secondary parkinson disease

Summary

Summary: Conditions which feature clinical manifestations resembling primary Parkinson disease that are caused by a known or suspected condition. Examples include parkinsonism caused by vascular injury, drugs, trauma, toxin exposure, neoplasms, infections and degenerative or hereditary conditions. Clinical features may include bradykinesia, rigidity, parkinsonian gait, and masked facies. In general, tremor is less prominent in secondary parkinsonism than in the primary form. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch38, pp39-42)

Top Publications

  1. Tolosa E, Wenning G, Poewe W. The diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. Lancet Neurol. 2006;5:75-86 pubmed
    ..Also genetic testing and various other ancillary tests, such as olfactory testing, MRI, and dopamine-transporter single-photon-emission computed-tomography imaging, help with clinical diagnostic decisions...
  2. Cappelletti G, Surrey T, Maci R. The parkinsonism producing neurotoxin MPP+ affects microtubule dynamics by acting as a destabilising factor. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:4781-6 pubmed
    ..This paper provides the first evidence that dynamic instability of microtubules is specifically affected by MPP+ and suggests that it could play a role in neuronal cell death underlying PD...
  3. Ossowska K, Wardas J, Śmiałowska M, Kuter K, Lenda T, Wieronska J, et al. A slowly developing dysfunction of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons induced by long-term paraquat administration in rats: an animal model of preclinical stages of Parkinson's disease?. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;22:1294-304 pubmed
  4. Fabiani G, Rogacheski E, Wiederkehr J, Khouri J, Cianfarano A. Liver transplantation in a patient with rapid onset parkinsonism-dementia complex induced by manganism secondary to liver failure. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2007;65:685-8 pubmed
    ..The treatment of this form of parkinsonism is controversial and liver-transplantation should not be considered as first line treatment but as an alternative one...
  5. Lyoo C, Jeong Y, Ryu Y, Lee S, Song T, Lee J, et al. Effects of disease duration on the clinical features and brain glucose metabolism in patients with mixed type multiple system atrophy. Brain. 2008;131:438-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Parkinsonian motor deficits precede putaminal hypometabolism that begins in its posterolateral part. Cerebellar hypometabolism occurs early in the clinical courses and seems to be a relevant metabolic descriptor of cerebellar deficits...
  6. Stepens A, Logina I, Liguts V, Aldins P, Eksteina I, Platkajis A, et al. A Parkinsonian syndrome in methcathinone users and the role of manganese. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:1009-17 pubmed publisher
    ..A distinctive extrapyramidal syndrome has been observed in intravenous methcathinone (ephedrone) users in Eastern Europe and Russia...
  7. Aggarwal A, Vaidya S, Shah S, Singh J, Desai S, Bhatt M. Reversible Parkinsonism and T1W pallidal hyperintensities in acute liver failure. Mov Disord. 2006;21:1986-90 pubmed
    ..Though hitherto unreported, we propose that Parkinsonism with T1W pallidal hyperintensities may not be uncommon in ALF...
  8. Bezard E, Dovero S, Prunier C, Ravenscroft P, Chalon S, Guilloteau D, et al. Relationship between the appearance of symptoms and the level of nigrostriatal degeneration in a progressive 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-lesioned macaque model of Parkinson's disease. J Neurosci. 2001;21:6853-61 pubmed
  9. Thiruchelvam M, McCormack A, Richfield E, Baggs R, Tank A, Di Monte D, et al. Age-related irreversible progressive nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurotoxicity in the paraquat and maneb model of the Parkinson's disease phenotype. Eur J Neurosci. 2003;18:589-600 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these data demonstrate enhanced sensitivity of the ageing nigrostriatal dopamine pathway to these pesticides, particularly paraquat + maneb, resulting in irreversible and progressive neurotoxicity...

More Information

Publications62

  1. McCormack A, Di Monte D. Effects of L-dopa and other amino acids against paraquat-induced nigrostriatal degeneration. J Neurochem. 2003;85:82-6 pubmed
    ..g. amino acids) or therapeutic agents (e.g. l-dopa) may modify the effects of toxicants targeting the nigrostriatal system...
  2. Vanacore N, Nappo A, Gentile M, Brustolin A, Palange S, Liberati A, et al. Evaluation of risk of Parkinson's disease in a cohort of licensed pesticide users. Neurol Sci. 2002;23 Suppl 2:S119-20 pubmed
    ..After 27 years of follow-up, 4788 subjects are still alive. The aim of this study is to measure the prevalence of Parkinson's disease in a large group of workers with theoretically increased risk...
  3. Schmidt W, Mayerhofer A, Meyer A, Kovar K. Ecstasy counteracts catalepsy in rats, an anti-parkinsonian effect?. Neurosci Lett. 2002;330:251-4 pubmed
    ..From the supraadditive effect of the enantiomers it may be concluded that both enantiomers contribute to the antiparkinsonian effects at two different target sites...
  4. McCormack A, Thiruchelvam M, Manning Bog A, Thiffault C, Langston J, Cory Slechta D, et al. Environmental risk factors and Parkinson's disease: selective degeneration of nigral dopaminergic neurons caused by the herbicide paraquat. Neurobiol Dis. 2002;10:119-27 pubmed
  5. Kim Y, Kim J, Kim J, Yoo C, Lee C, Lee J, et al. Dopamine transporter density is decreased in parkinsonian patients with a history of manganese exposure: what does it mean?. Mov Disord. 2002;17:568-75 pubmed
    ..Further studies are required to elucidate the relationship between Mn and various forms of parkinsonism...
  6. Uversky V, Li J, Fink A. Metal-triggered structural transformations, aggregation, and fibrillation of human alpha-synuclein. A possible molecular NK between Parkinson's disease and heavy metal exposure. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:44284-96 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that low concentrations of some metals can directly induce alpha-synuclein fibril formation...
  7. Phillips J, Lam H, Ackerson L, Maidment N. Blockade of mGluR glutamate receptors in the subthalamic nucleus ameliorates motor asymmetry in an animal model of Parkinson's disease. Eur J Neurosci. 2006;23:151-60 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that MPEP may act at the level of the STN to reduce glutamatergic overactivity and thereby induce anti-parkinsonian effects...
  8. Baranyi M, Milusheva E, Vizi E, Sperlagh B. Chromatographic analysis of dopamine metabolism in a Parkinsonian model. J Chromatogr A. 2006;1120:13-20 pubmed
    ..Utilizing multidimensional detection, EC at -100 mV reduction potential, the method has been applied for identification of DAQ and aminochrome (DAC)...
  9. Allen A, Luo C, Montgomery D, Rajput A, Robinson C, Rajput A. Vascular pathology in male Lewis rats following short-term, low-dose rotenone administration. Vet Pathol. 2009;46:776-82 pubmed publisher
    ..e., hemorrhagic strokes) in humans...
  10. Kuan W, Zhao J, Barker R. The role of anxiety in the development of levodopa-induced dyskinesias in an animal model of Parkinson's disease, and the effect of chronic treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2008;197:279-93 pubmed
    ..In a rat model of LID, we observed that animals of almost identical genetic but slightly different environmental backgrounds displayed a very different profile in terms of their development and severity of LID...
  11. Patel S, Sinha A, Singh M. Identification of differentially expressed proteins in striatum of maneb-and paraquat-induced Parkinson's disease phenotype in mouse. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2007;29:578-85 pubmed
    ..The differential expressions were also confirmed at transcription level by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The results suggest the involvement of complexin-I, alpha-enolase and GMF-beta in MB+PQ induced PD phenotype in mouse...
  12. Scheller D, Chan P, Li Q, Wu T, Zhang R, Guan L, et al. Rotigotine treatment partially protects from MPTP toxicity in a progressive macaque model of Parkinson's disease. Exp Neurol. 2007;203:415-22 pubmed
    ..However, the protection of nerve terminals was not detected using SPECT. The data suggest that rotigotine exerts partial protection but that conventional imaging would not be able to identify such protection...
  13. Tajiri N, Yasuhara T, Shingo T, Kondo A, Yuan W, Kadota T, et al. Exercise exerts neuroprotective effects on Parkinson's disease model of rats. Brain Res. 2010;1310:200-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that exercise exerts neuroprotective effects or enhances the neuronal differentiation in Parkinson's disease model of rats with subsequent improvement in deteriorated motor function...
  14. Yoshida T, Suzuki G, Nibuya M, Sano S, Nomura S. Parkinsonism induced by atypical neuroleptics in a patient with severe iron deficiency. Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi. 2004;24:29-31 pubmed
    ..Here we report our experience of iron supplementation and alternating neuroleptics for treating Parkinsonism in a schizophrenic female patient having severe iron deficient anemia...
  15. Benbir G, Ozekmekci S, Apaydin H, Delil S, Erginoz E. A hospital-based study: risk factors in development of motor complications in 555 Parkinson's patients on levodopa therapy. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2006;108:726-32 pubmed
    ..Although levodopa (LD) is the gold standard therapy for symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD), the chronic use of LD leads to the development of motor complications in almost all patients...
  16. Zigmond M, Cameron J, Leak R, Mirnics K, Russell V, Smeyne R, et al. Triggering endogenous neuroprotective processes through exercise in models of dopamine deficiency. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2009;15 Suppl 3:S42-5 pubmed publisher
  17. Baluchnejadmojarad T, Roghani M, Nadoushan M, Bagheri M. Neuroprotective effect of genistein in 6-hydroxydopamine hemi-parkinsonian rat model. Phytother Res. 2009;23:132-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Genistein administration could attenuate the rotational behavior in lesioned rats and protect the neurons of SNC against 6-OHDA toxicity. Genistein administration has a protective effect against 6-OHDA toxicity...
  18. Kurkowska Jastrzebska I, Litwin T, Joniec I, Ciesielska A, Przybyłkowski A, Członkowski A, et al. Dexamethasone protects against dopaminergic neurons damage in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Int Immunopharmacol. 2004;4:1307-18 pubmed
    ..The mechanism of dexamethasone protective properties may be an inhibition of inflammatory process; however, direct interactions with neurons are also possible...
  19. Storch A, Hwang Y, Gearhart D, Beach J, Neafsey E, Collins M, et al. Dopamine transporter-mediated cytotoxicity of beta-carbolinium derivatives related to Parkinson's disease: relationship to transporter-dependent uptake. J Neurochem. 2004;89:685-94 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that DAT-mediated cellular uptake of 2[N]-methylated betaCs represents a potential mechanism for selective toxicity towards dopaminergic neurons and may be relevant for the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease...
  20. Sotnikova T, Beaulieu J, Barak L, Wetsel W, Caron M, Gainetdinov R. Dopamine-independent locomotor actions of amphetamines in a novel acute mouse model of Parkinson disease. PLoS Biol. 2005;3:e271 pubmed
    ..Identification of dopamine transporter- and dopamine-independent locomotor actions of amphetamines suggests a novel paradigm in the search for prospective anti-Parkinsonian drugs...
  21. Teive H, Troiano A, Germiniani F, Werneck L. Flunarizine and cinnarizine-induced parkinsonism: a historical and clinical analysis. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2004;10:243-5 pubmed
    ..This paper reviews the first description of Flunarizine and Cinnarizine-Induced Parkinsonism (FCIP), as well as the subsequent literature, emphasizing epidemiological, clinical and diagnostic aspects...
  22. Saft C, Andrich J, Kraus P, Przuntek H. [Amisulpride in Huntington's disease]. Psychiatr Prax. 2005;32:363-6 pubmed
    ..Amisulpride is a substituted benzamide derivative with atypical antipsychotic properties and low side effects...
  23. Williams A, Ramsden D. Autotoxicity, methylation and a road to the prevention of Parkinson's disease. J Clin Neurosci. 2005;12:6-11 pubmed
    ..Thus, PD may be a disease of autointoxication. Xenobiotic enzyme inhibitors of NNMT, with or without dietary modification, would be a novel way to attempt primary prevention of PD...
  24. Johnston T, Fox S, McIldowie M, Piggott M, Brotchie J. Reduction of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia by the selective metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 antagonist 3-[(2-methyl-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)ethynyl]pyridine in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-lesioned macaque model of Parkinson's disease. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010;333:865-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Selective mGlu5 inhibitors may have significant potential to ameliorate dyskinesia, but care should be taken to ensure that such effects do not come at the expense of the peak antiparkinsonian benefit of L-DOPA...
  25. Tsai C, Wu R, Huang Y, Chen L, Yip P, Jeng J. Transcranial color-coded sonography helps differentiation between idiopathic Parkinson's disease and vascular parkinsonism. J Neurol. 2007;254:501-7 pubmed
    ..Recently, transcranial color-coded sonography (TCCS) has been found to have a diagnostic value in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD), which displays increased hyperechogenicity at the substantia nigra (SN)...
  26. Zhuo M, Xu D, Cao L, Xu L, Yu F, Zheng Z, et al. Long term gene therapy of Parkinson's disease using immortalized rat glial cell line with tyrosine hydroxylase gene. Sheng Wu Hua Xue Yu Sheng Wu Wu Li Xue Bao (Shanghai). 2003;35:1066-71 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the immortalized glial cell line could serve as an ideal vehicle for therapeutic gene delivery system to achieve a long-term gene therapy of neurodegenerative diseases...
  27. Li X, Yin J, Cheng C, Sun J, Li Z, Wu Y. Paraquat induces selective dopaminergic nigrostriatal degeneration in aging C57BL/6 mice. Chin Med J (Engl). 2005;118:1357-61 pubmed
    ..Aging is an accepted risk factor for idiopathic Parkinson's disease. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that paraquat could induce PD-like nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration in aging C57BL/6 mice...
  28. Van Kampen J, Robertson H, Hagg T, Drobitch R. Neuroprotective actions of the ginseng extract G115 in two rodent models of Parkinson's disease. Exp Neurol. 2003;184:521-9 pubmed
    ..Further examination of the neuroprotective actions of ginseng and its various elements may provide a potential means of slowing the progress of PD...
  29. Huang J, Chen Y, Su M, Zheng H, Yang Y, Chen J, et al. dl-3-n-Butylphthalide prevents oxidative damage and reduces mitochondrial dysfunction in an MPP(+)-induced cellular model of Parkinson's disease. Neurosci Lett. 2010;475:89-94 pubmed publisher
    ..NBP also reduced the accumulation of alpha-synuclein, the main component of Lewy bodies. Given that NBP is safe and currently used in clinical trials for stroke patients, NBP will likely be a promising chemical for the treatment of PD...
  30. Kamel F, Tanner C, Umbach D, Hoppin J, Alavanja M, Blair A, et al. Pesticide exposure and self-reported Parkinson's disease in the agricultural health study. Am J Epidemiol. 2007;165:364-74 pubmed
    ..4). Prevalent PD was not associated with overall pesticide use. This study suggests that exposure to certain pesticides may increase PD risk. Findings for specific chemicals may provide fruitful leads for further investigation...
  31. Shaw C, Höglinger G. Neurodegenerative diseases: neurotoxins as sufficient etiologic agents?. Neuromolecular Med. 2008;10:1-9 pubmed
    ..Finally, we will attempt to put environmental toxins into the context of possible genetically-determined susceptibility...
  32. da Rocha A, Maia A, da Silva C, Braga F, Ferreira N, Barsottini O, et al. Pyramidal tract degeneration in multiple system atrophy: the relevance of magnetization transfer imaging. Mov Disord. 2007;22:238-44 pubmed
    ..MRI may also add information regarding the differential diagnosis of this syndrome...
  33. Bankiewicz K, Daadi M, Pivirotto P, Bringas J, Sanftner L, Cunningham J, et al. Focal striatal dopamine may potentiate dyskinesias in parkinsonian monkeys. Exp Neurol. 2006;197:363-72 pubmed
    ..This may be similar to focal dopaminergic activity in PD patients that developed off-drug or "runaway" dyskinesias following fetal mesencephalic grafts...
  34. Henning J, Strauss U, Wree A, Gimsa J, Rolfs A, Benecke R, et al. Differential astroglial activation in 6-hydroxydopamine models of Parkinson's disease. Neurosci Res. 2008;62:246-53 pubmed publisher
  35. Hayashita Kinoh H, Yamada M, Yokota T, Mizuno Y, Mochizuki H. Down-regulation of alpha-synuclein expression can rescue dopaminergic cells from cell death in the substantia nigra of Parkinson's disease rat model. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;341:1088-95 pubmed
    ..Down-regulation of alpha-synuclein expression could be potentially a suitable target for gene therapy of Parkinson's disease...
  36. Mila M, Cuberas G, Rovira A, Porta F, Negre M, Rossi S, et al. Can I-123-FP-CIT images give us a clue that implies a vascular parkinsonism?. Clin Nucl Med. 2007;32:886-8 pubmed
  37. Bata García J, Villanueva Toledo J, Gutiérrez Ospina G, Alvarez Cervera F, Heredia López F, Góngora Alfaro J. Sustained improvement of motor function in hemiparkinsonian rats chronically treated with low doses of caffeine or trihexyphenidyl. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2007;86:68-78 pubmed
  38. Chou K, Friedman J. Are atypical antipsychotics associated with a reduced risk of developing parkinsonism?. Nat Clin Pract Neurol. 2006;2:132-3 pubmed
  39. Su X, Kells A, Huang E, Lee H, Hadaczek P, Beyer J, et al. Safety evaluation of AAV2-GDNF gene transfer into the dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway in aged and parkinsonian rhesus monkeys. Hum Gene Ther. 2009;20:1627-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, nigral administration of AAV2-GDNF caused significant weight loss that raises substantial concern for clinical application of this approach...
  40. Thanvi B, Treadwell S. Drug induced parkinsonism: a common cause of parkinsonism in older people. Postgrad Med J. 2009;85:322-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This article discusses the drugs implicated, as well as the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical features, and management of drug induced parkinsonism...
  41. Sobstyl M, Zabek M, Koziara H, Dzierzecki S. A patient with parkinsonism related to Gaucher's disease type I successfully treated by unilateral pallidotomy - a 3-year follow-up. Neurol Neurochir Pol. 2009;43:293-7 pubmed
    ..On the last examination performed 3 years later, he had mild parkinsonism and was independent in all activities of daily living. This case demonstrates a benefit of surgical treatment for genetically proven Gaucher's disease type I...
  42. Wang S, Zhang Q, Liu J, Wu Z, Ali U, Wang Y, et al. The firing activity of pyramidal neurons in medial prefrontal cortex and their response to 5-hydroxytryptamine-1A receptor stimulation in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. Neuroscience. 2009;162:1091-100 pubmed publisher
  43. Ortega Lozano S, Martinez Del Valle Torres M, Ramos Moreno E, Sanz Viedma S, Amrani Raissouni T, Jiménez Hoyuela J. [Quantitative evaluation of SPECT with FP-CIT. Importance of the reference area]. Rev Esp Med Nucl. 2010;29:246-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study is to compare several uptake indexes between specific and non-specific activity to determine the existence of degenerative Parkinsonism according to different reference areas...
  44. Torres E, Dowd E, Dunnett S. Recovery of functional deficits following early donor age ventral mesencephalic grafts in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. Neuroscience. 2008;154:631-40 pubmed publisher
  45. Sääksjärvi K, Knekt P, Rissanen H, Laaksonen M, Reunanen A, Mannisto S. Prospective study of coffee consumption and risk of Parkinson's disease. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2008;62:908-15 pubmed
    ..To examine the prediction of coffee consumption on the incidence of Parkinson's disease...
  46. Voermans N, Bloem B, Janssens G, Vogel W, Sie L. Secondary parkinsonism in childhood: A rare complication after radiotherapy. Pediatr Neurol. 2006;34:495-8 pubmed
    ..We suggest that focal encephalopathy resulting from postradiation edema secondary to microangiopathy led to dysfunction of the globus pallidus and thalamus...
  47. Roth J. Homeostatic and toxic mechanisms regulating manganese uptake, retention, and elimination. Biol Res. 2006;39:45-57 pubmed
  48. Zijlmans J, Katzenschlager R, Daniel S, Lees A. The L-dopa response in vascular parkinsonism. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2004;75:545-7 pubmed
    ..To determine whether a positive L-dopa response in vascular parkinsonism (VP) is correlated with the presence of nigrostriatal pathology due to either vascular damage or neuronal cell loss...
  49. Huang C, Weng Y, Lu C, Chu N, Yen T. Dopamine transporter binding in chronic manganese intoxication. J Neurol. 2003;250:1335-9 pubmed
    ..In addition (99m)Tc-TRODAT-1 SPECT can provide a useful, convenient and inexpensive tool for differentiation between chronic manganism and PD...
  50. Sánchez B, Relova J, Gallego R, Ben Batalla I, Perez Fernandez R. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 administration to 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats increases glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and partially restores tyrosine hydroxylase expression in substantia nigra and striatum. J Neurosci Res. 2009;87:723-32 pubmed publisher
    ..However, treatment with 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) before and after 6-OHDA injection partially restored TH expression in SN. These data suggest that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) may help to prevent dopaminergic neuron damage...
  51. Esper C, Factor S. Failure of recognition of drug-induced parkinsonism in the elderly. Mov Disord. 2008;23:401-4 pubmed
    ..Cessation of the offending agent results in improvement of symptoms and would eliminate the need for dopaminergic agents, which are known to commonly cause side effects in the elderly...
  52. Garcia Garcia F, Ponce S, Brown R, Cussen V, Krueger J. Sleep disturbances in the rotenone animal model of Parkinson disease. Brain Res. 2005;1042:160-8 pubmed
    ..Such results question the validity of the RT-PD rat model...
  53. Ceballos Baumann A. [Diagnosis and treatment of Parkinson's syndrome. What is important for the general practitioner?]. MMW Fortschr Med. 2003;145 Suppl 2:99-102 pubmed
    ..Cholinesterase inhibitors are introduced for dementia in parkinsonism. Neuroprotective compounds, nerve growth factors such as GDNF and the implantation of dopaminergic cells are studied in clinical trials...