility in a clinically relevant model of human PTE...
  52. Bushnik T, Englander J, Duong T. Medical and social issues related to posttraumatic seizures in persons with traumatic brain injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2004;19:296-304 pubmed
    ..The incidence of late posttraumatic seizures (LPTS) in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) ranges anywhere from 5% to 18.9% in civilian populations up to 32% to 50% in military personnel...
  53. Suárez J, Bulacio J, Armelini P, Sfaello Z, Viano J, Herrera E, et al. Surgical treatment of late-onset post-traumatic partial seizures in a child. Childs Nerv Syst. 2004;20:434-7 pubmed
    ..Although post-traumatic epilepsy accounts for a small number of epileptic patients, it should not be underestimated since it primarily affects children and young adults and can result in psychosocial disability and death...