pneumocephalus

Summary

Summary: Presence of air or gas within the intracranial cavity (e.g., epidural space, subdural space, intracerebral, etc.) which may result from traumatic injuries, fistulous tract formation, erosions of the skull from NEOPLASMS or infection, NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES, and other conditions.

Top Publications

  1. Mineo J, Phong D, Seizeur R, Mériot P, Besson G. Delayed isolated tension intraventricular pneumocephalus after ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Neurochirurgie. 2004;50:96-100 pubmed
    Delayed and isolated tension intraventricular pneumocephalus without air in the pericerebral subarachnoid spaces is an exceptional complication of a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt...
  2. Honeybul S, Bala A. Delayed pneumocephalus following shunting for hydrocephalus. J Clin Neurosci. 2006;13:939-42 pubmed
    Delayed pneumocephalus is a rare but well-reported complication of cerebrospinal fluid diversion procedures. In most cases the air enters the intracranial cavity via a skull base defect...
  3. Ohe Y, Maruyama H, Deguchi I, Fukuoka T, Kato Y, Nagoya H, et al. An adult case of pneumocephalus and pneumococcal meningitis associated with the sphenoid sinusitis. Intern Med. 2012;51:1129-31 pubmed
    ..of multiple air pockets in the basilar cistern, and we diagnosed pneumococcal meningitis complicated with pneumocephalus. Multiple cerebral infarctions were found on brain MRI after admission...
  4. Thompson T, Levy E, Kanal E, Lunsford L. Iatrogenic pneumocephalus secondary to intravenous catheterization. Case report. J Neurosurg. 1999;91:878-80 pubmed
    The presence of pneumocephalus in a patient without a history of undergoing intracranial or intrathecal procedures is a significant radiographic finding that portends a violation of the dural barrier or the presence of infection...
  5. van den Berg A, Nguyen L, Von Maszewski M, Hoefer H. Unexplained fitting in patients with post-dural puncture headache. Risk of iatrogenic pneumocephalus with air rationalizes use of loss of resistance to saline. Br J Anaesth. 2003;90:810-1; author reply 811-2 pubmed
  6. Rao G, Apfelbaum R. Symptomatic pneumocephalus occurring years after transphenoidal surgery and radiation therapy for an invasive pituitary tumor: a case report and review of the literature. Pituitary. 2003;6:49-52 pubmed
    We present the unusual case of a patient who experienced a CSF leak and subsequent pneumocephalus several years after transphenoidal surgery and radiation treatment for an ACTH secreting pituitary tumor...
  7. Ozturk E, Kantarci M, Karaman K, Basekim C, Kizilkaya E. Diffuse pneumocephalus associated with infratentorial and supratentorial hemorrhages as a complication of spinal surgery. Acta Radiol. 2006;47:497-500 pubmed
    ..Both computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed diffuse pneumocephalus and infra- and supratentorial hemorrhages...
  8. Zhao N, Wang D, Huang X, Karri S, Wu H, Zheng M. Spontaneous otogenic pneumocephalus presenting with occipital subcutaneous emphysema as primary symptom: could tension gas cause the destruction of cranial bones?. J Neurosurg. 2011;115:679-83 pubmed publisher
    The authors report, to the best of their knowledge, the first case of a spontaneous tension pneumocephalus with subcutaneous emphysema...
  9. Kamide T, Nakada M, Hayashi Y, Hayashi Y, Uchiyama N, Hamada J. Intraparenchymal pneumocephalus caused by ethmoid sinus osteoma. J Clin Neurosci. 2009;16:1487-9 pubmed publisher
    We report a 57-year-old man with intraparenchymal pneumocephalus caused by ethmoid sinus osteoma...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Kuo C, Wang J, Chien J, Chen Y, Wu V, Tsai C, et al. Nontraumatic pneumocephalus due to nosocomial Enterobacter cloacae infection. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2010;66:108-10 pubmed publisher
    ..We present a case of Enterobacter cloacae meningitis complicated with a nontraumatic pneumocephalus. Maintaining a high index of suspicion of nosocomial meningitis is crucial in patients with acute delirium and ..
  2. Leong K, Vijayananthan A, Sia S, Waran V. Pneumocephalus: an uncommon finding in trauma. Med J Malaysia. 2008;63:256-8 pubmed
    b>Pneumocephalus (Intracranial aerocele), defined as intracranial air, is an uncommon complication in head injury patients. It can present immediately following head trauma or be delayed for many days before clinical symptoms occur...
  3. Nagai H, Moritake K. Otogenic tension pneumocephalus complicated by eustachian tube insufflation in a patient with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Case report. J Neurosurg. 2007;106:1098-101 pubmed
    Spontaneous tension pneumocephalus (TPC) related to shunt surgery has sometimes been reported with reference to the Valsalva maneuver and osseous defects of the tegmen tympani...
  4. Ruiz Juretschke F, Mateo Sierra O, Iza Vallejo B, Carrillo Yagüe R. [Intraventricular tension pneumocephalus after transsphenoidal surgery: a case report and literature review]. Neurocirugia (Astur). 2007;18:134-7 pubmed
    Tension pneumocephalus is a rare complication of transsphenoidal approaches. The case of a 37 year old woman with a transsphenoidal resection of a pituitary adenoma who presented self-limited rhinoliquorrhea postoperatively is reported...
  5. Goh B, Yeo A. Traumatic pneumorrhachis. J Trauma. 2005;58:875-9 pubmed
    ..We also discuss the significance of this entity to the trauma specialist, paying special attention to the differences between air in the subarachnoid space versus air in the epidural space...
  6. Hashimoto Y, Doita M, Hasuda K, Korosue K. Intracerebral pneumocephalus and hemiparesis as a complication of a halo vest in a patient with multiple myeloma. Case report. J Neurosurg. 2004;100:367-71 pubmed
    ..as pin loosening or brain abscess have been reported, there are no reported cases of hemiparesis following pneumocephalus associated with halo use...
  7. Mirza S, Saeed S, Ramsden R. Extensive tension pneumocephalus complicating continuous lumbar CSF drainage for the management of CSF rhinorrhoea. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 2003;65:215-8 pubmed
    We report a case of tension pneumocephalus developing after a continuous lumbar CSF drain had been inserted for the treatment of CSF rhinorrhoea following translabyrinthine removal of a vestibular schwannoma...
  8. Lee L, Lieu F, Chen Y, Hung T, Chen S. Tension pneumocephalus as a complication of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in a patient with chronic traumatic brain injury. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2012;91:528-32 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a case of chronic traumatic brain injury that progressed to tension pneumocephalus after hyperbaric oxygen therapy...
  9. Sloan T. The incidence, volume, absorption, and timing of supratentorial pneumocephalus during posterior fossa neurosurgery conducted in the sitting position. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2010;22:59-66 pubmed publisher
    Supratentorial pneumocephalus (STP) is a known complication of neurosurgical procedures of the posterior fossa when conducted in the sitting position...
  10. Kon T, Hondo H, Kohno M, Kasahara K. Severe tension pneumocephalus caused by opening of the frontal sinus by head injury 7 years after initial craniotomy--case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2003;43:242-5 pubmed
    A 46-year-old man presented with severe tension pneumocephalus triggered by mild head injury 7 years after craniotomy...
  11. Tugcu B, Tanriverdi O, Gunaldi O, Baydin S, Postalci L, Akdemir H. Delayed intraventricular tension pneumocephalus due to scalp-ventricle fistula: a very rare complication of shunt surgery. Turk Neurosurg. 2009;19:276-80 pubmed
    Although pneumocephalus and pneumoventricle are well known entities in neurosurgery practice, delayed intraventricular tension pneumocephalus following shunt surgery is extremely rare.
  12. Pooboni S, Mathur S, Dux A, Hewertson J, Nichani S. Pneumocephalus in neonatal meningitis: diffuse, necrotizing meningo-encephalitis in Citrobacter meningitis presenting with pneumatosis oculi and pneumocephalus. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2004;5:393-5 pubmed
    ..We describe the evolution of the clinical picture and the management...
  13. Ellamushi H, Hussein J, Harkness W. Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhoea and pneumocephalus following temporal lobectomy for epilepsy. Br J Neurosurg. 2000;14:565-7 pubmed
    ..CT revealed marked intraventricular pneumocephalus with breached air cells in the pneumatized lower part of temporal bone...
  14. Fix A, Lang V. A complication of forceful nose-blowing. Am J Med. 2007;120:328-9 pubmed
  15. Nafiu O, Urquhart J. Pneumocephalus with headache complicating labour epidural analgesia: should we still be using air?. Int J Obstet Anesth. 2006;15:237-9 pubmed
    b>Pneumocephalus is a rare complication of epidural block which typically occurs when the loss of resistance to air technique is used to identify the epidural space...
  16. Añorbe E, Aisa P, Saenz de Ormijana J. Spontaneous pneumatocele and pneumocephalus associated with mastoid hyperpneumatization. Eur J Radiol. 2000;36:158-60 pubmed
    We present a case of spontaneous pneumatocele and pneumocephalus associated with mastoid hyperpneumatization...
  17. Nazzaro J, Lyons K, Honea R, Mayo M, Cook Wiens G, Harsha A, et al. Head positioning and risk of pneumocephalus, air embolism, and hemorrhage during subthalamic deep brain stimulation surgery. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2010;152:2047-52 pubmed publisher
    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the risk of pneumocephalus, venous air embolism (VAE), and intracranial hemorrhage in subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) patients operated in the strict supine (head ..
  18. Hyam J, Morgan L, Mendoza N. Coma caused by spontaneous otogenic pneumocephalus. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2008;110:62-4 pubmed
    We present the first case of spontaneous otogenic pneumocephalus presenting with a rapid deterioration in conscious level...
  19. Adamides A, Goldschlager T, Tulloch S, McMahon J. Pneumocephalus from gas-forming Escherichia coli subdural empyema. Br J Neurosurg. 2007;21:299-300 pubmed
  20. Becker W. Pneumocephalus as a cause for headache. Can J Neurol Sci. 2002;29:278-81 pubmed
    b>Pneumocephalus can be a cause of headache, but is easily overlooked in some clinical circumstances.
  21. Hawley J, Ney J, Swanberg M. Subarachnoid pneumocephalus from epidural steroid injection. Headache. 2005;45:247-8 pubmed
    ..We present a case of severe posterior headache and diplopia following an epidural steroid injection for lumbar pain...
  22. Kassim Z, Aziz A, Haque Q, Cheung H. Isolation of Proteus mirabilis from severe neonatal sepsis and central nervous system infection with extensive pneumocephalus. Eur J Pediatr. 2003;162:644-5 pubmed
  23. Richards S, Saeed S, Laitt R, Ramsden R. Hypercellularity of the mastoid as a cause of spontaneous pneumocephalus. J Laryngol Otol. 2004;118:474-6 pubmed
    ..The aetiology of pneumocephalus is discussed and a review of the pertinent literature is also presented.
  24. Sankhla S, Khan G, Khan M. Delayed tension pneumocephalus: a rare complication of shunt surgery. Neurol India. 2004;52:401-2 pubmed
  25. Mirone G, Rotondo M, Scuotto A, Bocchetti A, D Avanzo R, Natale M, et al. Spontaneous intraparenchymal tension pneumocephalus triggered by compulsive forceful nose blowing. Emerg Med J. 2009;26:837-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Spontaneous tension pneumocephalus is a rare life-threatening condition which is often caused by a bone defect near the tegmen tympani...
  26. Schirmer C, Heilman C, Bhardwaj A. Pneumocephalus: case illustrations and review. Neurocrit Care. 2010;13:152-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Pneumocephalus is commonly encountered after neurosurgical procedures but can also be caused by craniofacial trauma and tumors of the skull base and rarely, can occur spontaneously...
  27. Mohammed E, Profant M. Spontaneous otogenic pneumocephalus. Acta Otolaryngol. 2011;131:670-4 pubmed publisher
    The diagnosis and management of spontaneous otogenic pneumocephalus with literature review is described. A young sportsman experienced headache and fluctuating mass in his occiput during increased physical activity...
  28. Bhattacharyya N, Friedlander R. Images in clinical medicine. Pneumocephalus associated with pneumosinus dilatans frontalis. N Engl J Med. 2007;357:1136 pubmed
  29. Castro Castro J, Torre Eiriz J, Pinzón Millán A, Pastor Zapata A. [Cabergoline-induced tension pneumocephalus in a patient with giant invasive prolactinoma. Case report]. Neurocirugia (Astur). 2011;22:558-61; discussion 561 pubmed
    ..b>Pneumocephalus and cerebrospinal fluid leakage have been reported...
  30. Sasani M, Ozer F, Oktenoglu T, Tokatli I, Sarioglu A. Delayed and isolated intraventricular tension pneumocephalus after shunting for normal pressure hydrocephalus. Neurol India. 2007;55:81-2 pubmed
  31. Wessling H, de las Heras P. Spontaneous acute subdural haematoma caused by tension pneumocephalus. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2005;147:89-92; discussion 92 pubmed
    We describe the first case of spontaneous acute subdural haematoma (SASH) caused by tension pneumocephalus in a patient who had undergone surgery for sinusitis followed by meningitis many years previously...
  32. Chan E, Meiteles L. Otogenic tension pneumocephalus caused by therapeutic lumbar CSF drainage for post-traumatic hydrocephalus: a case report. Ear Nose Throat J. 2007;86:391-3, 405 pubmed
    Tension pneumocephalus occurs when a continuous flow of air accumulates in the intracranial cavity and produces a mass effect on the brain...
  33. Yuksel M, Yuksel K, Ozdemir G, Ugur T. Bilateral orbital emphysema and pneumocephalus as a result of accidental compressed air exposure. Emerg Radiol. 2007;13:195-8 pubmed
    ..Bilateral orbital emphysema with pneumocephalus can occur from a high-pressure compressed air injury after unilateral conjunctival trauma without any evidence ..
  34. Kuncz A, Roos A, Lujber L, Haas D, Al Refai M. Traumatic prepontine tension pneumocephalus--case report. Ideggyogy Sz. 2004;57:313-5 pubmed
    A case of prepontine tension pneumocephalus after temporal bone fracture is presented.
  35. Bahloul K, Kalamarides M, Bouccara D, Sterkers O, Rey A. [Spontaneous otogenic pneumocephalus]. Neurochirurgie. 2003;49:110-3 pubmed
    Otogenic pneumocephalus is uncommon. Typical causes include trauma, tumor, infection, and nasosinusal or mastoid surgery but spontaneous otogenic pneumocephalus is very exceptional...
  36. Sharifabad M, Gianatiempo C, Gharibshahi S. Pneumocephalus: a case report and review of article. Int J Clin Pract. 2007;61:74-6 pubmed
    ..Shunt revision was planned emergently, and broad-spectrum antibiotics were started. The patient recovered and was discharged in her usual state of health...
  37. Krayenbuhl N, Alkadhi H, Jung H, Yonekawa Y. Spontaneous otogenic intracerebral pneumocephalus: case report and review of the literature. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2005;262:135-8 pubmed
    b>Pneumocephalus is commonly associated with head and facial trauma, ear infection or surgical interventions. We describe the rare case of a spontaneous pneumocephalus arising from lateral mastoid air cells...
  38. Jensen M, Adams H. Pneumocephalus after air travel. Neurology. 2004;63:400-1 pubmed
  39. Lucas D, Kennedy A, Dob D. Dural puncture and iatrogenic pneumocephalus with subsequent transverse myelitis in a parturient. Can J Anaesth. 2000;47:1103-6 pubmed
    To report a case of transverse myelitis following inadvertent dural puncture and iatrogenic pneumocephalus and any possible causal relationship is explored.
  40. Tucker A, Miyake H, Tsuji M, Ukita T, Nishihara K, Ito S, et al. Spontaneous epidural pneumocephalus. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2008;48:474-8 pubmed
    A 20-year-old male presented with an extremely rare spontaneous epidural pneumocephalus which was successfully treated by a single neurosurgical intervention...
  41. Bilsky M, Downey R, Kaplitt M, Elowitz E, Rusch V. Tension pneumocephalus resulting from iatrogenic subarachnoid-pleural fistulae: report of three cases. Ann Thorac Surg. 2001;71:455-7 pubmed
    Symptomatic pneumocephalus may result from a cerebrospinal fluid leak communicating with extradural air. However, it is a rare event after thoracic surgical procedures, and its management and physiology are not widely recognized.
  42. Reddy H, Queen S, Prakash D, Jilaihawi A. Tension pneumocephalus: an unusual complication after lung resection. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2003;24:171-3 pubmed
    ..The fluid from the drain was positive for Beta-2 transferrin signifying cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistula. Patient recovered completely with conservative management...
  43. Saito K, Inamasu J, Kuramae T, Nakatsukasa M, Kawamura F. Tension pneumocephalus as a complication of lumbar drainage for cerebral aneurysm surgery--case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2009;49:252-4 pubmed
    A 66-year-old man developed tension pneumocephalus after failed lumbar drainage before clipping surgery for a ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm...
  44. Gore P, Maan H, Chang S, Pitt A, Spetzler R, Nakaji P. Normobaric oxygen therapy strategies in the treatment of postcraniotomy pneumocephalus. J Neurosurg. 2008;108:926-9 pubmed publisher
    Postsurgical pneumocephalus is an unavoidable sequela of craniotomy. Sufficiently large volumes of intracranial air can cause headaches, lethargy, and neurological deficits...
  45. Yildiz A, Duce M, Ozer C, Apaydin F, Egilmez H, Kara E. Disseminated pneumocephalus secondary to an unusual facial trauma. Eur J Radiol. 2002;42:65-8 pubmed
    b>Pneumocephalus can be secondary to a postintrathecal procedure, sinus fracture, basilar skull fracture, congenital skull defect, neoplasm, gas producing organism, barotrauma, neurosurgery, paranasal sinus surgery, mask or nasal continuous ..
  46. Schrijver H, Berendse H. Pneumocephalus by Valsalva's maneuver. Neurology. 2003;60:345-6 pubmed
  47. Kuo M, Lien W, Wang H, Chen W. Nontraumatic tension pneumocephalus--a differential diagnosis of headache at the ED. Am J Emerg Med. 2005;23:235-6 pubmed
  48. Bunc G, Roskar Z, Vorsic M. Pneumocephalus secondary to a neck stab wound without neurologic injury in a 13-year-old girl. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2001;34:239-41 pubmed
    b>Pneumocephalus is usually caused by injury that damages the brain meninges and thus allows air to enter the intracranial cavity...
  49. Barada W, Najjar M, Beydoun A. Early onset tension pneumocephalus following ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion for normal pressure hydrocephalus: a case report. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2009;111:300-2 pubmed publisher
    The occurrence of tension pneumocephalus following ventriculoperitoneal (v.p.) shunt insertion is extremely rare, and is usually of delayed onset...
  50. Eltorai I, Montroy R, Kaplan S, Ho W. Pneumocephalus secondary to cerebrospinal fluid leak associated with a lumbar pressure ulcer in a man with paraplegia. J Spinal Cord Med. 2003;26:262-9 pubmed
    b>Pneumocephalus is a well-known condition following head trauma, but is uncommon in injuries or surgeries of the spine...
  51. Guedes B, da Rocha A, da Silva C, dos Santos A, Lazarini P. A rare association of tension pneumocephalus and a large frontoethmoidal osteoma: imaging features and surgical treatment. J Craniofac Surg. 2011;22:212-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Intracranial complications such as pneumocephalus have occasionally been reported in association with osteomas...
  52. Villa R, Capdevila A. Images in clinical medicine. Spontaneous otogenic pneumocephalus. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:e13 pubmed publisher
  53. Eftekhar B, Ghodsi M, Nejat F, Ketabchi E, Esmaeeli B. Prophylactic administration of ceftriaxone for the prevention of meningitis after traumatic pneumocephalus: results of a clinical trial. J Neurosurg. 2004;101:757-61 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of the prophylactic use of ceftriaxone for the prevention of meningitis in patients with acute traumatic pneumocephalus.