tourette syndrome

Summary

Summary: A neuropsychological disorder related to alterations in DOPAMINE metabolism and neurotransmission involving frontal-subcortical neuronal circuits. Both multiple motor and one or more vocal tics need to be present with TICS occurring many times a day, nearly daily, over a period of more than one year. The onset is before age 18 and the disturbance is not due to direct physiological effects of a substance or a another medical condition. The disturbance causes marked distress or significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. (From DSM-IV, 1994; Neurol Clin 1997 May;15(2):357-79)

Top Publications

  1. Palminteri S, Lebreton M, Worbe Y, Hartmann A, Lehericy S, Vidailhet M, et al. Dopamine-dependent reinforcement of motor skill learning: evidence from Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Brain. 2011;134:2287-301 pubmed publisher
    ..assess the role of dopamine in such computations, we applied the same paradigm in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, who were either unmedicated or treated with neuroleptics...
  2. Sundaram S, Huq A, Wilson B, Chugani H. Tourette syndrome is associated with recurrent exonic copy number variants. Neurology. 2010;74:1583-90 pubmed publisher
    ..variants (CNVs) including genomic deletions and duplications play a prominent role in neurodevelopmental disorders such as mental retardation, autism, and schizophrenia, but have not been systematically studied in Tourette syndrome (TS).
  3. Paschou P. The genetic basis of Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2013;37:1026-39 pubmed publisher
    Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder that is caused by a likely complex genetic basis, interacting with environmental factors...
  4. Le K, Liu L, Sun M, Hu L, Xiao N. Transcranial magnetic stimulation at 1 Hertz improves clinical symptoms in children with Tourette syndrome for at least 6 months. J Clin Neurosci. 2013;20:257-62 pubmed publisher
    b>Tourette syndrome (TS) is characterized by multiple motor and phonic tics. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) targeting the supplemental motor area (SMA) can reduce tic severity...
  5. Wanderer S, Roessner V, Freeman R, Bock N, Rothenberger A, Becker A. Relationship of obsessive-compulsive disorder to age-related comorbidity in children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2012;33:124-33 pubmed publisher
    ..and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are the 2 most frequent psychiatric disorders co-occurring with Tourette syndrome (TS). Both usually cause greater impairment in psychosocial functioning than the tics themselves...
  6. Lerner A, Bagic A, Simmons J, Mari Z, Bonne O, Xu B, et al. Widespread abnormality of the ?-aminobutyric acid-ergic system in Tourette syndrome. Brain. 2012;135:1926-36 pubmed publisher
    Dysfunction of the ?-aminobutyric acid-ergic system in Tourette syndrome may conceivably underlie the symptoms of motor disinhibition presenting as tics and psychiatric manifestations, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and ..
  7. Debes N, Lange T, Jessen T, Hjalgrim H, Skov L. Performance on Wechsler intelligence scales in children with Tourette syndrome. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2011;15:146-54 pubmed publisher
    There is some evidence that Tourette syndrome is associated with cognitive disabilities.
  8. Scharf J, Yu D, Mathews C, Neale B, Stewart S, Fagerness J, et al. Genome-wide association study of Tourette's syndrome. Mol Psychiatry. 2013;18:721-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study lays the groundwork for the eventual identification of common TS susceptibility variants in larger cohorts and helps to provide a more complete understanding of the full genetic architecture of this disorder...
  9. Cath D, Hedderly T, Ludolph A, Stern J, Murphy T, Hartmann A, et al. European clinical guidelines for Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders. Part I: assessment. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2011;20:155-71 pubmed publisher
    A working group of the European Society for the Study of Tourette Syndrome (ESSTS) has developed the first European assessment guidelines of Tourette Syndrome (TS)...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Debes N, Hansen A, Skov L, Larsson H. A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of a large clinical cohort of children with Tourette syndrome. J Child Neurol. 2011;26:560-9 pubmed publisher
    There is evidence that cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical pathways are involved in the pathophysiology of Tourette syndrome. During the performance of neuropsychological tests in subjects with Tourette syndrome there are suggestions for ..
  2. Jankovic J, Kurlan R. Tourette syndrome: evolving concepts. Mov Disord. 2011;26:1149-56 pubmed publisher
    b>Tourette syndrome is a common childhood-onset neurobehavioral disorder characterized by multiple motor and phonic tics affecting boys more frequently than girls...
  3. Fernandez T, Sanders S, Yurkiewicz I, Ercan Sencicek A, Kim Y, Fishman D, et al. Rare copy number variants in tourette syndrome disrupt genes in histaminergic pathways and overlap with autism. Biol Psychiatry. 2012;71:392-402 pubmed publisher
    ..We analyzed rare CNVs in Tourette syndrome (TS) to identify novel risk regions and relevant pathways, to evaluate burden of structural variation in ..
  4. Dueck A, Wolters A, Wunsch K, Bohne Suraj S, Mueller J, Haessler F, et al. Deep brain stimulation of globus pallidus internus in a 16-year-old boy with severe tourette syndrome and mental retardation. Neuropediatrics. 2009;40:239-42 pubmed publisher
    A 16- year-old boy with long-standing severe Tourette syndrome (TS) and mental retardation, non-responsive to complex pharmocological and behavioural treatment was selected for bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus ..
  5. Neuner I, Kupriyanova Y, Stöcker T, Huang R, Posnansky O, Schneider F, et al. White-matter abnormalities in Tourette syndrome extend beyond motor pathways. Neuroimage. 2010;51:1184-93 pubmed publisher
    b>Tourette syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder with the cardinal symptoms of motor and vocal tics...
  6. Baldan L, Williams K, Gallezot J, Pogorelov V, Rapanelli M, Crowley M, et al. Histidine decarboxylase deficiency causes tourette syndrome: parallel findings in humans and mice. Neuron. 2014;81:77-90 pubmed publisher
    b>Tourette syndrome (TS) is characterized by tics, sensorimotor gating deficiencies, and abnormalities of cortico-basal ganglia circuits...
  7. Mazzone L, Yu S, Blair C, Gunter B, Wang Z, Marsh R, et al. An FMRI study of frontostriatal circuits during the inhibition of eye blinking in persons with Tourette syndrome. Am J Psychiatry. 2010;167:341-9 pubmed publisher
    The authors sought to study activity in neural circuits that subserve the inhibition of a semi-involuntary motor behavior, eye blinking, in children and adults with Tourette syndrome and in healthy comparison subjects.
  8. Steinberg T, Harush A, Barnea M, Dar R, Piacentini J, Woods D, et al. Tic-related cognition, sensory phenomena, and anxiety in children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome. Compr Psychiatry. 2013;54:462-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Tourette syndrome is a protoypical example of developmental psychopathology, with the varying expressions of the disorder and its consequences appearing over time...
  9. Belluscio B, Jin L, Watters V, Lee T, Hallett M. Sensory sensitivity to external stimuli in Tourette syndrome patients. Mov Disord. 2011;26:2538-43 pubmed publisher
    Patients with Tourette Syndrome often state that their sensitivity to sensations is equally or more disruptive than are motor tics...
  10. Singer H. Motor control, habits, complex motor stereotypies, and Tourette syndrome. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2013;1304:22-31 pubmed publisher
    b>Tourette syndrome (TS) and primary complex motor stereotypies (CMS) are two relatively common, distinctly different movement disorders of childhood...
  11. Robertson M. Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: the complexities of phenotype and treatment. Br J Hosp Med (Lond). 2011;72:100-7 pubmed
    b>Tourette syndrome is a chronic motor and vocal tic disorder, which is common (1%). The aetiology is complex (mostly genetic) and 90% of people have co-morbid psychiatric disorders and reduced quality of life...
  12. Werner C, Stöcker T, Kellermann T, Bath J, Beldoch M, Schneider F, et al. Altered motor network activation and functional connectivity in adult Tourette's syndrome. Hum Brain Mapp. 2011;32:2014-26 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, although open performance was comparable, patients showed different neuronal networks and connectivity patterns when performing increasingly demanding tasks, further illustrating the impact of the disease on the motor system...
  13. Breedveld G, Fabbrini G, Oostra B, Berardelli A, Bonifati V. Tourette disorder spectrum maps to chromosome 14q31.1 in an Italian kindred. Neurogenetics. 2010;11:417-23 pubmed publisher
    b>Tourette syndrome (TS) is a frequent neuropsychiatric disorder of unknown etiology...
  14. Bloch M, State M, Pittenger C. Recent advances in Tourette syndrome. Curr Opin Neurol. 2011;24:119-25 pubmed publisher
    This review considers the recent literature pertaining to the neurobiology, genetics and treatment of Tourette syndrome.
  15. Hassan N, Cavanna A. The prognosis of Tourette syndrome: implications for clinical practice. Funct Neurol. 2012;27:23-7 pubmed
    b>Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood-onset neuropsychiatric condition characterised by multiple motor and phonic tics...
  16. Leckman J, Bloch M, Smith M, Larabi D, Hampson M. Neurobiological substrates of Tourette's disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2010;20:237-47 pubmed publisher
    ..This article reviews the available scientific literature concerning the neurobiological substrates of Tourette's disorder (TD)...
  17. McCairn K, Iriki A, Isoda M. High-frequency pallidal stimulation eliminates tic-related neuronal activity in a nonhuman primate model of Tourette syndrome. Neuroreport. 2012;23:206-10 pubmed publisher
    ..the basal ganglia, the globus pallidus internus, has been suggested as a treatment modality for intractable Tourette syndrome and basal-ganglia-mediated motor tics...
  18. Cui Y, Zheng Y, Yang Y, Liu J, Li J. Effectiveness and tolerability of aripiprazole in children and adolescents with Tourette's disorder: a pilot study in China. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2010;20:291-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The secondary aim was to assess the response of TD-associated behaviors to aripiprazole exposure...
  19. Conelea C, Woods D, Zinner S, Budman C, Murphy T, SCAHILL L, et al. The impact of Tourette Syndrome in adults: results from the Tourette Syndrome impact survey. Community Ment Health J. 2013;49:110-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The current study suggests that CTDs can adversely impact functioning in adults and highlights the need for clinical interventions and systemic efforts to address tic-related impairments...
  20. Wu S, Gilbert D. Altered neurophysiologic response to intermittent theta burst stimulation in Tourette syndrome. Brain Stimul. 2012;5:315-319 pubmed publisher
    The motor system in Tourette syndrome has been found to be abnormal in previous fine-motor and neurophysiologic studies...
  21. Okun M, Foote K, Wu S, Ward H, Bowers D, Rodriguez R, et al. A trial of scheduled deep brain stimulation for Tourette syndrome: moving away from continuous deep brain stimulation paradigms. JAMA Neurol. 2013;70:85-94 pubmed publisher
    To collect the information necessary to design the methods and outcome variables for a larger trial of scheduled deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Tourette syndrome.
  22. Ganos C, Roessner V, Munchau A. The functional anatomy of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2013;37:1050-62 pubmed publisher
    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) holds a prime position as a disorder transgressing the brittle boundaries of neurology and psychiatry with an entangling web of motor and behavioral problems...
  23. Hooper S, Johansson A, Tellgren Roth C, Stattin E, Dahl N, Cavelier L, et al. Genome-wide sequencing for the identification of rearrangements associated with Tourette syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder. BMC Med Genet. 2012;13:123 pubmed publisher
    b>Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder in children characterized by motor and verbal tics. Although several genes have been suggested in the etiology of TS, the genetic mechanisms remain poorly understood.
  24. Gulisano M, Calì P, Cavanna A, Eddy C, Rickards H, Rizzo R. Cardiovascular safety of aripiprazole and pimozide in young patients with Tourette syndrome. Neurol Sci. 2011;32:1213-7 pubmed publisher
    The pharmacotherapy for tic management in Tourette syndrome (TS) relies on neuroleptics, which have been associated with electrocardiographic abnormalities, including QTc interval prolongation...
  25. Du J, Chiu T, Lee K, Wu H, Yang Y, Hsu S, et al. Tourette syndrome in children: an updated review. Pediatr neonatol. 2010;51:255-64 pubmed publisher
    b>Tourette syndrome (TS) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder in children characterized by multiple motor and vocal tics that fluctuate in severity and lasting for at least 1 year. Boys are more commonly affected than girls...
  26. Motlagh M, Katsovich L, Thompson N, Lin H, Kim Y, Scahill L, et al. Severe psychosocial stress and heavy cigarette smoking during pregnancy: an examination of the pre- and perinatal risk factors associated with ADHD and Tourette syndrome. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2010;19:755-64 pubmed publisher
    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently diagnosed in children with Tourette syndrome (TS). The basis for this co-occurrence is uncertain...
  27. Bos Veneman N, Olieman R, Tobiasova Z, Hoekstra P, Katsovich L, Bothwell A, et al. Altered immunoglobulin profiles in children with Tourette syndrome. Brain Behav Immun. 2011;25:532-8 pubmed publisher
    Post-infectious autoimmunity and immune deficiency have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Tourette syndrome (TS). We asked here whether B cell immunity of patients with TS differs from healthy subjects.
  28. Knight T, Steeves T, Day L, Lowerison M, Jette N, Pringsheim T. Prevalence of tic disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Pediatr Neurol. 2012;47:77-90 pubmed publisher
    ..MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched, using terms specific to Tourette syndrome and tic disorders, for studies of incidence, prevalence, and epidemiology...
  29. Suppa A, Belvisi D, Bologna M, Marsili L, Berardelli I, Moretti G, et al. Abnormal cortical and brain stem plasticity in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Mov Disord. 2011;26:1703-10 pubmed publisher
    We investigated primary motor cortex and brain stem plasticity in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. The study group comprised 12 patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome and 24 healthy subjects...
  30. Neuner I, Nordt C, Schneider F, Kawohl W. Effectiveness of aripiprazole in the treatment of adult Tourette patients up to 56 months. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2012;27:364-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Tourette Syndrome (TS) is characterized by motor and vocal tics. Its pharmacological treatment is often a challenge because of the so-called tachyphylactic effects...
  31. Jung J, Jackson S, Parkinson A, Jackson G. Cognitive control over motor output in Tourette syndrome. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2013;37:1016-25 pubmed publisher
    b>Tourette syndrome [TS] is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by chronic vocal and motor tics...
  32. Hoekstra P, Dietrich A, Edwards M, Elamin I, Martino D. Environmental factors in Tourette syndrome. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2013;37:1040-9 pubmed publisher
    ..during the prenatal period, perinatal stages, and postnatal life may contribute to onset and course of Tourette syndrome (TS)...
  33. Muller Vahl K, Dodel I, Muller N, Munchau A, Reese J, Balzer Geldsetzer M, et al. Health-related quality of life in patients with Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome. Mov Disord. 2010;25:309-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Depression was assessed using the Beck's depression inventory (BDI) and clinical symptoms using the Yale Tourette syndrome symptom list (TSSL) and the Shapiro Tourette-syndrome severity scale (STSSS)...
  34. Neuner I, Kellermann T, Stöcker T, Kircher T, Habel U, Shah J, et al. Amygdala hypersensitivity in response to emotional faces in Tourette's patients. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2010;11:858-72 pubmed publisher
    ..However, there is no link between behavioural symptoms and the structural changes in the amygdala. One aspect of daily social interaction is the perception of emotional facial expressions, closely linked to amgydala function...
  35. Franzkowiak S, Pollok B, Biermann Ruben K, Südmeyer M, Paszek J, Thomalla G, et al. Motor-cortical interaction in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e27850 pubmed publisher
    In Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) increased activation of the primary motor cortex (M1) before and during movement execution followed by increased inhibition after movement termination was reported...
  36. Verdellen C, van de Griendt J, Hartmann A, Murphy T. European clinical guidelines for Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders. Part III: behavioural and psychosocial interventions. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2011;20:197-207 pubmed publisher
    ..and adolescents with tic disorders prepared by a working group of the European Society for the Study of Tourette Syndrome (ESSTS). A systematic literature search was conducted to obtain an update on the efficacy of BPI for tics...
  37. Frank M, Piedad J, Rickards H, Cavanna A. The role of impulse control disorders in Tourette syndrome: an exploratory study. J Neurol Sci. 2011;310:276-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterised by the presence of multiple motor tics and one or more phonic tics, often associated with co-morbid behavioural problems...
  38. Sundaram S, Huq A, Sun Z, Yu W, Bennett L, Wilson B, et al. Exome sequencing of a pedigree with Tourette syndrome or chronic tic disorder. Ann Neurol. 2011;69:901-4 pubmed publisher
    Ten members of a 3-generation pedigree with 7 showing Tourette syndrome/chronic tic phenotype (TS-CTD) were evaluated with whole exome sequencing...
  39. Piedad J, Rickards H, Cavanna A. What patients with gilles de la tourette syndrome should be treated with deep brain stimulation and what is the best target?. Neurosurgery. 2012;71:173-92 pubmed publisher
    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a chronic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by tics and associated behavioral symptoms...
  40. Govindan R, Makki M, Wilson B, Behen M, Chugani H. Abnormal water diffusivity in corticostriatal projections in children with Tourette syndrome. Hum Brain Mapp. 2010;31:1665-74 pubmed publisher
    The fronto-striato-thalamic circuit has been implicated in the pathomechanism of Tourette Syndrome (TS)...
  41. Chou I, Lin H, Lin C, Sung F, Kao C. Tourette syndrome and risk of depression: a population-based cohort study in Taiwan. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2013;34:181-5 pubmed publisher
    The temporal relationship between Tourette syndrome (TS) and depression is unclear. This cohort study evaluates the relationship between TS and depression in Taiwan.
  42. Ercan Sencicek A, Stillman A, Ghosh A, Bilguvar K, O Roak B, Mason C, et al. L-histidine decarboxylase and Tourette's syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2010;362:1901-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings, together with previously published data from model systems, point to a role for histaminergic neurotransmission in the mechanism and modulation of Tourette's syndrome and tics...
  43. Müller Vahl K, Cath D, Cavanna A, Dehning S, Porta M, Robertson M, et al. European clinical guidelines for Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders. Part IV: deep brain stimulation. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2011;20:209-17 pubmed publisher
    ..has been introduced as an alternative and promising treatment option for patients suffering from severe Tourette syndrome (TS)...
  44. Hartmann A, Worbe Y. Pharmacological treatment of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2013;37:1157-61 pubmed publisher
  45. Porta M, Servello D, Zanaboni C, Anasetti F, Menghetti C, Sassi M, et al. Deep brain stimulation for treatment of refractory Tourette syndrome: long-term follow-up. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2012;154:2029-41 pubmed publisher
    Eighteen patients with severe and refractory Tourette Syndrome underwent bilateral thalamic deep brain stimulation...
  46. Worbe Y, Mallet L, Golmard J, Béhar C, Durif F, Jalenques I, et al. Repetitive behaviours in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: tics, compulsions, or both?. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12959 pubmed publisher
    Repetitive behaviours (RB) in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) are frequent. However, a controversy persists whether they are manifestations of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) or correspond to complex tics.
  47. Crane J, Fagerness J, Osiecki L, Gunnell B, Stewart S, Pauls D, et al. Family-based genetic association study of DLGAP3 in Tourette Syndrome. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2011;156B:108-14 pubmed publisher
    b>Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorder that is familial and highly heritable...
  48. Hasan A, Rothenberger A, Munchau A, Wobrock T, Falkai P, Roessner V. Oral delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol improved refractory Gilles de la Tourette syndrome in an adolescent by increasing intracortical inhibition: a case report. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2010;30:190-2 pubmed publisher
    ..the clinical course of the Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta 9-THC) treatment of a boy with Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (TS) and comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in relation to Delta 9-THC plasma levels ..
  49. Kaido T, Otsuki T, Kaneko Y, Takahashi A, Omori M, Okamoto T. Deep brain stimulation for Tourette syndrome: a prospective pilot study in Japan. Neuromodulation. 2011;14:123-8; discussion 129 pubmed publisher
    Refractory Tourette syndrome (TS) disturbs the social life of patients. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has recently been applied to relieve severe tics. We report a prospective open-labeled case series of DBS for TS as a pilot study.
  50. Swerdlow N. Update: studies of prepulse inhibition of startle, with particular relevance to the pathophysiology or treatment of Tourette Syndrome. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2013;37:1150-6 pubmed publisher
    ..PPI is reduced in several brain disorders, including Tourette Syndrome (TS); it is regulated by forebrain circuitry, including portions of the basal ganglia implicated in the ..
  51. Scahill L, Woods D, Himle M, Peterson A, Wilhelm S, Piacentini J, et al. Current controversies on the role of behavior therapy in Tourette syndrome. Mov Disord. 2013;28:1179-83 pubmed publisher
    ..behavioral intervention for tics (CBIT) is a safe and effective treatment for managing the tics of Tourette syndrome (TS)...
  52. Jackson S, Parkinson A, Manfredi V, Millon G, Hollis C, Jackson G. Motor excitability is reduced prior to voluntary movements in children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome. J Neuropsychol. 2013;7:29-44 pubmed publisher
    b>Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neuro-developmental disorder characterized by the occurrence of motor and vocal tics: involuntary, repetitive, stereotyped behaviours that occur with a limited duration, often typically many times in a single ..
  53. Brilot F, Merheb V, Ding A, Murphy T, Dale R. Antibody binding to neuronal surface in Sydenham chorea, but not in PANDAS or Tourette syndrome. Neurology. 2011;76:1508-13 pubmed publisher
    ..to specific neuronal surface proteins, whereas IgG from patients with pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS) or Tourette syndrome (TS) do not bind to neuronal surface proteins.