superior colliculi


Summary: The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.

Top Publications

  1. Miller R, Stein B, Rowland B. Multisensory Integration Uses a Real-Time Unisensory-Multisensory Transform. J Neurosci. 2017;37:5183-5194 pubmed publisher
    ..It is now possible to use these principles to predict a neuron's multisensory response accurately armed only with knowledge of its unisensory responses. ..
  2. Scholes J. Nerve fibre topography in the retinal projection to the tectum. Nature. 1979;278:620-4 pubmed
    ..Before they reach the visual map in the tectum, however, their arrangement in the cross-section of the nerve is reorganised in a way which requires longer-range guidance. ..
  3. Krekelberg B. Microsaccades. Curr Biol. 2011;21:R416 pubmed publisher
  4. Riehl R, Johnson K, Bradley R, Grunwald G, Cornel E, Lilienbaum A, et al. Cadherin function is required for axon outgrowth in retinal ganglion cells in vivo. Neuron. 1996;17:837-48 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that cadherins play an essential role in the initiation and extension of axons from retinal ganglion cells in vivo. ..
  5. Rao K, Lund R. Optic nerve degeneration induces the expression of MHC antigens in the rat visual system. J Comp Neurol. 1993;336:613-27 pubmed
    ..If foreign antigens were present in the brain while these events were taking place, it is possible that such antigens would be recognised and destroyed by the host immune system...
  6. Yamagata M, Herman J, Sanes J. Lamina-specific expression of adhesion molecules in developing chick optic tectum. J Neurosci. 1995;15:4556-71 pubmed
    ..Immunoelectron microscopy of normal tecta demonstrated the presence of N-cadherin in the synaptic cleft, suggesting a role for this molecule in synaptic maintenance. ..
  7. Turner E, Sawyer E, Kaas J. Optic nerve, superior colliculus, visual thalamus, and primary visual cortex of the northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). J Comp Neurol. 2017;525:2109-2132 pubmed publisher
    ..These results are relevant to comparative studies related to the evolution of large brains. ..
  8. Godement P, Salaun J, Imbert M. Prenatal and postnatal development of retinogeniculate and retinocollicular projections in the mouse. J Comp Neurol. 1984;230:552-75 pubmed
  9. McFarlane S, McNeill L, Holt C. FGF signaling and target recognition in the developing Xenopus visual system. Neuron. 1995;15:1017-28 pubmed
    ..Our results implicate FGF signaling in target recognition and suggest that diminished levels of bFGF in the tectum cause arriving axons to slow their growth. ..

More Information


  1. Paz M, Ramos M, Ramirez G, Souza D. Differential effects of guanine nucleotides on kainic acid binding and on adenylate cyclase activity in chick optic tectum. FEBS Lett. 1994;355:205-8 pubmed
  2. Umeno M, Goldberg M. Spatial processing in the monkey frontal eye field. I. Predictive visual responses. J Neurophysiol. 1997;78:1373-83 pubmed
    ..This mechanism does not require an explicit calculation of target position in some supraretinal coordinate system. ..
  3. Webster M, Bachevalier J, Ungerleider L. Transient subcortical connections of inferior temporal areas TE and TEO in infant macaque monkeys. J Comp Neurol. 1995;352:213-26 pubmed
    ..No differences between infants and adults were apparent in other subcortical connections, including those with the pulvinar, reticular nucleus, claustrum, and putamen. ..
  4. Souza D, Ramirez G. Effects of guanine nucleotides on kainic acid binding and on adenylate cyclase in chick optic tectum and cerebellum. J Mol Neurosci. 1991;3:39-45 pubmed
  5. McFarlane S, Cornel E, Amaya E, Holt C. Inhibition of FGF receptor activity in retinal ganglion cell axons causes errors in target recognition. Neuron. 1996;17:245-54 pubmed
  6. Yun S, Shah N. Whole-brain high in-plane resolution fMRI using accelerated EPIK for enhanced characterisation of functional areas at 3T. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0184759 pubmed publisher
    ..Lastly, the use of EPIK for fMRI was validated with the simulation of different types of data reconstruction methods. ..
  7. Rakic P. Prenatal genesis of connections subserving ocular dominance in the rhesus monkey. Nature. 1976;261:467-71 pubmed
  8. Naoki H. Revisiting chemoaffinity theory: Chemotactic implementation of topographic axonal projection. PLoS Comput Biol. 2017;13:e1005702 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this study redefines the chemoaffinity theory in chemotactic terms. ..
  9. Koshiba Takeuchi K, Takeuchi J, Matsumoto K, Momose T, Uno K, Hoepker V, et al. Tbx5 and the retinotectum projection. Science. 2000;287:134-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, Tbx5 is involved in eye morphogenesis and is a topographic determinant of the visual projections between retina and tectum. ..
  10. Zhang Z, Galileo D. Retroviral transfer of antisense integrin alpha6 or alpha8 sequences results in laminar redistribution or clonal cell death in developing brain. J Neurosci. 1998;18:6928-38 pubmed
    ..Also alpha8 integrin-substrate interactions may suppress early programmed cell death in premigratory and migratory neuroblasts. ..
  11. Nakamura H, O Leary D. Inaccuracies in initial growth and arborization of chick retinotectal axons followed by course corrections and axon remodeling to develop topographic order. J Neurosci. 1989;9:3776-95 pubmed
    ..Aberrant arbors, and axons and axon segments that fail to form arbors in the appropriate terminal zone, are rapidly eliminated over about a 2 d period. Axon degeneration appears to play a role in this remodeling process. ..
  12. Yates A, Thelmo W, Pappius H. Postmorten changes in the chemistry and histology of normal and edematous brains. Am J Pathol. 1975;79:555-64 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that determination of water content in the white matter postmortem could be a useful tool for the neuropathologist. Histologic assessment of cerebral edema is of little value. ..
  13. Hornberger M, Dütting D, Ciossek T, Yamada T, Handwerker C, Lang S, et al. Modulation of EphA receptor function by coexpressed ephrinA ligands on retinal ganglion cell axons. Neuron. 1999;22:731-42 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that differential ligand expression on retinal axons is a major determinant of topographic targeting in the retinotectal projection. ..
  14. Stone K, Sakaguchi D. Perturbation of the developing Xenopus retinotectal projection following injections of antibodies against beta1 integrin receptors and N-cadherin. Dev Biol. 1996;180:297-310 pubmed
  15. Sterratt D. On the Importance of Countergradients for the Development of Retinotopy: Insights from a Generalised Gierer Model. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e67096 pubmed publisher
    ..I conclude that a successful model of retinotopy should contain countergradients and some form of compensation mechanism, but not in the strong form put forward by Gierer. ..
  16. Ito S, Feldheim D, Litke A. Segregation of Visual Response Properties in the Mouse Superior Colliculus and Their Modulation during Locomotion. J Neurosci. 2017;37:8428-8443 pubmed publisher
    ..Locomotion modulates the cells in the SC. These findings contribute to our understanding of how the SC processes visual inputs, a critical step in comprehending visually guided behaviors. ..
  17. Simon D, O Leary D. Development of topographic order in the mammalian retinocollicular projection. J Neurosci. 1992;12:1212-32 pubmed
    ..Rather, mechanisms that control the removal of mistargeted axons and promote the arborization of correctly positioned axons are critical for the development of retinotopic order.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) ..
  18. Webster M, Bachevalier J, Ungerleider L. Subcortical connections of inferior temporal areas TE and TEO in macaque monkeys. J Comp Neurol. 1993;335:73-91 pubmed
  19. Herman J, Krauzlis R. Color-Change Detection Activity in the Primate Superior Colliculus. Eneuro. 2017;4: pubmed publisher
  20. Kim H, Amita H, Hikosaka O. Indirect Pathway of Caudal Basal Ganglia for Rejection of Valueless Visual Objects. Neuron. 2017;94:920-930.e3 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that low-value signals are sent by the CDt-indirect pathway to suppress saccades to valueless objects, whereas high-value signals are sent by the CDt-direct pathway to facilitate saccades to valuable objects. ..
  21. Soares M, Cardoso S, Mazzei R, André G, Morais M, Gozdowska M, et al. Region specific changes in nonapeptide levels during client fish interactions with allopatric and sympatric cleaner fish. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0180290 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results are the first to implicate these nonapeptides, AVT in particular, in the assessment of social cues which enable fish to engage in mutualistic activities. ..
  22. Vitu F, Casteau S, Adeli H, Zelinsky G, Castet E. The magnification factor accounts for the greater hypometria and imprecision of larger saccades: Evidence from a parametric human-behavioral study. J Vis. 2017;17:2 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, our findings clearly suggest that the undershoot phenomenon, and related variability, originate in, or upstream of, the SC, rather than reflecting downstream, adaptive, strategies. ..