Summary: Conditions in which the abnormalities in the peripheral blood or bone marrow represent the early manifestations of acute leukemia, but in which the changes are not of sufficient magnitude or specificity to permit a diagnosis of acute leukemia by the usual clinical criteria.

Top Publications

  1. Albitar M, Manshouri T, Shen Y, Liu D, Beran M, Kantarjian H, et al. Myelodysplastic syndrome is not merely "preleukemia". Blood. 2002;100:791-8 pubmed
  2. Chou F, Griesinger A, Wunderlich M, Lin S, Link K, Shrestha M, et al. The thrombopoietin/MPL/Bcl-xL pathway is essential for survival and self-renewal in human preleukemia induced by AML1-ETO. Blood. 2012;120:709-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, we propose that survival signaling through Bcl-xL is a critical and intrinsic component of a broader self-renewal signaling pathway downstream of AML1-ETO-induced MPL. ..
  3. Heidel S, MacWilliams P, Baird W, Dashwood W, Buters J, Gonzalez F, et al. Cytochrome P4501B1 mediates induction of bone marrow cytotoxicity and preleukemia cells in mice treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. Cancer Res. 2000;60:3454-60 pubmed
  4. Bonzon C, Fan H. Moloney murine leukemia virus-induced preleukemic thymic atrophy and enhanced thymocyte apoptosis correlate with disease pathogenicity. J Virol. 1999;73:2434-41 pubmed
    ..The results indicated that infection of thymocytes by MCF virus recombinants is not required for the increased level of apoptosis and thymic atrophy. ..
  5. Li Q, Fan H. Combined infection by Moloney murine leukemia virus and a mink cell focus-forming virus recombinant induces cytopathic effects in fibroblasts or in long-term bone marrow cultures from preleukemic mice. J Virol. 1990;64:3701-11 pubmed
    ..Thus, combined infection with M-MuLV and an MCF derivative had cytostatic effects on cell growth. This phenomenon might also contribute to the leukemogenic process in vivo. ..
  6. Di Marco P, Tinnirello D, Tambone Reyes M, Tedesco L, Luna S, Citarella P. Biologic relevance of elevated red cell adenosine deaminase activity in myelodysplastic syndromes and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Tumori. 1992;78:370-3 pubmed
    ..The results of our study suggest that the observed enzymatic abnormality may constitute a non-specific manifestation of the stem cell alteration that determines these disorders. ..
  7. Wang L, Gural A, Sun X, Zhao X, Perna F, Huang G, et al. The leukemogenicity of AML1-ETO is dependent on site-specific lysine acetylation. Science. 2011;333:765-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of p300 abrogates the acetylation of AML1-ETO and impairs its ability to promote leukemic transformation. Thus, lysine acetyltransferases represent a potential therapeutic target in AML. ..
  8. Nieto W, Almeida J, Teodosio C, Abbasi F, Allgood S, Connors F, et al. Commentary: Comparison of current flow cytometry methods for monoclonal B cell lymphocytosis detection. Cytometry B Clin Cytom. 2010;78 Suppl 1:S4-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite this diversity, there is a consensus in what constitutes the diagnosis of MBL and its subtypes. There is also an emerging consensus on what the next investigative steps should be. ..
  9. Abla O, Gassas A, Stevens R, Grant R, Abdelhaleem M. bcr-abl-positive T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia associated with parvovirus B19 infection. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2006;28:98-9 pubmed
    ..He died 8 months after transplant due to idiopathic pneumonia syndrome, but without evidence of relapsed disease. ..

More Information


  1. Oshimi K. Progress in understanding and managing natural killer-cell malignancies. Br J Haematol. 2007;139:532-44 pubmed
    ..Aggressive NK-cell leukaemia is rare and has a poor prognosis. Because NK-cell neoplasms are rare and difficult to manage, rigorous studies are required for their understanding and management. ..
  2. Padua R, McGlynn A, McGlynn H. Molecular, cytogenetic and genetic abnormalities in MDS and secondary AML. Cancer Treat Res. 2001;108:111-57 pubmed
    ..The cytogenetic abnormalities, predisposition factors and genes involved in secondary leukemia will also be reviewed. ..
  3. Kong G, Du J, Liu Y, Meline B, Chang Y, Ranheim E, et al. Notch1 gene mutations target KRAS G12D-expressing CD8+ cells and contribute to their leukemogenic transformation. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:18219-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Notch1 mutations and Kras G12D contribute cooperatively to leukemogenic transformation of normal T-cells. ..
  4. Shank Calvo J, Draheim K, Bhasin M, Kelliher M. p16Ink4a or p19Arf loss contributes to Tal1-induced leukemogenesis in mice. Oncogene. 2006;25:3023-31 pubmed
    ..Thus, Tal1 stimulates cell cycle entry independent of the ink4a/arf locus, but its ability to induce apoptosis is Ink4a/Arf-dependent. ..
  5. Rawstron A, Hillmen P, Houlston R. Clonal lymphocytes in persons without known chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL): implications of recent findings in family members of CLL patients. Semin Hematol. 2004;41:192-200 pubmed
    ..The data suggest that inherited factors increase the susceptibility to both indolent and aggressive CLL, and they provide unbiased demonstration that the age of onset in CLL families is younger than in the general population. ..
  6. Shlush L, Mitchell A. AML evolution from preleukemia to leukemia and relapse. Best Pract Res Clin Haematol. 2015;28:81-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Some of the clones that exist at diagnosis can survive chemotherapy and give rise to relapse. Accordingly, in order to better understand the mechanisms of relapse, we must consider both early and late steps in AML evolution. ..
  7. Izraeli S. Down's syndrome as a model of a pre-leukemic condition. Haematologica. 2006;91:1448-52 pubmed
  8. Broadfield Z, Hain R, Harrison C, Reza Jalali G, Mckinley M, Michalova K, et al. Complex chromosomal abnormalities in utero, 5 years before leukaemia. Br J Haematol. 2004;126:307-12 pubmed
    ..There was a prolonged preleukaemic phase, which lasted well into childhood. The short time between the two diagnoses of ALL suggests a common precipitating event. The significance of the different secondary markers remains unclear. ..
  9. Corces M, Chang H, Majeti R. Preleukemic Hematopoietic Stem Cells in Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia. Front Oncol. 2017;7:263 pubmed publisher
    ..the advent of high-throughput sequencing has enabled the identification of a premalignant phase of AML termed preleukemia. Multiple studies have demonstrated that AML can arise from the accumulation of mutations within hematopoietic ..
  10. Goyama S, Schibler J, Gasilina A, Shrestha M, Lin S, Link K, et al. UBASH3B/Sts-1-CBL axis regulates myeloid proliferation in human preleukemia induced by AML1-ETO. Leukemia. 2016;30:728-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study reveals a role of CBL in restricting myeloid proliferation of human AML1-ETO-induced leukemia, and identifies UBASH3B/Sts-1 as a potential target for pharmaceutical intervention. ..
  11. Saia M, Termanini A, Rizzi N, Mazza M, Barbieri E, Valli D, et al. AML1/ETO accelerates cell migration and impairs cell-to-cell adhesion and homing of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Sci Rep. 2016;6:34957 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to extend the understanding of its role in preleukemia, we expressed AML1/ETO in a murine immortalized pluripotent hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell line, EML C1, ..
  12. Kezuka T, Usui N, Suzuki E, Wakasugi K, Usui M. Ocular complications in myelodysplastic syndromes as preleukemic disorders. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2005;49:377-83 pubmed
    ..0433). Ocular complications in MDS patients should be carefully examined as prognostic factors for progression to acute leukemia. ..
  13. Tohyama K. [Myelodysplastic syndromes: approaches to these difficult to understand]. Rinsho Ketsueki. 2006;47:167-75 pubmed
  14. Fei F, Abdel Azim H, Lim M, Arutyunyan A, von Itzstein M, Groffen J, et al. Galectin-3 in pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Leukemia. 2013;27:2385-8 pubmed publisher
  15. Belli C, Acevedo S, Bengio R, Arrossagaray G, Watman N, Rossi N, et al. Detection of risk groups in myelodysplastic syndromes. A multicenter study. Haematologica. 2002;87:9-16 pubmed
    ..This score could be applied to our MDS population, showing no geographic differences. Stratification of FAB patients according to IPSS would be helpful to develop risk-adapted therapeutic strategies. ..
  16. Belli B, Patel A, Fan H. Recombinant mink cell focus-inducing virus and long terminal repeat alterations accompany the increased leukemogenicity of the Mo+PyF101 variant of Moloney murine leukemia virus after intraperitoneal inoculation. J Virol. 1995;69:1037-43 pubmed
    ..The increased leukemogenicity following i.p. inoculation could be explained if the triplication enhances Mo+PyF101 M-MuLV replication in the bone marrow and bone marrow infection is required for recombinant MCF virus formation...
  17. Raza A. Evolving concepts in myelodysplastic syndromes. Cancer Treat Res. 2001;108:1-24 pubmed
    ..By dissecting the biology and focusing efforts towards understanding the etiology of the cytopenias, significant therapeutic advances are being made in this disease. The momentum built up so far must not be lost now. ..
  18. Germing U, Lauseker M, Hildebrandt B, Symeonidis A, Cermak J, Fenaux P, et al. Survival, prognostic factors and rates of leukemic transformation in 381 untreated patients with MDS and del(5q): a multicenter study. Leukemia. 2012;26:1286-92 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, patients with MDS and del(5q) are facing a considerable risk of AML transformation. More detailed cytogenetic and molecular studies may help to identify the patients at risk of progression...
  19. Jedema I, van der Werff N, Barge R, Willemze R, Falkenburg J. New CFSE-based assay to determine susceptibility to lysis by cytotoxic T cells of leukemic precursor cells within a heterogeneous target cell population. Blood. 2004;103:2677-82 pubmed
  20. Shlush L, Zandi S, Itzkovitz S, Schuh A. Aging, clonal hematopoiesis and preleukemia: not just bad luck?. Int J Hematol. 2015;102:513-22 pubmed publisher
    ..result in the development of leukemia, and define the existence of both preleukemic stem cells, and of 'preleukemia' as a clinical entity...
  21. Delaney C, Bernstein I. Establishment of a pluripotent preleukaemic stem cell line by expression of the AML1-ETO fusion protein in Notch1-immortalized HSCN1cl10 cells. Br J Haematol. 2004;125:353-7 pubmed
    ..This cell line represents a potential platform for the introduction and in vitro rapid screening of candidate genes thought to co-operate with AML1-ETO in developing frank leukaemia. ..
  22. Thol F, Yun H, Sonntag A, Damm F, Weissinger E, Krauter J, et al. Prognostic significance of combined MN1, ERG, BAALC, and EVI1 (MEBE) expression in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. Ann Hematol. 2012;91:1221-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of the MEBE genes is regulated by FLI1 and c-MYC, which are potential upstream targets of the MEBE signature. ..
  23. Kamiyama R, Ishikawa Y, Hatakeyama S, Mori T, Sugiyama H. Clinicopathological study of hematological disorders after Thorotrast administration in Japan. Blut. 1988;56:153-60 pubmed
  24. Linden T, Furlan I, Schwarz S, Stoehr R, Niemeyer C, Rossig C. Sequential acquisition of IgH and TCR rearrangements during the preleukemic phase of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in an adolescent patient. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2011;56:301-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Prospective biobanking and extended molecular analysis can help to better understand the nature and sequence of genetic events during progression of a covert (pre)leukemic clone. ..
  25. Lin S, Ptasinska A, Chen X, Shrestha M, Assi S, Chin P, et al. A FOXO1-induced oncogenic network defines the AML1-ETO preleukemic program. Blood. 2017;130:1213-1222 pubmed publisher
    Understanding and blocking the self-renewal pathway of preleukemia stem cells could prevent acute myeloid leukemia (AML) relapse...
  26. Olsen M, Hjalgrim L, Madsen H, Hjalgrim H, Schmiegelow K. [Chromosome changes associated with childhood leukaemia occur prenatally]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2006;168:2152-7 pubmed
    ..The findings provide a basic understanding of the natural history of childhood leukaemia and may make the development of preventive measures feasible...
  27. Greaves M. Darwin and evolutionary tales in leukemia. The Ham-Wasserman Lecture. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2009;:3-12 pubmed publisher
    ..This evolutionary pattern has important implications for stem cells in ALL, for the origins of relapse and for therapeutic targeting...
  28. Roy A, Roberts I, Norton A, Vyas P. Acute megakaryoblastic leukaemia (AMKL) and transient myeloproliferative disorder (TMD) in Down syndrome: a multi-step model of myeloid leukaemogenesis. Br J Haematol. 2009;147:3-12 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings have implications for leukaemia biology more broadly given the frequency of acquired trisomy in other human leukaemias...
  29. Chuk M, McIntyre E, Small D, Brown P. Discordance of MLL-rearranged (MLL-R) infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia in monozygotic twins with spontaneous clearance of preleukemic clone in unaffected twin. Blood. 2009;113:6691-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, concordance of MLL-rearranged acute leukemia in infant monozygotic twins is not universal. The implications of this case for MLL-rearranged leukemogenesis are discussed...
  30. Ferrando A. The role of NOTCH1 signaling in T-ALL. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2009;:353-61 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on the molecular basis of NOTCH1-induced transformation, the mechanisms of action of oncogenic NOTCH1 and clinical significance of NOTCH1 mutations in T-ALL...
  31. Metcalf D, Glaser S, Mifsud S, Di Rago L, Robb L. The preleukemic state of mice reconstituted with Mixl1-transduced marrow cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:20013-8 pubmed
  32. Finn W, Harrington A, Carter K, Raich R, Kroft S, Hero A. Immunophenotypic signatures of benign and dysplastic granulopoiesis by cytomic profiling. Cytometry B Clin Cytom. 2011;80:282-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of flow cytometry (FCM) in diagnosing myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) remains controversial, because analysis of myeloid maturation may involve subjective interpretation of sometimes subtle patterns on multiparameter FCM...
  33. Stavrova L, Dygai A, Zhdanov V, Gol dberg E, Tkachenko S. Role of mononuclear phagocyte system in hemopoiesis regulation in AKR/JY mice during preleukemic period. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2001;131:41-3 pubmed
    ..Hence, leukemogenic virus produced a systemic damage to target cells (e.g. mononuclear phagocyte system), which probably represent a mechanism of leukemic transformation in AKR/JY mice...
  34. Morrow M, Horton S, Kioussis D, Brady H, Williams O. TEL-AML1 promotes development of specific hematopoietic lineages consistent with preleukemic activity. Blood. 2004;103:3890-6 pubmed
    ..Our study provides a unique insight into the role of TEL-AML1 in leukemia predisposition and a potential model to study the mechanism of leukemogenesis associated with this fusion...
  35. Zimmer S, Lemieux M, Karia B, Day C, Zhou T, Zhou Q, et al. Mice heterozygous for CREB binding protein are hypersensitive to ?-radiation and invariably develop myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm. Exp Hematol. 2012;40:295-306.e5 pubmed publisher
  36. Yagi T, Hibi S, Tabata Y, Kuriyama K, Teramura T, Hashida T, et al. Detection of clonotypic IGH and TCR rearrangements in the neonatal blood spots of infants and children with B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood. 2000;96:264-8 pubmed
    ..Our findings strongly suggest a prenatal origin for some cases of B-cell precursor ALL lacking specific clonotypic abnormalities...
  37. Imamura N, Abe K, Oguma N. High incidence of point mutations of p53 suppressor oncogene in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome among atomic-bomb survivors: a 10-year follow-up. Leukemia. 2002;16:154-6 pubmed
  38. Green P, Kaehler D, Bennett L, Risser R. Multiple steps are required for the induction of tumors by Abelson murine leukemia virus. J Virol. 1989;63:1989-94 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that an additional event(s) unrelated to the level of the v-abl protein product is required for A-MuLV-transformed cells to become fully malignant...
  39. Pandolfi A, Barreyro L, Steidl U. Concise review: preleukemic stem cells: molecular biology and clinical implications of the precursors to leukemia stem cells. Stem Cells Transl Med. 2013;2:143-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we review recent and ongoing advances in understanding the roles of pre-LSC, and the aberrations that lead to pre-LSC formation and subsequent LSC transformation...
  40. Anoop P, Atra A. Prominent megakaryocytic dysplasia after regression of transient abnormal myelopoiesis associated with GATA-1 mutation. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2012;34:640 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe isolated dysmegakaryopoiesis despite complete resolution of TAM in an 18-month-old girl, who developed AMKL 6 months later...
  41. Yagisawa K, Okazuka K, Toba K, Urushiyama M, Kuroha T, Izumi N, et al. Features of Japanese patients with myelodysplastic syndrome in an aging population of Sado Island. Int J Hematol. 2012;95:420-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Although novel remedies for MDS and hyperferremia have recently been developed, prevention of infection remains important in MDS, particularly for older patients...
  42. Horsley S, Colman S, Mckinley M, Bateman C, Jenney M, Chaplin T, et al. Genetic lesions in a preleukemic aplasia phase in a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2008;47:333-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These data have implications for the biology of ALL and for management of similar patients...
  43. Gabellini C, Antonelli A, Petrinelli P, Biroccio A, Marcucci L, Nigro G, et al. Telomerase activity, apoptosis and cell cycle progression in ataxia telangiectasia lymphocytes expressing TCL1. Br J Cancer. 2003;89:1091-5 pubmed
    ..We show that in ATM(-) TCL1(+) lymphocytes, apoptosis rate and cell cycle progression are restored back to a rate comparable with that observed in normal lymphocytes while telomere dysfunction is maintained...
  44. Rulli K, Lenz J, Levy L. Disruption of hematopoiesis and thymopoiesis in the early premalignant stages of infection with SL3-3 murine leukemia virus. J Virol. 2002;76:2363-74 pubmed
    ..A model in which disrupted bone marrow hematopoiesis and thymopoiesis contribute to the development of lymphoma in the SL3-infected animal is discussed...
  45. Malinge S, Izraeli S, Crispino J. Insights into the manifestations, outcomes, and mechanisms of leukemogenesis in Down syndrome. Blood. 2009;113:2619-28 pubmed publisher
  46. Taylor M, Hussain A, Urayama K, Chokkalingam A, Thompson P, Trachtenberg E, et al. The human major histocompatibility complex and childhood leukemia: an etiological hypothesis based on molecular mimicry. Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2009;42:129-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we review the background to these studies, and present a novel hypothesis based on the paradigm of HLA-associated auto-immune disease that might explain an infection-based etiology of childhood leukemia...
  47. Maia A, Tussiwand R, Cazzaniga G, Rebulla P, Colman S, Biondi A, et al. Identification of preleukemic precursors of hyperdiploid acute lymphoblastic leukemia in cord blood. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2004;40:38-43 pubmed
    ..Now, however, we can provide direct evidence of this from our identification of CD34+/CD19+ B-lineage progenitor cells with triploid chromosomes in the stored cord blood of an individual who subsequently developed hyperdiploid ALL...
  48. Seto A, Kawanishi M, Matsuda S, Ogawa K, Miyoshi I. Adult T cell leukemia-like disease experimentally induced in rabbits. Jpn J Cancer Res. 1988;79:335-41 pubmed
    ..Adult animals which were already virus carriers were resistant to this lethal inoculation. This rabbit ATL-like disease may prove to be useful as an experimental model for acute adult T cell leukemia...
  49. Darley R, Pearn L, Omidvar N, Sweeney M, Fisher J, Phillips S, et al. Protein kinase C mediates mutant N-Ras-induced developmental abnormalities in normal human erythroid cells. Blood. 2002;100:4185-92 pubmed
    RAS mutations are one of the most frequent molecular abnormalities associated with myeloid leukemia and preleukemia, yet there is a poor understanding of how they contribute to the pathogenesis of these conditions...
  50. Roberts I, Alford K, Hall G, Juban G, Richmond H, Norton A, et al. GATA1-mutant clones are frequent and often unsuspected in babies with Down syndrome: identification of a population at risk of leukemia. Blood. 2013;122:3908-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Ss/DPHLC can be used for initial screening, but where GATA1 mutations are undetectable by Ss/DHPLC, NGS-based methods can identify neonates with small GATA1 mutant clones. ..
  51. Li Z, Düllmann J, Schiedlmeier B, Schmidt M, von Kalle C, Meyer J, et al. Murine leukemia induced by retroviral gene marking. Science. 2002;296:497 pubmed
  52. Priceputu E, Bouallaga I, Zhang Y, Li X, Chrobak P, Hanna Z, et al. Structurally distinct ligand-binding or ligand-independent Notch1 mutants are leukemogenic but affect thymocyte development, apoptosis, and metastasis differently. J Immunol. 2006;177:2153-66 pubmed
    ..Because these two Notch1 mutations are very similar to those described in some forms of human T cell leukemia, these Tg mice may represent relevant models of these human leukemias...
  53. Gauwerky C, Haluska F, Tsujimoto Y, Nowell P, Croce C. Evolution of B-cell malignancy: pre-B-cell leukemia resulting from MYC activation in a B-cell neoplasm with a rearranged BCL2 gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:8548-52 pubmed
    ..The polymerase chain reaction method was then used to identify cancer cells in the bone marrow of the patient...
  54. Belli B, Wolff L, Nazarov V, Fan H. Proviral activation of the c-myb proto-oncogene is detectable in preleukemic mice infected neonatally with Moloney murine leukemia virus but not in resulting end stage T lymphomas. J Virol. 1995;69:5138-41 pubmed
    ..The implications of these results to the timing of proto-oncogene activations in leukemogenesis and the specificity of proto-oncogene activations for different diseases are discussed...
  55. McCormack M, Young L, Vasudevan S, de Graaf C, Codrington R, Rabbitts T, et al. The Lmo2 oncogene initiates leukemia in mice by inducing thymocyte self-renewal. Science. 2010;327:879-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Lmo2 promotes the self-renewal of preleukemic thymocytes, providing a mechanism by which committed T cells can then accumulate additional genetic mutations required for leukemic transformation...
  56. Kamps M, Murre C, Sun X, Baltimore D. A new homeobox gene contributes the DNA binding domain of the t(1;19) translocation protein in pre-B ALL. Cell. 1990;60:547-55 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the production of a chimeric E2A-Prl protein may contribute to the acute lymphoblastic phenotype by directly altering the expression of genes normally responsive to the Prl homeoprotein...
  57. Yoshimura F, Luo X. Induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress in thymic lymphocytes by the envelope precursor polyprotein of a murine leukemia virus during the preleukemic period. J Virol. 2007;81:4374-7 pubmed
    ..The subsequent upregulation of ER chaperone proteins GRP78 and GRP58 may contribute to rescuing cells from virus-induced apoptosis...
  58. Tanaka H, Ohwada C, Hashimoto S, Sakai S, Takeda Y, Abe D, et al. Leukemic presentation of ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma in a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome. Intern Med. 2012;51:199-203 pubmed
    ..Leukemic presentation of ALK-negative ALCL as an initial manifestation is extremely rare, and the progression of the disease may be influenced by MDS through alteration of immune functions...
  59. Gruhn B, Taub J, Ge Y, Beck J, Zell R, Hafer R, et al. Prenatal origin of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, association with birth weight and hyperdiploidy. Leukemia. 2008;22:1692-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Pending the development of suitable methods, childhood leukemia is a potentially screenable disease...
  60. Li Q, Chen Z, You Y, Zou P. Transient pancytopenia preceding acute lymphoblastic leukemia with positive Philadelphia chromosome. Leuk Res. 2008;32:1317-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The clinical, morphologic, immunophenotypic and molecular features of this patient are described and the literature reviewed...
  61. Sawada K, Hirokawa M, Fujishima N, Teramura M, Bessho M, Dan K, et al. Long-term outcome of patients with acquired primary idiopathic pure red cell aplasia receiving cyclosporine A. A nationwide cohort study in Japan for the PRCA Collaborative Study Group. Haematologica. 2007;92:1021-8 pubmed
  62. Brain J, Goodyer N, Laneuville P. Measurement of genomic instability in preleukemic P190BCR/ABL transgenic mice using inter-simple sequence repeat polymerase chain reaction. Cancer Res. 2003;63:4895-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the expression of Bcr/Abl can directly induce a mutator phenotype that antedates overt neoplastic transformation, and that STI571 appears to be capable of reversing this effect...
  63. Verlaet M, Duyckaerts C, Rahmouni S, Denis G, Humblet C, Greimers R, et al. Transient modifications of respiratory capacity in thymic cells during murine radioleukemogenesis. Free Radic Biol Med. 2002;33:76-82 pubmed
  64. Nagasawa M, Tomizawa D, Tsuji Y, Kajiwara M, Morio T, Nonoyama S, et al. Pancytopenia presenting with monosomy 7 which disappeared after immunosuppressive therapy. Leuk Res. 2004;28:315-9 pubmed
    ..Immunosuppressive therapy was effective along with the disappearance of monosomy 7 clone. WT1 mRNA expression was not increased in monosomy 7 clone. Pathogenesis of monosomy 7 and its relation to aplastic anemia is discussed...
  65. Saida S, Watanabe K, Sato Otsubo A, Terui K, Yoshida K, Okuno Y, et al. Clonal selection in xenografted TAM recapitulates the evolutionary process of myeloid leukemia in Down syndrome. Blood. 2013;121:4377-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Our xenograft model of TAM may provide unique insight into the evolutionary process of leukemia...
  66. Hahn C, Ross D, Feng J, Beligaswatte A, Hiwase D, Parker W, et al. A tale of two siblings: two cases of AML arising from a single pre-leukemic DNMT3A mutant clone. Leukemia. 2015;29:2101-4 pubmed publisher
  67. Koca E, Goker H, Guven G, Cetiner D, Haznedaroglu I, Buyukasik Y, et al. Unusual extramedullary recurrences and breast relapse despite hepatic GVHD after allografting in Ph+-ALL. Hematology. 2006;11:105-7 pubmed
  68. Vardiman J, Thiele J, Arber D, Brunning R, Borowitz M, Porwit A, et al. The 2008 revision of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemia: rationale and important changes. Blood. 2009;114:937-51 pubmed publisher
  69. Rujkijyanont P, Beyene J, Wei K, Khan F, Dror Y. Leukaemia-related gene expression in bone marrow cells from patients with the preleukaemic disorder Shwachman-Diamond syndrome. Br J Haematol. 2007;137:537-44 pubmed
    ..Additional molecular and cytogenetic events are probably necessary for the malignant process to be irreversible and complete...
  70. Andersson M, Philip P, Pedersen Bjergaard J. High risk of therapy-related leukemia and preleukemia after therapy with prednimustine, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, mitoxantrone, and tamoxifen for advanced breast cancer. Cancer. 1990;65:2460-4 pubmed
    Therapy-related acute non-lymphocytic leukemia or preleukemia was observed in five of 71 patients with advanced breast cancer treated with combination chemotherapy comprising prednimustine, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, mitoxantrone, and ..
  71. Ogata K. [Myelodysplastic syndromes (preleukemic states)]. J Nippon Med Sch. 2003;70:2-3 pubmed
  72. Borojevic R, Roela R, Rodarte R, Thiago L, Pasini F, Conti F, et al. Bone marrow stroma in childhood myelodysplastic syndrome: composition, ability to sustain hematopoiesis in vitro, and altered gene expression. Leuk Res. 2004;28:831-44 pubmed
    ..Alterations in the myelodysplastic stroma environment might contribute to abnormal hematopoiesis in this pathology...
  73. Greaves M. In utero origins of childhood leukaemia. Early Hum Dev. 2005;81:123-9 pubmed
    ..These natural histories provide an important framework for consideration of key aetiological events in paediatric leukaemia...
  74. Zuna J, Burjanivova T, Mejstrikova E, Zemanova Z, Muzikova K, Meyer C, et al. Covert preleukemia driven by MLL gene fusion. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2009;48:98-107 pubmed publisher
    ..The analysis revealed a 10 Mb gain on 19q13.32 in the sALL, absent in the preleukemic specimen. These data provide insight into the dynamics of leukemogenesis in secondary leukemia with MLL rearrangement...
  75. Ito Y, Okabe Kado J, Honma Y, Iwase O, Shimamoto T, Ohyashiki J, et al. Elevated plasma level of differentiation inhibitory factor nm23-H1 protein correlates with risk factors for myelodysplastic syndrome. Leukemia. 2002;16:165-9 pubmed
    ..40 +/- 1.36 ng/ml vs 13.05 +/- 2.50 ng/ml; P = 0.0028), suggesting that nm23-H1 may be useful as a prognostic marker for MDS, especially in low risk patients...
  76. Planey S, Abrams M, Robertson N, Litwack G. Role of apical caspases and glucocorticoid-regulated genes in glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis of pre-B leukemic cells. Cancer Res. 2003;63:172-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest the involvement of mitogen activated protein kinases and apical caspase-9 and caspase-10 in the GC-induced apoptosis of pre-B lymphocytes...
  77. Chiorazzi N, Ferrarini M. B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia: lessons learned from studies of the B cell antigen receptor. Annu Rev Immunol. 2003;21:841-94 pubmed
    ..Finally, we discuss current and emerging views of the cellular origin of B-CLL cells and the differentiation pathways down which we believe these cells progress...
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